An Investigation Of the Ergonomic Approach to Sportsmen and Musculoskeletal System Related Complaint

491 - 496

Serap Colak, Deniz Yener, Tuncay Colak, Belgin Bamac, Enis Colak and Murat Son

Ergonomics is the realization of a work arrangement in the direction of protecting human health. The main aim of this approach is to increase worker productivity by increasing employee compliance with the environment, minimizing possible health problems and increasing optimal harmony with the person's environment. People are in a functional interaction with the environment, work, and the product being discovered throughout their work life and life. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the statistical relationship between the ergonomic approach and musculoskeletal disorders of athletes. A total of 74 athletes participated in our work. Standardized ergonomic muscle and skeletal system disorders questionnaires were applied to participants. Correlational tests were performed and statistically evaluated by comparing the parameters such as gender, age range, height, weight, and sporting time period. When the data obtained from the sportsmen are examined; Age, height, weight, and age of sport showed significant correlations with pain complaints seen in some body regions as topographically (P <0.05). The topographic area in which the pain complaint was highest in 47.3% (n: 35) was lumbar region and negative correlation with sport age was found (P <0.05). As a result, the questionnaires of participating athletes; % 87,8 (n: 65) had complaints of pain related to musculoskeletal system during the last week. Incorrect static posture and ergonomic conditions in the formation of musculoskeletal system diseases can be influential factors. We think that the athletes with complaints of pain can be redesigned ergonomically to reduce the related discomfort by adapting sports methods and working environments. Keywords: Ergonomics, Sportsman health, Musculoskeletal system. 

A competence development model for Complementary and Alternative Medicine professionals: aspects of lifelong learning

497 – 507

Lasma Latsone and Ligita Landzmane

The problems existing in Latvia’s healthcare system have caused a profound crisis: formal medical specialists leave the country; remaining specialists refuse to work overtime; young professionals refuse to go to work to remote regions of the country. Public health education is neglected, and people lack self-care knowledge and skills when faced by medical issues. Institutions report that people burden health professionals with problems, which could be dealt on their own. After facing a poor treatment and negative attitude, more and more people use services provided by non-conventional medical practitioners. Education of such practitioners at national level is not encouraged in accordance with the legally defined content of the professional activities of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) specialists. The aim of this research is to promote the development of high quality CAM services. This article will provide a theoretical framework of the conceptual competence development model for CAM specialists. From 2010 to 2017, in the Institute of Conflictology, the legal and actual problems of Latvia’s health care system were examined, seeking and modelling possible solutions. Employing the scientific findings and good practice ideas accumulated in the Institute, a theoretical and systematic basis was elaborated for a possible alternative: development of a national professional CAM system. The synthesis of CAM educational problem solutions was recognized as of paramount importance. But in order to understand the legal basis of professional activities of CAM specialists, the content analysis of international and national laws and regulations was performed. Also the legal and factual content of life-long education was clarified in the context of Latvia. A comparative analysis of legislation, good practices and expert advices was used to identify problems and search for solutions. The research revealed that Latvian legislation does not directly regulate professional activities of CAM specialists; only indirectly CAM specialists are mentioned in the Latvian Classification of Occupations, explaining the required qualifications, responsibilities and the level of education required. In the formal education of Latvia, including the higher education system, CAM study programmes have not been developed, although it is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The research data analysis characterizes the legal and factual environment in which the CAM specialists' competence building solutions are possible in Latvia. It allows formulating a scientifically and legally sound recommendation: if CAM educational activities are not possible in the space of formal education, they must be organized through non-formal lifelong education processes. But in order to do it in an authoritative, scientifically and legally sound way, it is recommended to use the competence development model for CAM specialists, developed and approbated by the authors. Keywords. Complementary and alternative medicine, specialists, competence, life-long education, conceptual model.

Digital competence and blended learning

508 – 513

Lasma Ulmane-Ozolina and Madara Priedolina

Development of competences nowadays is very important issue. There are discussions about development of competencies using different methods, competencies-based curriculum and so on. Digital competence is one of the 8 key competencies for lifelong learning. It is described by using five areas – information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, digital content creation, safety and problem solving (Vuorikari, Punie, Carretero Gomez, Van den Brande, 2016). The article shows literature based research of possibility to develop digital competence by using blended learning per se, because blended learning is described as learning process where integration of face-to-face learning and e-learning happens. The article’s main focus is on development of digital competence. Many authors talk about “net-generation” who spends their days with technology but does it mean that they are digitally competent people. Keywords: Digital competence, Blended-learning, Higher education, E-learning

Recommended formatting parameters for e-study materials

514 – 522

Kristīne Mackare and Anita Jansone

Technology is all around us. The use of modern technology is increasing in the process of acquiring knowledge as it provides greater opportunities and e-study is becoming as important as traditional education or even more significant. During literature research, it has been found that there is no unambiguity about all formatting parameters. A survey was made to research users' habits and preferences concerning different text formatting parameters for e-study materials. Application and browser research about developers’ imposed default formatting settings of font type, size and colours in the most popular applications and browsers was done. There are recommendations presented for a user-oriented e-study material design - style, size, spacing, position, colour - to reach the user information must be presented in a comprehensible and easy to remember way. These recommendations have been developed for e-studying materials for one target group - young adults (16-38 y.o.) - without reading difficulties and any significant vision problems. Keywords: e-study, e-study materials, formatting parameters, technologies, visual perception

How Novice Teachers of Different Education Backgrounds Perceive Their Professional Identit

523 – 537

Ilze Mikelsone and Indra Odina

The article deals with one aspect of a larger scale and long-term phenomenological research to explore the teachers’ perception of their professional identity. This article answers the research question – how the perception of professional identity is connected with novice teachers’ educational background. The research sample was novice teachers – master students of the professional master study programme „Teacher” and stratified purposive sampling was used to choose nine extreme cases – the most representative three novice teachers having obtained teacher’s qualification via concurrent model, consecutive model and alternative pathway “Mission Possible” each year. Reflection-on-action was used to collect in-depth data. The data of 45 reflection samples applying the reflection tool MAX (Motivation – Acquisition – Extension) and narrative essays were analysed in the context of professional identity and educational background in the period of three years. Novice teachers with diverse educational backgrounds demonstrated different features of how professional identity was perceived and reflected upon. Three most characteristic features for each group were identified and one feature was common for all groups – self-analysis. Key words: Reflection tools, Professional identity, Educational background, Novice teacher. 

In-Servıce Teacher Traınıng in a Professıonal Development Perspectıve: Logıcs of Participation

538 – 545

Eusébio Machado, Elsa Correia and Marta Abelha

The main purpose of this study is to understand the reasons why teachers undertake in-service teachers training as a factor of professional development (PD). It is an interpretative study belonging to the category of educational case studies and ethnographic studies. The study was made in five schools which are associated to the Marco de Canaveses and Cinfães Inservice Teachers Training Centre (ISTTC). The data in this study was collected in two different ways: by applying an enquiry to 450 teachers (N=450) in the five schools selected and by analysing the data previously collected within the process of asking teachers to evaluate teachers training courses organized by the ISTTC (218 enquiries analysed) (n=218). The main conclusion drawn from the study is that professional development is designated by almost all teachers enquired as the main motivating factor for joining teachers training courses. Keywords: Professional development, teachers’ in-service training, teachers working conditions

Banking Model of Education in EFL Classes

546 – 555

Deni̇z Yalçinkaya

This article aims at exploring major conflicts and the inadequacies in EFL classes consistent with ‘banking education’ which was described by Paulo Freire as one of the remarkable thinkers of education. The article criticizes the traditional method of foreign language teaching that is based on teacher domination as it is described in banking education and reveals the limits of banking model of education for FLL. The pedagogy and the method derived from the pedagogy should be applied for a fruitful FLL is far away from traditional banking education. Learners’ attendance and involved in learning English can be increased by means of a different alternative approach – critical pedagogy- in EFL classes. Critical Pedagogy that stresses empowering learners to think and act critically and use their life experiences as tools to foster their learning should be proposed as a suggestion for application of critical thinking in ELT classrooms. Problem posing education was proposed by Freire (1970) as an alternative to the banking model and it leads the development of knowledge by the students themselves. Problem posing education in Critical Pedagogy is more relevant for language learning as because language learning is an active process and cannot be achieved by passivized students of banking education. In the article, basic principles of problem posing education, teacher and student roles, praxis, and dialogue that are major themes of CP in language teaching are analyzed. To clarify the constraints of the present system of teaching of foreign languages, and as a suggestion; CP that should be put into practice in EFL classes is discussed here. For the discussion, available books and articles written on the subject were scrutinized. Key words: banking education, ELT, CP 

Digital competence and blended learning

556 – 560

Teachers’ Concerns about The Implementation of Competence-Based Approach in Education in Latvia

Development of competences nowadays is very important issue. There are discussions about development of competencies using different methods, competencies-based curriculum and so on. Digital competence is one of the 8 key competencies for lifelong learning. It is described by using five areas – information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, digital content creation, safety and problem solving (Vuorikari, Punie, Carretero Gomez, Van den Brande, 2016). The article shows literature based research of possibility to develop digital competence by using blended learning per se, because blended learning is described as learning process where integration of face-to-face learning and e-learning happens. The article’s main focus is on development of digital competence. Many authors talk about “net-generation” who spends their days with technology but does it mean that they are digitally competent people. Keywords: Digital competence, Blended-learning, Higher education, E-learning

The Investigation of the Level of Satisfaction for the Different Categories of the Sports Centre

561 – 566

Serap Çolak and Umut Dolu

Today, the service sector’s development is one of the factors that determine the levels of development of the countries. The increasing competitive environment and urbanization, people helped to people to establish a new service sector to address the requirements of the sport industry. We have aimed to find out the evaluation of quality of service, from customers who go to sports centers that offers this service. 328 randomly selected people, from Istanbul, participated to our study ( %43,3 (142) women, %56,7 (186) men). We applied “Quality Perception and a Satisfaction Survey in Sports Center” to participants . The survey questions, contain these following categories; the state of the physical comfort of the gym, the quality of exercise equipment and exercise methods which are used in the gym, qualification and sentience of trainers of sports , the satisfaction levels of the participants to the gym, questions about traffic and car-park issues, which is one of the biggest problems of the city life. The results were statistically compared according to gender of participants. There was a statistically significant difference between males and females about the comparison of the responses to questions about traffic and parking problems(p<0,05). We find that, women participants have more trouble about traffic and car-parking. These results of our study shows that the service should take place in a reachable way, not crowded and adequate parking spaces. Key Words: sports centers, traffic, gender, satisfaction

Successful Learning to Students at Risk of Social Exclusion

567 – 575

Carmen Maria Aranzazu CejudoCortes and Celia CorchueloFernández

The problems which are connected to academic f other alternatives and opportunities. The main goal is to identify what type of academic and pro and how is the teacher profile which leads this group of disengaged and discouraged students The methodology used is descriptive, following a multimodal view. We present our research through the qualitative method, extensive interview with teacher and we use the quantitative method to m the classroom. The results show with regard to the promotion of academic skills its special relevance, evaluation criteria used by the teacher staff. As for pro-social promotion skills, it is specially highlighted the inte teachers. Regarding as the teacher profile, what most draws powerfully our attention is that is a teacher who combines a balance between discipline and proximity. Keywords: Academic failure, Social Exclusion, Alternative learning, Teaching Profile

PARADIGM, KEY-CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICE

576 – 579

Ionut Vladescu

Abstract: Paradigm is a sign of the maturity of a scientific field. The paradigm dimensions determine the conceptual and framework of the educational process (theoretical and practical ones). The meaning of the educational paradigm has advanced depending on the context of premodern, modern and postmodern. Currently there is a tendency to attribute pedagogy a postparadigmatic state, but most researchers demonstrate exchanging of the defining aspects of educational paradigm focused on: openness, flexibility, diversity of the patterns. This attempt to explain paradigm and model in post-modernism, we reach the conclusion that education science is one of the models due to the determinative role of ruling order and laws. If we treat the diversity of theoretical approaches and educational methods, the model is not deducted anymore and doesn’t express the major notes of a dominant theory. It is the situation when reasons for post-paradigm pedagogy appear. As a key concept, it gets a traditional role based on the normative model but with a different connotation. Keywords: postmodern education,curriculum,paradigm, educational methods,concept

Education in the field of mobilization readiness as part of Military Art

580 – 584

Ivo Pikner and Jaroslav Staněk

Preparation for the defence any country can be defined as a continuous process. The main purpose of this process is to plan and prepare state armed forces for mobilization and force employment against enemy. In the event of jeopardy of national security there is compulsory military recruitment for military duty. Not only the political roles of government and state administration, but also the economic capabilities of the state and allied commitments play a decisive role in this process. The tasks and requirements in this area are based not only on the laws, but also on the guidelines of the government and the orders of the president, as the supreme commander of the armed forces. The article deals with current issues of education and training in the field of mobilization planning and war preparation of state territory. This field provides a system for transition of the armed forces of the Czech Republic from a peaceful to war military organizational structure. The issue of the deployment of the armed forces concerns cross-section of all members of the armed forces, both professional and civilian soldiers. For the deployment of the armed forces, it is necessary to have enough skilled professionals to handle these processes. The article describes theoretical foundations and approaches to education and training within the Training Headquarters at the Vyškov Military Academy and the University of Defense. In the article, the authors also introduce limited states of the personal security system at individual levels of command, in connection with ensuring the transition of the armed forces of the Czech Republic from the peace to the war organizational structure. Keywords: Mobilization, Armed Forces, Education, War. 

Utilization of simulation in support of educational process of state’s security forces: Contemporary possibilities for leadership development

585 – 590

Ivo Pikner and Radek Mitáček

The paper deals with the possibilities of adult career education as one of the decisive tools for expanding and deepening knowledge, developing skills and improving the personal characteristics of students. It describes the possibilities of improving education in decision-making skills by using simulations of crisis situations by state‘s security forces, for examples the Police and the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. The article clarifies the possibilities of increasing the quality of training of police and military officers at the middle level of management. In order to determine the status of the selected category of persons, standard scientific methods are used, which, in a wider conception of the given sample, help to recognize the level and individual quality of the examined persons. The final evaluation of the data for examining a given sample of probands becomes a classification, a sum of relevant information that is a basic element for interpretation and other possible uses. The combination chosen and the number of standardized scientific methods used in the research offer the possibility of mutual evaluation, confirmation or rejection of the obtained findings Keywords: recruitment, training, scientific methods 

Environmental Awareness of Teacher Candidates

591 – 599

Demirali Yaşar Ergin

Today, environmental problems are gathered at four main points. 1) the destruction of the ecological balance, destruction of the natural order to completely disrupt the balances, 2) the waste of natural resources, 3) not struggling to eliminate natural disaster, 4) the insufficient use of renewable energy sources. Scientists have serious discoveries and worries that the world cannot solve environmental problems, especially global warming, and that the world will become a planet of disasters within this century. The only way to solve the problems that humans have is the most intelligent being on the planet is science. Informing and raising awareness happens through education. If we want to leave a livable world to future generations, we must educate everybody in this matter, especially children. It is in this point that the teachers who realize these trainings have environmental awareness. The study was carried out with a total of 532 students randomly selected from all departments of Trakya University Faculty of Education and Pedagogical Formation program students during the fall semester of 2016-2017. “Environmental Awareness Scale" prepared by the researcher was used as data collection tool. The scale consists of 71 items with a rating of 4. For each sub-scale, the internal consistency was determined by calculating the item-total correlation coefficient and the internal consistency was calculated by calculating the total correlation coefficient excluding item. In the same way, t-test between the upper quartile and the lower quartile was applied to detect the discrimination power of the items. For the scale and sub-scales, the reliability was determined by calculating the Cronbach and Rulon coefficients. It was determined that the scale consisting of 3 factors was valid, reliable and usable after statistical procedures. A questionnaire consisting of 19 questions prepared by the researcher was used to collect data about the independent variables of the research. The questionnaire contains questions about nature love as well as demographic characteristics such as gender and age.The statistical analysis of data featured t test, variance analysis and LSD methods for Post hoc analysis to determine the source of variation. Keywords: environment, environmentalism, environmental awareness

Correlation Between Elemantary School Students’ Success in Mathematics and Studying Strategies

600 – 607

Ayşegül Zeynep Ergin and Nihan Demirkol

Students’ academic success is influenced by four fundamental factors, namely the students themselves, their social environment, physical conditions and education. The factors stemming from the students themselves comprise three subfactors, namely mental competence, affective/emotional properties and study habits. Students’ affective/emotional properties, variations in personality features also reflect on study habits, methods and techniques which interact with mental competences. Consequently, study strategies play a role as one of the defining factors students’ success. The study strategies of students should also have a powerful influence on success in mathematics, which is the lowest scoring subject of student success in Turkey. The study has been conducted with randomly selected Elemantary school students among Suleymanpasa and Cerkezkoy districts in Tekirdag province during the 2016-2017 spring term. The data collection tool was the “Scale of Study Strategies” prepared by Ergin (2017). The scale comprises 30 items each with 4 grades. To determine sub-dimensions as scale development statistics, the varimax rotated exploratory factor analysis has been used. Internal consistency has been determined by calculating item-total correlation coefficient and item-remainder correlation coefficient individually for each sub-dimension. Similarly, the distinctive effect of items has been determined by applying the t-test in upper quarter and lower quarters. The Cronbach and Rulon coefficients have been calculated for the scale and its sub-dimensions to determine reliability. Through statistical processing, it has been established that the scale is applicable, reliable and usable. Furthermore, the survey prepared by the researchers, involving 13 questions has been used to gather data on certain demographic characteristics of students. According to the findings of this study, the students’ success in mathematics is correlated with their study strategies. Keywords: Study Strategies, mathematics, academic success

Development of Material Use Scale in Mathematics Teaching

608 – 616

Nihan Demirkol and Ayşegül Zeynep

The academic achievement of the students is influenced by four basic factors, themselves, their social environment, physical conditions and education. The education factor consists of four basic subfactors: teacher, method, environment and material. As one of the basic principles which is valid for all educational factors, when more senses of the student is addressed, learning becomes easier. The training materials that contribute to the inclusion of multiple senses in the course of learning increase the success in learning. One of the reasons for the low student achievement in mathematics is the abstract formation and the lack of connection ability of the student between the abstract and the concrete. In this context, materials in mathematics education gain more importance. Much more attention should be paid in mathematics lesson to the use of educational materials that serve to improve mathematical thinking in the pupils. It is highly likely that teachers' attitudes and behaviors of using materials is effective in mathematics lesson, where student achievement is lowest in Turkey. The study was conducted with mathematics teachers (n=275) who were working in the spring semester of 2016-2017 in Edirne, Tekirdağ, Kırklareli. The data collection tool was the "Scale of Material Use in Mathematics Teaching" prepared by the researchers. The scale consists of 41 items each with 4 grades. To determine sub-dimensions (8) as scale development statistics, the varimax rotated exploratory factor analysis has been used. Internal consistency has been determined by calculating item-total correlation coefficient and item-remainder correlation coefficient for each sub-dimension. Similarly, Discriminant Coefficients of the items has been determined by applying the t-test in the upper and lower quarters. The Cronbach and Rulon coefficients have been calculated for the scale and its sub-dimensions to determine reliability. It has been established by statistical processing that the scale comprising 8 factors is valid, reliable and usable. Keywords: mathematics teaching, educational material use, reliability

Atatürk’s Conception Of Citizenship Education

617 – 630

Yücel Atila Şehirli

Citizen can be defined as “person living together in a society”, and citizenship can be defined as “a legal and political connection between the state and person.” The concept of citizenship has been defined in all constitutions since the Ottoman basic law. The concept of “citizen” or “patriot” was born in Europe and spread to the world. The concept of citizen in modern sense emerged with American and French revolutions. The concept of citizenship also includes the ideas of “status” and “ role”. Citizenship is based on the idea that people are equal and they are treated equally in legal and political sense. For this reason, it forms the basis of the conception of democracy. The idea of raising “modern citizen” began with the second constitutional monarchy in Turkey. The science of history was utilized in the first years of the republic to raise the consciousness of “nation”, “Turkishness”, and “citizenship”. Ataturk defines the people living withing the borders of the republic he founded as “Turkish” or “Turkish nation” even if they come from different ethnic identities. According to Ataturk, the Turkish society founding the Republic of Turkey is called “Turkish nation.” According to Ataturk, Turkishness will exist forever in Anatolia. Turkish people are intelligent, hardworking, and strong nation founding many civilizations in world and Anatolia at the history books written for the citizenship education in Ataturk period. It was aimed to raise polite, educated, individual, who can reach the Western science, and hardworking citizens concious of their duties and responsibilities in the Civil information course at this period. It was also aimed to raise republic citizens believing in the revolution. Ataturk was trying to adopt “Turkish identity” and “Turkish culture” by all citizens to compose nation-state and homeogenous nation. Everyone accepting the identity of “Turkish Republic Citizen” was taken under constitutional guarentee and accepted as equal citizens regardless of his ethnic origin and religion. Key Words: Ataturk, Citizenship-Allegiance, Citizenship Education, Turkishness, Republic

Aspects of Social Work Professional Ethics in The Context of Interagency Collaboration in Latvia

631- 641

Lasma Latsone, Svetlana Lanka and Vinita Vitola

With the development of the social worker's profession in Latvia, the ethical aspects of profession have become more and more topical. Ethical awareness is essential for any social worker in order to provide high-quality social services, and the ethical thinking and consequent behaviour are the cornerstones for a good professional practice. The Code of Ethics helps to regulate the behaviour of social work professionals involved in the problem-solving process as it implies clear guidelines and determines certain behaviours, principles and moral norms that sometimes might not coincide with the expectations of other professionals. The aim of this research is to assess the aspects of social work ethics in the context of interagency collaboration in Latvia. In this article the authors define the basic values of social work and analyse Latvian legislation that defines ethical social work practice. The current trends, which can be observed in the process of interagency collaboration in the context of ethics, are summarized. The social work professionals from different institutions were surveyed in one region of Latvia – Kurzeme with the aim to learn their opinion and experience when dealing with ethical issues in their practice emphasizing the specifics of interagency collaboration. The majority of respondents evaluate the interagency collaboration in ethical context as good, although several problem areas are identified. The research also reveals the main ethical dilemmas in social work practice in terms of ethical decision-making process. The suggestions and recommendations of respondents and other authors are summarized about the changes needed for interagency collaboration to be more ethical and more successful. Keywords – social work ethics, dilemmas, interagency collaboration

Promoting Diversity Competence Development in Professional Profile of Teachers

642 – 652

Linda Pavitola, Dina Bethere and Svetlana Usca

One of the keywords characterizing the vision of modern society is diversity - not only related to ethnic background, culture and gender, but also to the differences of people, similarities and unique characteristics as individuals and groups. There is a need to learn to understand it both as a value and a positive educational resource in overcoming tensions generated by societal change and globalization. In this context, the issue of teachers` diversity competence development and being aware of its transversal character is of utmost importance for opening up possibilities to understand the way we relate to each other and the way we can live together. Although there are ongoing discussions on diverse learners’ opportunities, minority schools and inclusive education in Latvia, the research findings indicate that there is an imbalance between existing diversity in society and skills to express tolerance and communicate. As learning to live together is an essential part of school education and equal opportunities and the development of human potential to its fullest is emphasized, the authors chose to focus on particular diversity aspects in the study, especially turning attention to the teachers` competence in the work with gifted children and children with special needs. The goal of the study – to investigate the manifestations of teachers` diversity competence in the context of inclusive education. The research question – how teachers` selfassessment reveal their 1) tolerance to the diversity of learners, and 2) application of professional skills in an educational environment. The quantitative research approach and methodology of the questionnaire as a data collection technique was applied in the study. Respondents were selected by purposeful random sampling strategy and the method of descriptive statistics was used to data analysis. The results of the study will be integrated in the process of teacher education, in order to deepen the awareness of teachers` diversity competence by encouraging the transfer from its visible aspects to the deeper layers - professional attitudes, knowledge, practical know-how and professional actions, thus preparing teachers to work with diverse learners in different educational contexts. Keywords: Diversity, Inclusive education, Professional competence of teachers 

Relations Between Anomia and Subjective Well-Being in Population in Latvia and Lithuania

653 – 660

Kristīne Mārtinsone, Jeļena Ļevina, Gediminas Navaitis and Dace Caica

The purpose of this research was to investigate relations between anomia and subjective well-being in Latvian and Lithuanian population. The Latvian sample consisted of 1005 inhabitants of Latvia aged from 18 to 74 (M = 44.77, SD = 14.58), 47.8% males and 52.2% females. The Lithuanian sample consisted of 1005 inhabitants of Lithuania aged from 18 to 91 (M = 52.15, SD = 17.75), 42.2% males and 52.8% females. Four questions from Omnibus survey were used - three questions measured dimensions of anomia (normlessness, social isolation, and meaninglessness), and one question measured subjective well-being. It was found that both in Latvian and Lithuanian samples normlessness, social isolation, and meaninglessness are negatively related to subjective well-being, and all three dimensions of anomia are significant predictors for subjective well-being explaining 9% of variance in total. Psychological help in decreasing of anomia can be important for improvement of subjective well-being. Keywords: Anomia, Normlessness, Social isolation, Meaninglessness, Subjective well-being

The Importance of a Correct Approach in Music (for both Professional Instrumentalists and Amateurs) to Guarantee a Stable Lifelong Benefit

661 – 667

Alberto Firrincieli

Could a learning method in music guarantee lifelong knowledge and, to some extent, independence from practice? In the author’s opinion, the answers within certain realistic limitations should be positive. Since generalization is impossible, and for reasons of concision, this article puts professional musicians to one side and considers two other categories of student: firstly beginners, and secondly those people who previously studied music but for only a while, usually as children. Taken for granted that a lack of practice would damage even the most talented and skilled musician, current music teaching pays disproportionate attention to technical aspects of performance, to the detriment of other essential subjects such as improvisation and composition. The author will focus on the uselessness of a method based merely on reading the notes of the score whilst paying no attention to the music’s meaning, and will analyze some of the disadvantages caused from this approach in the student’s mind. The author will then explain how a proper teaching process, essentially based from the very beginning on improvisation and as a means to learn directly from the musical instrument, will produce enormous benefit and prevent several problems due to an incorrect method. Directly in consequence of such a method, students approach the musical score with a lively interest in other aspects than mere reproduction of the notes. Keywords: music pedagogy, learning process, music mistake, music meaning

Social Impact Measurement: an Innovative Tool For Fostering the Positive Social Change Created by Social Enterprises

668 – 678

Andra Jurgelane and Svetlana Lanka

Although social rights are an important part of human rights, in reality the well-being of the society depends on situation of national economy and its available resources to ensure the social security of the society. Thus, for the past 30 years the concept “social entrepreneurship” is well known across the world, and it is been considered as an innovative and effective solution to the social problems that countries are facing and can’t solve due to their limited resources. When discovering huge potential of social entrepreneurship in increasing social welfare and the development of social services, the research interest of the authors is related to the study of the field. To create a social impact is a main objective of social enterprises as a participant of social economy and market, rather to make a profit for its owners and shareholders. Therefore European and international social enterprises use a wide spectrum of social impact measurement methods and approaches, while in Latvia it is not a widespread practice. Data of social impact provided by Latvian social enterprises are not available and there is no requirement for such data to be provided in the legislation, nor any guidelines or standards for developing a comprehensive picture of social objectives achieved by social enterprise. Aim of the research: to explore the existing practice of social impact measurement among Latvian social enterprises in order to improve it in the future. Methods of research: study of literature, semi-structured interview, expert interview, content analysis. Results of the research: a research about an existing practice of social impact measurement among Latvian social enterprises and based on these findings, recommendations for further improvement of the practice Key words: social enterprise, social impact, social impact measurement

Could I do it Again? One Time Experiences of Erasmus Mobility Teachers

679 – 686

Claudia Amaral Santos, Belem Barbosa, Sandra Filipe, Margarida M. Pinheiro, Dora Simões and Gonçalo Paiva Dias

This study aims to contribute to the growing literature on teachers' mobility by exploring perceptions and motivations to join these activities, in particular through the collection of evidence on the impact a first and only exchange experience has had on the participants. The research adopts a qualitative methodology in the form of phenomenological interviews with 6 teachers that engaged on only one mobility initiative. The interviewees shared their personal impressions on mobility, including reasons, facilitators, and outcomes of the experience. Bureaucratic, financial and residual professional impact, are among the most cited inhibitors for repeating the initiative. However, most of the participants expect to be become involved again on mobility assignments someday, especially teachers that identified greater impact from this first experience. The analysis provides interesting clues for international offices, Erasmus coordinators and university top managers, who devote considerable effort to the promotion and support of mobility practices. Keywords: Erasmus mobility programme, Teacher mobility, Internationalization, Higher Education Institutions.

Blackout Exercise Preparation By Crisis Management Authorities

687 – 695

Alena Oulehlova, Marta Spalenkova and Hana Malachova

The article presents an approach to the preparation of a selected part of the documentation of the crisis management authorities of both the region and municipalities with extended powers staff exercise in the South Bohemian Region, Czech Republic. The topic of the exercise was a simulated crisis situation - a long-term power outage (Blackout 2017 exercise) which represents an unacceptable risk for the regional area. In accordance with the timetable, exercise preparation was divided into activities that followed one another. Main tasks of the exercise preparation fell within the competence of the managing and working groups and crisis management staff of municipalities with extended powers. Results from the preparatory phase of the crisis management exercise show that a thorough and responsible territory analysis based on the time-consuming collection of input data and their evaluation is required. During the preparatory phase, a low number of operators connected to the back-up power sources as well as high requirements on their provision and fuel supply for their operation have been identified. Problems in connection provision (information exchange), complicated defining of functionality priorities and others have been found out. The total duration of the Blackout 2017 exercise preparatory phase was 11 months. The interconnectedness of individual activities was compiled using a Gantt chart. During this period, it was indispensable for the responsible staff to meet the set deadlines in due time according to the exercise preparation timetable. Keywords: Blackout, Exercise, Crisis Management, Time Schedule, Preparation

Supports Methods of The Social Work What Improving The Quality of Clients Life

696 – 705

Irīna Vereščagina and Dace Erkena

The current economic situation in Latvia has highlighted the need to develop social work education in the country and to use innovative methods in social work. The aim of this study is to analyse the basic conditions for the unity of social work education and practice, to find out what additional resources and methods of support social workers can be use in the practical work, and to identify use of the Reittherapy (hippotherapy) method to help to improve the life quality of clients. As a result, the aim of the study is to offer recommendations for promoting cooperation and the development of the profession in the field of education, practice and science. Changes in economic relations, rapid stratification of the society, migration under the influence of global processes have caused a lot of problems also in Latvia. Stress, overload, chronic fatigue, despondency, depression are only a part of today's pressing challenges affecting the quality of life of a society. The theoretical basis of the research is based on research and literature on the topical issues of social work education and practice. In the practical part, an empirical method is used – questionnaires, methods of data processing, analysis. The research respondents were divided into three groups: social work students, social work professionals and clients, in total 600 respondents living in Latvia. The study was conducted in 2016-2017 by survey of 200 students of the Social worker study program at the University of Liepaja. Students of the study year were enrolled with the detection method. The random sampling method was used in the questionares of 250 social workers at different professional conferences and through the internet. The same method was used also through the internet for clients who reseave the Reittherapy. The data was processed by the Microsoft Office Excel program. The results of the study are the following: students believe that the Reittherapy method is a resource for social work with clients; social workers believe that Reittherapy is offered to clients as a cure, believe method and it be used to prevent clients' stress, depression, overload, chronic fatigue in recovery in cases were clients do not have access to such services near the place of residence; this method was recommended by social workers and on their own initiative; the comments for this method indicate that there has been a recovery process, the client has obtained psychological satisfaction, improved client's well-being and quality of life and it can be used by a person of any age. The research demonstrates that the use of the Reittherapy method improves the quality of clients life and it needs to be developed in the future. The research reveals new opportunities and challenges in social work, emphasizing the team's united and co-ordinated cooperation. More research is needed to improve the social work, which should be the basis for the development of social work as a science in Latvia. Keywords: Education, social work, methods, Reittherapy, the life quality.