Negotiation Ethics as Integral Part of Mba Curriculum

281 – 289

Velga Vevere

The process of negotiations plays ever-growing role in the global business environment. There are many factors that should be taken into account, so students who are working on their MBA degree has an excellent opportunity to master negotiation techniques and to be successful in the negotiation process. At the same time, negotiations always involve important ethical issues, that is, danger of unethical behavior. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate graduate students’ attitude to ethically marginal tactics in the negotiation process and to work out proposal for the micro-insertion module “negotiation ethics”. The research questions are the following: (1) What is distribution of MBA students’ attitude to ethically marginal negotiation tactics? (2) What is relation between number of years of students’ work experience and attitude to ethically marginal negotiation tactics? Using a questionnaire derived on the basis of SINS scale (“Self-reported Inappropriate Negotiation Strategy Scale” created by R. J. Robinson, R. J. Lewicki and E. M. Donahue) MBA students rated 16 deceptive negotiation tactics using 5-point appropriate-inappropriate Likert-type scale. After that the factor analysis were completed by the means of descriptive statistics, that included the main 5 factors: (1) traditional competitive bargaining; (2) attacking opponent’s network; (3) false promises; (4) misrepresentation; (5) inappropriate information gathering. Analyses of scale ratings yielded results that students’ evaluation of ethical/unethical behavior in negotiation process depends on their work experience, as well as on their cultural background (the research was conducted among international students), although their criticism of inappropriate negotiation strategies does not always lead to the appropriate behavior in their actual negotiation performance. The article works out suggestions how to incorporate issues of ethical negotiation strategies within the MBA curriculum (in such courses as business ethics, negotiation skills, management, marketing, international marketing, organizational psychology, sales management, etc.). Keywords: Negotiation Ethics; SINS scale; Business Ethics, Micro-insertion Module

A PLS-SEM of Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Music Programs within Thai Private Universities

290 – 298

Pannawit Sanitnarathorn

As indicated by the present aging population and fewer children situation, the number of Thai youngsters has been radically diminishing contrasted with the earlier decades and this prompts the insufficient number of students enlisting in the university level. It has influenced both public and private university however the second one has gotten a higher effect as Thai parents and children have a typical social esteem that graduating from the public university will get more pride and respect to the family. Programs in music have been popular in the recent year; however, for the private universities offering a degree in music is attempting to survive. This paper therefore investigated a multitude of factors both the direct and indirect factors affecting organizational sustainability of Thai private university’s music programs. From the 280 Thai administrative members in the private universities surveyed and analyzed by use of a structural equation model by PLS-Graph software. This research also concluded that business strategies were not influenced directly through organizational sustainability but instead was indirectly influenced through organizational performance. The innovation process and innovative marketing affect potential competitiveness which in turn affects organizational sustainability. Strategies within the university must also be stated clearly, which also meets the needs of the learners with cost management being imperative as well. It was determined that organizational performance affects organizational sustainability to the greatest extent due to monetary and non-monetary factors with an intermediate input into innovation, the business environment and business strategies. Organizational performance is also influenced by innovation and business strategies. Keywords: innovation, business environment, business strategies, organizational performance, organizational sustainability, SEM

Educational Paradoxes as a Part of Field Didactics of Citizenship Education

299 – 303

Tomáš Hubálek

There is a whole range of factors influencing the educational process. Educational paradoxes belong undoubtedly among the phenomena of educational reality that affect both the formal and the informal curriculum. We perceive those paradoxes as a part of the educational process that has been not much discussed by experts and the professionals in pedagogical field are not sufficiently informed about them. At present, we face antinomy because the paradoxes of education can be identified in the educational practice, but there is a lack of further work with the results of scientific analyses and there is no feedback given to the teachers. Our study mainly deals with the educational paradoxes that directly affect the field didactics of social sciences. The paper presents the decomposition of the educational paradoxes into the elementary parts, which are analysed from the perspective of two subjects: Citizenship Education and Social Sciences, on the basis of the current national researchers and international connotations. The aim of the article is to summarize the approaches to the research of educational paradoxes, both from general and Citizenship Education point of view, and open discussion on further development of pedagogical research in this field. Individual paradoxes will be described in more detail, including basal implications in educational practice. We want to contribute to a more structured systematization of educational paradoxes topic in the field didactics of social sciences and to frame the whole problematics of social sciences didactics by the introduction of the realized researches, because it is relatively new in the Czech Republic. Another positive implication of the study is the enrichment of the teacher's portfolio with the knowledge mentioned in the text which can improve his / her profession. Keywords: pedagogy, educational paradoxes, field didactics, citizenship education 

Didactics of the Social Sciences and Methodology of the Educational Paradoxes Research

304 – 310

Antonín Staněk

The aim of the scientific study is to present one of the possible approaches to a methodologically sophisticated empirical research in didactics of social sciences on the example of a specific pedagogical survey with a subject-didactical impact. The didactics of social sciences as a scientific discipline uses scientific research methods to create not only scientific knowledge reflecting objective reality, but also to use the principls of our thinking to correctly explain and purposefully transform the given, objectively existing reality. In this context, the need for high-quality methodologically sophisticated empirical research appears as a prerequisite. The insufficient methodological sophistication of many surveys of academic institutions in the Czech Republic causes a major problem for the further development of didactics of social sciences. The current challenge for academic institutions developing the didactics of social sciences in the Czech Republic is to look for ways to improve and expand the themes of field-didactical research and to improve their methodological basis. Only high-quality research, which is sufficiently methodologically prepared, has a chance to compete with others and extend the knowledge of the realization of the educational process through social science subjects. We attempt to contribute to the discussion on possible approaches to empirical research in didactics of social sciences by describing the methodology of a specific survey of our study focused on examining the reflection of educational paradoxes by teachers of Civics. In addition to traditional areas such as the theoretical background of research, definition of the research problem, the formulation of research hypotheses and the definition of terms, we emphasize the choice of research methods and techniques, especially the Statistical Implicative Analysis (SIA), including its Cohesive Hierarchical Implicative Classification (CHIC). In the conclusion of the study we explain why the use of Statistical Implicative Analysis (SIA) is perceived as an innovative work with high potential for future research projects in the field of interpreting research data of empirical research focused on social sciences. Keywords: Cohesive Hierarchical Implicative Classification, didactics of social sciences, subject didactics, pedagogy, Statistical Implicative Analysis, educational paradoxes.

Future teachers’ perception of modern educational technology (MET) in the Czech Republic

311 – 317

Hana Čihánková, Jan Gregar and Barbora Sittová

The aim of this study is to research the attitudes and beliefs that future teachers studying at Palacký University Olomouc have about modern educational technology, and also about technology in general that could be used in the course of education. Teacher beliefs are one of the integral and important components of teacher’s personality and they influence the whole education process: from how teachers behave in the classroom to what materials they choose to use. Different beliefs of each person also influence their attitude towards the educational technology and their opinion on whether it is beneficial to use it in teaching or not. The research was conducted via a questionnaire that was distributed to students of Faculty of Education in Olomouc, Czech Republic. This article presents the results which were achieved via this research. Keywords: education, technology, students, teachers, beliefs

Mobile Application as an Innovative Tool for the Agricultural Industry: A Conceptual Perspective

318 – 323

Pannawit Sanitnarathorn

Agriculture has been practiced in Thailand since the ancient past and continues to be practiced today. This is because Thailand is a biologically abundant nation. Furthermore, Thailand’s income primarily results from the agricultural sector. Farming has been developed from the household level up into enterprises. And one highly important cash crop is “rice”. Thai rice is accepted for its quality and flavor worldwide. Rice supplies flooded the market as a result of the aforementioned policy and exceeded consumer demands, leading to domestic prices to be greater than prices on the international market. Consequently, Thai farmers faced a severe crisis in rice sales and created for political gains that finally provide benefits to middlemen. Moreover, the farmers’ problems are always the basic problems of the nation. In response to the aforementioned problems, the rice trading mobile application has been developed to provide assistance to farmers for their sustainability through ICT. It has been initially created to allow farmers to sell their rice crops by letting consumers and producers directly communicate through the application. The researcher related concepts, theories and research for adoption in the application to reach target groups through the theory of diffusion of innovation and the technology acceptance model. Quantitative data is being obtained from a proposed sample of 240 Thai farmers who have experiences accessing to the internet via mobile phones are anticipated for the survey sampled from 6 regions in Thailand with qualitative research being conducted with 10 executives by the use of purposive sampling. Analysis will be conducted using Partial Least Square (PLS-Graph) software to apply Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Keywords: Rice Trading Mobile Application, Theory of Diffusion of Innovation, Technology of Acceptance Model (TAM), SEM 

Integration from the point of view of foreign students as an important factor during the formation of value of education

324 – 332

Markéta Šemberová, Jitka Plischke and Jan Gregar

This article focusses on students of a different ethnicity living in the United Kingdom, it mainly focuses on how these students are being integrated into the majority society, also on how the school and teachers reflect their needs. The main aim of the research is to find out what value does education have for the students in the land that their parents came to live in from different reasons. The first partial aim is to find out what were the reasons for the family to move to the United Kingdom, what languages does the family speak and how educated are their parents. The second aim is to describe in what way were the families making effort to integrate into the majority society, whether the students went to the common British schools and what obstacles they had to overcome. We also focused on whether the students had enough knowledge (since some of them came from the same country of origin as the first generation) and whether they feel fully accepted by society and surroundings. The last aim of this research is to find out what value does education represent to them and their parents, how are they planning to represent this value to their children one day and what does obtaining of a degree diploma in the United Kingdom represent for them. For this research, I picked a qualitative approach with a method of semi-structured questions. The obtained data will be analyzed by the card unloading technique. The results will be described in the open, axial and selective codes. Keywords: students of different ethnicity, value of education, integration, qualitative research, semi-structured interview. 

Psychological Traits in Teacher and Pupil Mutual Communication

340 – 347

Nurcan İlkay and Mustafa Bayrakçi

Many factors contribute to a pupils' academic performance. Studies suggest that, between school-related factors, teachers matter most and have two to three times larger impact than any other school factor. Researchers provide various lists of necessary traits for the effective teacher. Fewer lists are provided on required traits for the effective pupil. The problem is that ideas about necessary traits of the effective teacher or effective pupil differ from the point of view of the viewer. This research examines pupil - teacher and teacher - pupil expectations about the necessary personal traits in the educational process. Participants are pupils (N=125, age 7 - 18) and teachers (N= 30, age 32 - 64), all from the same regional school. A structured questionnaire developed on the basis of the theoretical studies was used. Ten traits for the effective pupil (discipline; freedom; will power; courage make mistakes; curiosity; goal; comprehension; belief in self; responsibility; politeness) and effective teacher (strictness; friendliness; high expectations; sense of humor; enthusiasm; care; explanatory; positivism; organized; politeness) were measured with ordinal and nominal scales. Results demonstrate significant difference between expectations and actual state evaluation concerning the teachers - for pupils about: care, strictness, high expectations, enthusiasm; for teachers about friendliness, enthusiasm, sense of humor and care; concerning the pupils - for pupils about: curiosity, belief in self, responsibility, politeness, freedom, courage make mistakes, comprehension; for teachers about freedom, curiosity, responsibility. The results suggest that difference in mutual expectations between teachers and pupils may interfere with the common awareness of the educational process. Keywords: Teacher, Pupil, Communication, Expectations, Traits.

Education of Children With Intellectual Disabilities as Expressed by Mothers Secondary - Data Analysis

348 – 360

Katarzyna Ćwirynkało, Urszula Bartnikowska and Agnieszka Żyta

This study has been conducted with the aim of examining the technological pedagogical content knowledge of teacher candidates who study Pre-school Teaching in Faculty of Education, Sakarya University, based on variables such as age, gender, grade level and access to the technology. The target population and sample of the study is comprised of 316 teacher candidates (16 male, 300 female) who is currently studying in Sakarya University, Faculty of Education. In the study, data was collected by means of “Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Scale”, which was developed by Schmidt, improved by D.A., Baran, E., Thompson, A.D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M.J. ve Shin, T.S., (2009:140), and translated into Turkish by Horzum, Akgün and Öztürk (2014). The data analysis was implemented by SPSS 20.0 Statistics Package Programme. Kolmogorov-Smirnow test was applied in order to figure out normalisation of the data. Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis test and correlation analysis were used in the analysis of percentage, frequency, arithmetic mean, standard deviation values throughout the data analysis. It was discovered at the end of the study that technological pedagogical content knowledge of pre-school teacher candidates was quite adequate. Key words: TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge), Pre-school Teacher Candidates 

Education Of Children With Intellectual Disabilities As Expressed By Mothers – Secondary-Data Analysis

361 – 368

Sławomir Przybyliński, Katarzyna Ćwirynkało and Urszula Bartnikowska

Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that is expressed in conceptual, social and practical skills (Schalock, et al., 2010). Being labelled as an individual with an intellectual disability has got life-long consequences both for the child and his/her family, influencing experiences in many aspects of their lives (Parchomiuk, 2007), including the child’s education. This paper examines mothers’ perspective on education of their children with intellectual disabilities. the authors made an attempt to answer two research questions: What is the mothers’ of children with intellectual disabilities perception of education of their children? What contributes to the mothers’ of children with intellectual disabilities perception of education of their children? The findings are based on a secondary analysis of a qualitative data (Corti & Thompson, 2007; Johnston, 2014) gathered in four previous research projects (Bartnikowska & Ćwirynkało, 2013; Ćwirynkało & Żyta, 2014; Kimbar, 2015; Szczepański, 2017). In total, 25 indepth interviews with mothers of children with intellectual disabilities were analyzed. In the analysis two main categories of description referring to education emerged: (1) places (a dream and a real school, kindergarten or institution for a child with an intellectual disability, a place of living as a determinant of parents’ choice of an educational institution), (2) persons (teachers and specialists whose work influences the quality of a child’s education, their attitudes and competences, a child’s typically developing and disabled peers and mothers themselves as their children’s animators and educators). Based on the categories, the authors presented answers to the research questions. Implications for practice are also discussed. Keywords: intellectual disability, education, mothers 

Treatment of criminals with disabilities in prison – opportunities and constraints in Polish penitentiary system

361 – 368

Sławomir Przybyliński, Katarzyna Ćwirynkało and Urszula Bartnikowska

According to the Convention on the Rights of Pers ons with Disabilities states (CPRD, 2006), people with disabilities are defined as „those who have long -term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others‟ (Art.1). Nonetheless, they form a unique group that are overlooked in many areas of life due to lack of or inadequate systemic support (Dogbe et al., 2016). One of these areas is the penitentiary system. International literature, especially from Western Europe and the United States provides a lot of data on prisoners with disabilities. Little is known, however, about the phenomenon in other countries, including Poland. This paper is aimed to fill this gap. The need for various forms of treatment of certain groups of prisoners has been expressed by various authors for years. In case of prisoners with disabilities it can be considered of even greater value. There are about 78 thousand prisoners in Poland and official statistics show that about 6% of themhave at least one type of disability, mainly physical, sensory (visual and hearing) and speech impa irments (Szlęzak- Kawa, 2014). Furthermore, some studies show that the prevalence rates of various minor impairments, for example intellectual deficits are much higher than this (Dąbkowska, 2017). The authors investigated the statistical data on the prevalence of different types of disabilities among prisoners in Poland, the analysis of their situation, forms of support available for them, the role of professionals in supporting the prisoners as well as the effectiveness of the system in supporting them. Implications based on the literature and statistics reviews are also analyzed. Key words: prison, disability, criminals, treatment, penitentiary system

Advantages and Downsides of Children Ict Use in Spain: The Parent’s Point of View

369 – 379

Jesús Plaza-De-La-Hoz

This paper aims at understanding the expectations of a group of parents, about possibilities and problems Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) present for their children. The article consists in a qualitative study, through the in-depth interview technique. Participants were twenty fathers and mothers with children from 9 to 18 years of age, studying at private and state schools of Teruel (Spain). All of them are concerned about the subject, because have been selected after attending several discussions and classes about technologies and students organized by cultural and educational associations. Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) was used, by means of Atlas.ti7 program. The findings show a similar amount of advantages lightly higher than the number of downsides. Parents appreciate ICT mainly as a way of communication and cooperation, in addition to entertainment. Regarding daily downsides, the fundamental ones are related to the deterioration of social and family environment, different levels of addiction –in a broad sense- and the uncertainty they notice to face with possible damages, because of the difficulty to foresee and control. In conclusion, due to the fact that nowadays ICT make impossible a strict monitoring of their potential risks, parents must improve their teaching and training skills to prevent unwanted effects, and empower their children with autonomy and self-control. The best way for it could be precisely the strong communicative components associated with parent-children relationship. The benefit for having interviewed only involved parents is at the same time its major limitation; even though further research will be necessary, these results shed light on one of the most interesting issues related to ICT: the key role of family. Keywords: Education, Family role, Influence of technology, Student empowerment, Communication skills.

Investigating Cultural Competencies of Elementary Teachers

380 – 399

Ganime Aydin

Over the years, the competencies of teachers have been enhanced and standardized, and teacher education programs have been changing in many countries while many art and sports classes have been eliminated. Elementary teachers differ from other teachers because they are responsible for more than one subject, and thus they need to adopt multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approach based on a wide range of competencies. The aim of this research is to determine cultural competency level of a sample group of eighty-seven elementary teachers and to analyze the reasons for their lack of competencies. The research was undertaken using a mixed method. The quantitative analysis consisted of two parts. One part comprised demographic information about the participants such as gender, age, parent’s education level, the type of school the participants graduated from, and their professional experience. The other part included data on cultural competencies such as the number of visits to cinemas, museums, concerts, and theaters together with the number of books the participants had read in a year. In the qualitative analysis, the reasons for attaining cultural competencies were investigated using face-to-face interviews. The results were discussed in the following parts. Keywords: cultural competencies, elementary teachers, teacher education

Professional learning of leadership as a prerequisite for kindergarten development

400 – 405

Edita Slunjski, Karmen Pavlic and Darinka Vrbanec

The demands of leading an educational institution are increasingly growing and are becoming more complex. Nevertheless, preparation for leadership, either at the initial level of education or professional training, is still largely at an inadequate level in the Republic of Croatia. It is often reduced to personal experience of the educational staff, i.e. to ad hoc dealings with complex managerial challenges. In this paper we discuss the most common forms of professional learning about leadership and its disadvantages, as well as the possibilities of conceptualizing the conditions for better professional learning of leadership. These include encouraging the culture of learning at the institution itself, which involves a large number of subjects, not just the principal. In particular, we highlight the value of professional learning of leadership at the institution itself, and this includes professional expertise of the employees and it is incorporated into the day-to-day practices of the institution that relies on the power of the group of other employees. Such forms of leadership learning take into account different structures and institutional contexts of the institution, as well as the value of employee co-operation. In this paper we present the action research we undertook in a number of kindergartens. Action research is a specific type of empirical research that is carried out with immediate pedagogical action. This is a scientifically based change of the pedagogical process in which the main organizers and creators of this process appear simultaneously as researchers. In that sense, it was based on the connection and collaboration between the members of the academic community and practitioners as equal partners. The aim of this research was to become acquainted with and to improve the quality of leadership in the real context of the institution, which means that the research and the learning opportunities of leadership that grew out of this research were highly personalized. In this regard, employees were enabled to experience the research of the quality of their own leadership in the real context of the institution and the integration of various skills required for continuous questioning and (self)evaluation. The results of this research are noticeable in acquiring new knowledge and improving the management process in kindergartens involved in the research. At the same time, the results could also represent the basis for redesigning the program of professional learning of leadership by competent institutions. In that sense, the kindergarten could become a learning center for better practice and quality leadership, through formalization of the approach that has been developed through its own practice. Keywords: action research, learning culture, leadership, kindergarten 

The sustainable pedagogical approach for resolution of problems in pre-school education

406 – 415

Alida Samusevica and Blazma Vikmane

Objectives: to identify and recognize the analysed problems of childhood pedagogy in Master’s theses, to detect the actualized contradictions in upbringing and education of the modern child as well as to reveal the practical opportunities in execution of sustainable pedagogical approach. Problem of the Research: Implementation of the pedagogical strategy that supports sustainable development in pre-school education. Research Methodology: Implemented research of evaluation, by systemizing the scope of Liepaja University Master research problems to be solved within the context of childhood pedagogy and by assessing the within Master thesis applied pedagogical approaches of children upbringing and education. Research Methods: theoretical comparative analysis, content analysis of Master theses. Research Base: theoretical sources, defended Master theses of 25 students. Research Findings: systematized conceptual theoretical insights and empirical experience in realization of sustainable pedagogical approach within the process of developing child’s personality that reveals the essence of upbringing and educating activity and influences the quality of pedagogical cooperation in the modern institution of preschool education. The paper focuses on the prevailing contradictions among pedagogical practices as well as describes the pedagogical approaches in resolution of the current problems in Latvia pre-school education. Keywords: upbringing, child as value, child-focused approach, sustainability, pre-school education. 

Workplace bullying - coping strategies of teachers

416 – 424

Tomas Cech, Simona Dobesova Cakirpaloglu and Jana Kvintova

The present study is based on research regarding bullying in the workplace, specifically aimed at elementary schools teachers in the Czech Republic. The sample consisted of elementary school teachers who had been exposed to regular bullying by their colleagues or superiors for at least half a year. Based on in-depth interviews and subsequent coding and categorization of statements, the main aim of the research was to reflect the strategies used by teachers as victims of workplace bullying used to defend themselves and resolve aggression from their colleagues. These can be classified into passive strategies (such as non-response, misplaced problem, humour) which are the most common forms of defence against escalating aggression, and active defence strategies (e.g. engagement of leadership, legal defence), which were found to be rather uncommon. Keywords: School, school climate, aggression, bullying in the workplace, defence strategy

The incidence of workplace bullying in Czech teachers

425 – 431

Simona Dobesova Cakirpaloglu, Tomas Cech and Jana Kvintova

Workplace bullying is a subtle manifestation of disturbed relationships in the workplace and it is considered an extreme type of social stressor at work. The present study verifies a psychological survey on a sample of N = 258 teachers in the Czech Republic, using a questionnaire of negative acts NAQ-R (Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised) and a status questionnaire. According to stringent evaluation criteria, the highest prevalence of workplace bullying of 7.75% was determined by means of behavioral measurement; according to self-evaluation measurement the prevalence was 2.33%; the lowest prevalence of workplace bullying of 1.94% was obtained by combining the behavioral and self-evaluation measurements. Keywords: workplace bullying, prevalence, NAQ-R, victimization 

Evaluation of Customer Relation Management Formation in The Retail Trade Enterprises in The Baltic Countries

432 – 440

Iveta Linina, Velga Vevere and Rosita Zvirgzdina

The sphere of retail trade has always played significant role in every country national economy. The grounds of success of a retail trade enterprise is formation of customer satisfaction and loyalty to the enterprise. Process of attracting new customers involves spending more money and energy. In order to retain existing customers and ensure their loyalty, one of the basic tasks of the enterprise is to know the factors the influence their satisfaction and the satisfaction level itself. Market globalization influences retail trade enterprises ore and more, this make them look for possibilities to ensure and raise their competitiveness. To identify factors of competitiveness the authors put forward the goal to research the measurement methods of satisfaction and loyalty in retail trade enterprises. To reach the goal the authors employ the monographic method to explore the theoretical background of the satisfaction and loyalty; besides that the authors analyze the tendencies of the retail trade in Latvia and by the means of the expert interviews, the customer and manager surveys help the identification of the application level of the satisfaction and loyalty research in the retail trade companies in Latvia. The present article will give the retail trade enterprises understanding of necessity of research in the process of customer satisfaction formation and its specific features in the retail trade sector. The authors have summarized the existing approaches and defined their approach to application of satisfaction and loyalty measurement. The authors conclude that by using customer satisfaction and loyalty research, it is possible to manage the customer attitude formation, and this can be one of the instruments for ensuring competitiveness. Keywords: customer, retail, research methods, customer satisfaction, loyalty

Lean Management Application Analysis in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (Sme) in Latvia

441 – 452

Rosita Zvirgzdina, Iveta Linina and Kaspars Fogelmanis

Globalization trends are one of the major causes of general changes in the world and one of the most visible consequences of globalization is rapid market growth. In these market conditions, companies focus on ensuring their competitiveness. In today's business environment, there are no uniform standards or models that provide business development and effective use of existing resources. There are different standards, models, systems of management support; however, the unifying criterion of these systems is a satisfied customer and reduced costs that provide long-term competitiveness. Thus, lean management and enterprise competitiveness have become decisive growth factorsin ensuring sustainable development of SMEs. In order to identify factors enhancing the competitiveness of SMEs, the authors of the current article have explored the basic factors of lean management. To achieve the goals set the authors have examined the theoretical background of the lean management using the monograph or descriptive method, analysing SME sector development tendencies in Latvia, and empirically researching the application of lean management in the Latvian SMEs. This study will give companies an understanding of the theoretical and real factors of the lean management. Analysing theoretical aspects, the authorhave defined the unified approach to lean management from the viewpoint of its essence. Finally, the authors conclude that lean management factors can be used by enterprisesto manage processes and is one of the instruments in ensuring competitiveness of enterprises. Keywords: lean management, small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), competitiveness

Trauma and its Rehabilitation in Music Therapy Practice

453 – 458

Mirdza Paipare and Sandra Mihailova

In this research we would like to introduce you to the first results of music therapy research that is done in Latvia. We present the work with a patient who has a secondary hemiparesis after left side head injury with all its implications (motoric aphasia, right side spasticity etc.), emphasizing the importance of parallel/ simultaneous work of rehabilitating team members (speech therapist, physiotherapist, music therapist etc.). In this article we will juxtapose music therapist work results with analysis of literature and methodical concept. The aim of research was to address the possibilities of music therapy in brain injury cases, accompanied by the speech engine aphasia, mental retardation of development, variety of emotional disorders, and particularly commonly seen speech, language disorders, as well as memory impairment. The following music therapy method will be used: particular vocal therapy method created by S. Shushardzhan (doctor, music therapist), combined with breathing exercises of Strelnikova – further explained in text. Key words: trauma, speech, memory, music therapy, rehabilitation

Rating Agencies: Foreseeing the New Forms of Measuring Political and Credit Risks

459 – 463

Ana Campina and Maria Emília Teixeira

The security, credibility and growth of a country, corporation or product are many times measured by ratings given for certain entities, for instance, the risk notations periodically published by major rating agencies. As a matter of fact, the investor’s guide their investment strategy by such classifications. The present research enable us to develop a careful “free” review of the 2007/2008 financial crisis causes, consequently we can state that their ratings had some correction problems that would be manipulated by “hidden” interests and “actors”. It’s required to find out new measurement techniques of the corporate and countries investment risk. To develop our research, we chose to analyze the political and credit risk. Considering the extremely volatile political risk, it would occur in an unexpected concern, as well as, would be supported in a revolution or in riots, and, it would be a change through a Government change and/or laws changes implemented. Keywords: Political Risk, Credit Risk, Credit Default Swap, Risk Measurement

Policy, Law and Education For Human Rights in European Union: Legality and Social Needs Dichotomy

464 – 470

Ana Campina, Maria Manuela Magalhães, Cristina Costa Lobo and José Menezes

Considering the Human Rights paradigm change in the present century, the international legality, as the education, needs and proceedings, it´s important to understand the reasons of this renew human, and consequently social, context, translated in the legality as in the way of living. The terrorist attacks and the extremely security international measures; the anti-Semitic ideology proliferation, the racism and discrimination dangerous rates; renew Refugees waves; the economic crisis conducting millions to the real poverty; social capacity absence to understand and (re)act according to the needs, facing the violence and Rights violations are the most important causes of the change analysis of this research. The European Union faces these problems and changings according the Human Rights protection law despite the different difficulties. However, all over the world, there is an important dichotomy between legality and social needs that should be a priority to the “powers” aiming the Human Rights promotion. Keywords: Human Rights, Education; European Union; Policies; Legality; Dichotomy.

The Formal Model of Publicist Style as a Tool for University Teacher´s Competence

471 – 478

Zdenka Kumorová

The paper analyses auditive records of the spoken speeches of selected lecturers giving lectures at a particular university. The subject of research interest is to observe basic properties of the publicist (oratory) formal model: fineness, objectivity, subjectivity, suggestiveness, clarity and distinctness. Most significantly, all these features are presented through linguistic and extra-linguistic expressive means in speeches of the expedients. The analyses will help evaluate the effect of the speeches – persuasion – on the addressees. The subject of the study is to investigate the current state of the publicist formal model in the analyzed lectures. All these characteristics become a potential model and a motivational factor for future teachers studying at our Faculty. For this reason we need to serve as models to future teachers during their pre-gradual preparation, we must apply all possible optimal tools for developing cultivated teaching style, that becomes a standard model for future generations of Slovak teachers. Keywords: Formal Model, Publicist Style, Teacher, oratorical style

Performed Overviews and Analysis Of Researches in Music Therapy Within The Framework of Master’s Papers

479 – 482

Liga Engele, Mirdza Paipare and Olga Blauzde

In this article we will summarise information about master’s papers which include case analysis of various patient groups and the most successful and significant researches. Study programme Music Therapy is available at Liepaja University since 2003. In the time period from 2009 to 2017, 62 professional arts therapists in music therapy have graduated from this study programme. Unfortunately not everybody is working in this profession. Part of graduates combine art/music therapists work with their previous speciality (musician, pedagogue, psychologist, etc). To get arts therapists in music therapy qualification masters students have to take a qualification exam, which includes “role play” of a specific case with a patient or a group of patients and the presentation of master’s paper. In this article we will summarise information about master’s papers which include case analysis of various patient groups and the most successful and significant researches. Key words: music therapy, master`s papers, research. 

Healthy Lifestyle and Wellness of The First-Year Students of Liepaja University, Study Programme Teacher

483 – 490

Helena Vecenane

In Latvia there is a high morbidity and mortality from non-infectious diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases, mental disorders), the development of which is largely influenced by people’s lifestyle (eating habits, physical activity and the use of addictive substances). In 2016/2017, there are 1342 students studying in Liepaja University, among them 428 are the first-year students (IZM, 2017, 16). Students form the part of society and their knowledge, skills and attitudes obtained at the University will contribute to Latvia’s growth. A healthy and developed society is the basis for the development of each country. The development of Latvian education system is closely related to the changes in all other areas of human activity. An organized life is in a very close interaction with well-organized life experiences – education, and mentally and physically organized people. The Aim of the study: To determine the healthy lifestyle habits and wellness level of the first-year students of study programme Teacher. Research Methodology: survey method, questionnaire consists of 4 blocks - a total of 90 questions, Cronbach's Alpha 0.692. Research sample: N=121 first-year full-time and part-time students of study programme Teacher, age 18-57, average age – 29. Results: Employing the survey, 11 healthy lifestyle components are evaluated, from which the following healthy lifestyle components – physical activity, eating habits and stress management are analysed more closely. Physical activity habits: 71.9 % of students daily perform moderate physical exercises, 34.8% of students exercise very intensively, but 19 % of respondents perform strength-building exercises. Eating habits: 69.3 % of students have three regular meals per day, 19.4% of respondents daily choose appropriate portions from products recommended by food guide pyramid. Stress management habits: 76.1 % of students daily allocate time for resting and recovering from stress, but 9.2 % of students regularly perform exercises designed to reduce the stress-related tension. When assessing the students’ emotional, intellectual, physical and mental wellness, the overall score is as follows: for 2.5 % of students the wellness level is low, for 16.9 % – marginal wellness level, for 52.8 % – good wellness level, but for 27.6 % of students the wellness level is high. Keywords: students, healthy lifestyle, habits, wellness