The Importance of Developing The Psycho-Pedagogical Skills of The Tutors in Training The Future Nurses

98 - 104

Marcean Crin and Alexandru Mihaela

In today’s healthcare system, nurses make up the largest professional category. During clinical training, the nurse trainee learns, while working in a team or alongside a community, how to plan, how to put into practice and evaluate general medical care, based on previously acquired skills and knowledge. One of the most important members of the tutoring team is the nursing tutor. In order for the tutors to really meet the needs of the students, they are required to be acquainted with the learning knowledge theories and their models, as well as the application of learning methods specific to the pedagogy of medical education, coupled with a continuing personal and professional development. Thus, the definition of psycho-pedagogical training for clinical practice tutors, followed by the development of specific skills, regulation and status consolidation for them represent the strategic objectives in a general context of training for future nurses. Keywords: tutor, nursing, psycho-pedagogical skills 

Human interaction skills and employability at information technology internships

105 – 114

Cristina Costa-Lobo, Filomena Castro Lopes, Carla Santos Pereira, Natércia

To implement internships with undergraduate students is a pedagogical option with good results perceived by academic staff, employers, and among graduates. The Human Interaction Skills development as well as the attractiveness of such experiences for higher education students are topics assumed as core in the conception and management of the activities implemented in the undergraduate courses offered at the last three decades in computer science degree and in information systems technologies degree at one Portuguese private university. The objectives of this paper are to gather evidence of the Human Interaction Skills explained and valued at Information Technology Internships and to evaluate the importance and the relevance of these experiences in promoting employability after the Information Technology Internships. Data collection was based on the application of questionnaire to trainee supervisors and to students who have completed Information Technology Internships in the last decade at one Portuguese private university. The trainee supervisor, responsible for monitoring the student`s performance at Information Technology Internships, evaluates the following Human Interaction Skills: Motivation and interest in the activities developed, interpersonal relationship, cooperation in company activities, assiduity, ease of knowledge apprehension, compliance with norms, insertion in the work environment, productivity, initiative, ability to take responsibility, creativity in proposing solutions, and self-confidence. The results show that in the concluding phase of these undergraduate courses students have positive levels of development of Human Interaction Skills and that these students, once they finish their degree, initiate remunerated work functions, mainly by invitation of the institutions in which they perform Information Technology Internships. Findings provided strong evidence of Human Interaction Skills advantages contribute to widen the analysis of its effectiveness in terms of future research and actions in regard to the transition from Higher Education pathways to the Labour Market. Keywords: Human Interaction Skills; Employability; Internships; Information Technology; Higher Education 

The Perceptions of Undergraduate Students About Classroom Management Practices

115 – 121

Osman Titrek, Emine Coşkuntürk, Elif Alemdar and Arif Sakli

The aimed of this study is to explore the perceived justice of the undergraduates with regards to classroom management practices. Perceived justice is an important factor which allows for students to have a sense of belonging in the teaching and learning environment. The universe of this study consists of 1,892 undergraduates of the Sakarya University and students enrolled in the Formation Certificate Program of the Faculty of Education of Sakarya University during the spring quarter of the academic year of 2016-17. The sample of this study, on the other hand, consists of 320 undergraduates enrolled in pedagogical formation programs who participated in the study on a volunteering-basis using Simple Random Sampling Method. Simple Survey Model, one of the General Survey Models was used in this study. The data collected in this study was coded and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics V22.0 software. The results of this study show that students’ perceived procedural justice differs depending on the variable of department type. In this context authors recommend future studies to focus on perceived justice in the classroom with respect to its many dimensions. Keywords: Justice, Classroom Management, Pedagogic Formation, Perception, Teacher

Reasons of Exchanges of Teachers Work in Primary Schools and The Role of Principals

122 - 133

Osman Titrek, Emre Çelik, Gizem Çağlayan, Neslihan Öztürk and Şebnem Yüzbaşiyeva

In this study, we tried to determine the exchanges of teachers work in formal primary schools and the roles of directors in requests of their exchanges of place. Reasons of teachers’ exchange of place and the role of the director in these exchanges; gender, professional level, type of school, branch of the teacher and exchange situation according to the number of change of place are searched as factors. In our research, we used screening model. Surveys are applied to 150 teachers who work in formal primary schools in Kandıra states in İzmit and in Karapürçek states in Sakarya in 2016- 2017 Education Year. The survey method conducted on this research is developed by Candaş (2015). The survey is composed of 3 parts. The first part includes teachers’ personal information; the second part includes questions that measure the reasons of exchange related to school, private reasons and reasons related to the director. In the third part, teachers are enabled to express their reasons except from the reasons mentioned. Likert type four-item scale is used. Participants are asked to evaluate their views about exchange using one of 4 options: (1) Very Effective, (2) Mostly Effective, (3) Rarely Effective, (4) Not Effective. In the analysis of data SPSS 20.0 pack program is used and frequencies and percentages of demographic qualities are examined, and average and standard deviation of points taken from scales are calculated. To determine whether points taken from Teachers’ Exchange Reasons Scale vary according to their gender, branch and the type if their school, we used Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal- Wallis H test to determine whether the points vary according to their professional level and exchange number. According to the results of the research, while teachers’ exchange reasons doesn’t vary according to their gender, school type, branch, their professional level and exchange numbers, the city which is worked is significant variable that leads teachers to request an Exchange. Key words: Exchange schools, Teacher, Principal, Reasons

Subjective well-being, emotional regulation and motivational guidance in high sport competition

134 – 143

Cristina Costa-Lobo, Sílvia Cordeiro, Priscila Martins and Ana Campina

The sports context has been characterized as intense on emotional experiences. Emotional responses and the ability to regulate them, seem to be a central competence for sports success and can have impact on well-being and motivation. To study the relationship between subjective well-being, emotional regulation, motivational orientation, and sports performance, was carried out an exploratory study with 50 male athletes, aged between 14 and 15 years old, of a Portuguese soccer club. For that, the Subjective Happiness Scale, the Emotion Regulation Index for Children and Adolescents, and the Motivational Guidance Questionnaire for Sports were used. The results suggest that the motivational orientation, specifically, the ego orientation seems to be associated with high sport performance. Significant differences in terms of emotional regulation were also founded. The discussion of the results is accompanied by the signaling of implications for the psychological practices and the analysis of scenarios of future research in the field of excellence in sport. Keywords: Sports performance, subjective well-being, emotional regulation, motivational orientation.

Leadership Proficiency of School Administrators from the Perceptions of Teachers

144 - 155

Osman Titrek, Köksal Çiftçi, Ferit Erot and Mustafa Toprak

The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of teachers and school administrators about the competences of school administrators. A survey model was used with a sample of 110 teachers working in Palandöken town in Erzurum. The data were gathered through “Bass Multidimensional Leadership Behavior Determination Scale”. Data analysis was conducted through descriptive statistics, such as t-test and ANOVA analysis. According to the obtained findings, although school administrators perceived themselves more proficient than teachers perceived them to be in all dimensions, the opinions of school administrators and teachers differentiated in the dimensions “Interacting with People–Working Efficiently” and “Service to Profession”. The opinions of school administrators didn’t differentiate according to school type, having in-service training and having training of administration, but differentiated according to seniority. The opinions of teachers about school administrators differentiated according to school type and seniority, but didn’t differentiate according to whether they had administrative experience. Keywords: Proficiency of school administrators, School administrators, Teachers

Teacher Training: The Relevance of Creativity in School

156 – 165

Cristina Costa-Lobo and Jessica Cabrera

Some social and educational dissatisfaction occurs when the school focuses almost exclusively on the development of the convergent thinking of the students, forgetting the creativity in a divergent and contextual sense. In this debate there is always some tension that occurs under the difficulties of the experts to reach consensus on a definition of creativity, and then to point out guidelines for their evaluation and training. The controversy that surrounds the evaluation of the construct of creativity has justified the search for alternatives, by some authors, to the similar tests of Torrance, in the fluidity, flexibility, originality and elaboration, resorting to stimuli essentially unfamiliar to the individuals (Lubbart, Besançon, and Barbot, 2011). It is assumed a theory of evaluation of the creative potential of the students of basic education, based on verbal and graphic subtests that evaluate the main forms of creative cognition: - Divergent exploratory and convergent integrative thinking. Assuming that creativity is a phenomenon that involves higher levels of consciousness and complexity (Cabrera, 2009); considering the work of Sternberg and Lubart as a theoretical foundation and arguing the results of Costa-Lobo, Coimbra and Almeida (2017), are addressed and epistemologically based didactic options for the pedagogical training of teachers and for the organization of curricular and extracurricular activities of the school, in order to develop creativity in educational contexts. Keywords: Teacher training, Creativity, Creative potential, educational contexts 

Reading competence in primary school: speed and effectiveness training in digital education

166 – 173

Elena Jimenez-Perez and Raúl Gutiérrez Fresneda

Reading comprehension is the cornerstone of much scientific research and, as a fundamental axis that converts reading competence, a reason for generation of theories, methodologies and computer tools that evaluate and train in a specific or generic way. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the digital tool LeoBien Supertics to improve reading competence by training the speed and effectiveness of reading in primary education in Spain in 2017, taking into account constructs such as attention, memory and reading speed. In a total of 3,000 students at the primary education level, the first 500 students enrolled of each grade in the primary stage were selected, with 250 boys and 250 girls from grades 1 to 6. A pretest and a post-test were performed, with an interval of six months in which a training, without control group, was conducted for reading, memory and attention skills as elements for improvement in reading comprehension. The results point to a significant improvement, especially in the first year of primary education, and, in general, to an improved performance with more favorable scores for girls. Keywords: comprensión lectora, competencia lectora, velocidad lectora, memoria y atención.

The Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument Applied to Pre-service Elementary School Math

174 – 179

Radka Dofková

Teacher efficacy is the degree of teachers’ beliefs that they can control student achievement and motivation. It is not sufficient to prepare pre-service teachers of mathematics only in areas of content and pedagogy. The purpose of this paper is to determine mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs among pre-service elementary students of mathematics at the Faculty of Education Palacky University Olomouc in Czech Republic. We used for pre-service teachers Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI) that has been developed by modifying the original Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI-B). Items were changed to reflect future mathematics teaching beliefs. We collected data from 53 pre-service elementary school teachers. The present survey was only one of the many parallel researches and surveys the objective of which is to comprehensively map the perception of the self-efficacy and preparedness of students of Teaching at the 1st Level of Elementary School for teaching mathematics. Keywords: teacher, training, mathematics, efficacy, beliefs 

The External Control Scale Applied to Pre-service Elementary School Math Teachers

180 – 184

Radka Dofková

The quality of the pre-service training of mathematics teachers is affected by multiple factors. We believe that in the Czech environment, there is a lack of focus on pre-service teachers of the primary school, a lack of interconnection of the fieldspecific didactics and psychology. One of most important issue is locus of control. Teachers with a high external locus of control believe that control over events during the teaching and what pupils do is outside them, and that they personally have little or no control over mathematics lesson. Therefore they should have been instructed during their pre-service to build positive attitude for their future teaching of mathematics. The aim of this paper is introduce the results of the survey among pre-service elementary teachers about degree how they are able to influence pupils achievement in mathematics. We used the short Norwegian External Control Scale which consists of five items. Responses were given on a six-point scale. Keywords: external control scale, teacher, mathematics, training

The effectiveness of creative procedures when listening to popular music at schoo

185 – 188

Veronika Švoncová

Listening is one of the four elementary activities during music education. Modern popular music forms an important part of the teaching material for music education and continues to be a current topic for students. There is sufficient opportunity to include creative procedures when listening during music education. Application of creative procedures in connection with listening activities is represented by utilisation of a set of motivational games with music facts. Motivational games with music facts are formulated for students of the 2nd level of primary school (hereinafter “PS”). The goal of the specific research was to apply the aforementioned creative procedures by means of a set of motivational games with music facts in connection with listening, and to experimentally verify the effectiveness of creative procedures on parallel classes at the 2nd level of PS using the technique of working with an experimental and control group of students. Keywords: Music, Education, Listening, Popular, Creativity

Identity of Psychology: First Results of Systematic Review

189 – 198

Tiago Esteves, Miguel Ricou, Ana Campina and Cristina Costa-Lobo

The thinking about the Psychology Identity is the background of this study, that helps to the answer of this question: Which is the exclusive aim of the psychologic intervention, that changes into singular when compared with any other profession or intervention? This statement, first research process stage more plural, disclose the process and the first products of a qualitative systematic literature review, grounded, explaining and describing all stages of the data collection and the synthesis. It is expose the first results obtained after the review of 202 studies, based on the qualification categories: published date, document typology, editor nationality, methodologic perspective, research method, sample size, publication impact factor and the citations quantity in the primary study. Keywords: Psychology Identity, Roadmap, Systematic Review

Education of military professionals: A case of operational art

199 – 203

Ján Spišák

A goal of this article is to reveal opinions and arguments of senior military staff about the role and significance of operational art, which serves as a bridge between the military strategy and the tactics to plan and conduct the military operations. Participants of the research are officers in an active military service, contemporarily studying the career courses at the University of Defense, Czech Republic. The data were obtained using the method of the structural questionnaire; including 13 questions related to the theoretical and practical application of operational art. The research comprised 50 officers from different military units and services of the Czech Armed Forces. The result showed that there is a considerable difference in understanding of the role and importance of operational art by the officers, depending on their experience from operations, the nature of the job position and the possibilities of its application in the practice. The findings of the study are as follows: 1.There are considerable differences in perception of the subject between the beginning and at the end of the study. 2.A selfstudy is a powerful tool to gain knowledge, experience, skills and competencies in the subject. 3.Understanding the importance of operational theory is beneficial for officers participating in planning and conduct of military operations. 4.The operational art is fully applicable at all levels of operations; strategic, operational and tactical level. 5.A theory of operational art, as a part of doctrinal publications and training manuals, is useful for an operational practice. Keywords: Operational art, Questionnaire, Education, Career courses 

The Application of The Principles of Visual Hygiene as a Predictor of Joint Education of Visually Impaired and Intact Individuals

204 – 211

Kateřina Kroupová

One of the principles and the key pillar of working with people with visual impairment is the consistent application of the principles of visual hygiene. The role of visual hygiene and adherence to its principles is accentuated within education, so the text of the paper and its research dimension are related to the reference framework of the educational process. Visual hygiene can be defined as a set of methods, principles, guidelines, and procedures that need to be followed to avoid damaging visual perception. The aim of the paper is to present partial aspects of visual hygiene research from the point of view of both actors of the educational process - from the viewpoint of educators, even pupils and students with visual impairment. The research is then framed by the theoretical input into the chosen issue. Keywords: visual hygiene, visual impairment, inclusive education, quality of life 

Abilities Which Favour Learning To Write In The Process Of Child Literacy

212 - 215

Raul Gutierrez-Fresneda and Elena Jimenez-Perez

There is much research on the learning of written language, especially in relation to reading, however, there are very few studies on the process of acquiring writing in early ages. One of the main reasons is usually because reading as well as writing are considered complementary skills and are developed jointly and interrelated as a consequence of the similarities and characteristics they share, since when reading we decode a message that comes from the spoken language and when writing we encode a message from the same language. In fact, it is usually common among teachers themselves to use the term literacy to refer to students' written language learning. However, it has been found that reading and writing involve different cognitive processes and that their learning does not occur identically in students. Initial literacy indicates that the acquisition of learning of writing takes place throughout an evolutionary process from the earliest ages, affirming that there is no clear moment when this learning is acquired. The purpose of this paper was to determine which variables facilitate the process of acquisition of writing in the first moments in which this learning is accessed, as well as to determine which moment is the most suitable for the development of this linguistic ability. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare groups with pre-test and post-test measurements. The study involved 224 students aged between 5 and 6 years of age. The results indicate that the development of oral language, phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge are relevant variables in the acquisition of writing when students make contact with the written code and that the age of 5 years is the most appropriate time for the explicit stimulation of the skills that facilitate the learning of the writing system. Keywords: writing, oral language, literacy, written language, text production.

Netcompetence – a sustainable need for the digitized working world and society

216 - 226

Jonas Gebhardt

Due to the effects of digitalization and globalization, as well as on- and offline networking, the working world and life are becoming more complex. The requirements on human learners of all ages and qualifications will rise. Basing on results of own scientific empiric researches on the day-to-day work of skilled workers (can be also named as specialised workers) and in the context of digitalization and the german-high-tech-strategy Industry 4.0 (ger.: Industrie 4.0) and cyber-physical systems, the construct of Netcompetence was further defined. Empiric observations and researches in the current and anticipated future working world makes it necessary to prepare humans to learn and reflect information of on- and offline networks, to enfold IT-competences as well for non-IT-qualified professions, to communicate interdisciplinary and international in on- and offline networks and to enlarge the operating with professional competences in on- and offline networks. Netcompetence is a human-centered need for the construction and didactisation for sustainable processes of education and lifelong learning. Keywords: digitization, Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems (CPS), future competence, Netcompetence, skilled work

Personal brand of scholars. Selected aspects

227 – 231

Jarosław Kinal

Personal brand is a set of associations and impressions in the heads and hearts of people, memories and past experiences that you have given them. It is what people say and think about you that you have some contact with. Each of us has a brand, but only a few of them manage it. And they do what they want. Brand building a personal reputation, affect the image, relationships and professional life. A good personal brand is desirable, valuable, credible, unique and indispensable. Caring for your personal brand is an effective competition with your own unique identity. Personal branding is about the long-term goals you want to achieve - for example, being a well-known expert in some field or establishing a personal branding business. Keywords: Scholars, Image, Public Relations, Personal Brand 

New Types of Writing Developed Via New Media

232 – 237

Hikmet Asutay

In this study, new types of writing that emerged with new media after 2000s will be discussed. Since the second half of the twentieth century, there have been rapid developments in mass media with transistor television and radio. From the eighties, with the progress and expansion of computer and the internet world and the increasing individualization of communication tools, it seems that the people's participation in sharing increases. As it is known, it started to be written and printed much more in the electronic media which appeared in 2000s and which developed very fast and especially in network environments. Blog writing, social media, chat rooms and so on can be just a few examples. Thanks to Android systems, mobile applications have emerged as well as many applications expected from a computer in a purely mobile environment and the computers have become comparable. Application, and shortly called Apps, offers many conveniences and innovations in almost every area and as an alternative to social sharing sites on the internet, WhatsApp chat / messaging application has emerged. This means that social networking networks are moved to mobile phones, which means that people cannot live without their mobile phones. All these technological developments have started to be used in education. In the context of this study, it will be mentioned about new and emerging types of writing and reading in terms of writing and reading activities we have discussed above. This includes apps that include a variety of writing and reading activities will be mentioned. In this frame, the literary-social movement named "Poem in Street" in the world of writing will be mentioned and the controversy of poetry will be discussed through the examples of rebirth in the new era. The basic viewpoint in this study is the new writing and reading activities and the emergence of a new understanding of literature or the reflections of technological developments to the world of literature and the readers. Keywords: Writing, reading and writing, the Internet, mobile applications, new media.

Family, educational and vocational situation of young adults with disabilities in Poland and UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

238 – 244

Agnieszka Żyta, Katarzyna Ćwirynkało and Urszula Bartnikowska

Persons with disabilities are people whose physical, psychological, intellectual condition permanently or temporarily limits or prevents everyday life, education, work and fulfillment of social roles. There are about 4.7 million people with different kinds of disabilities in Poland (12.2% of the population) (Skoczyńska- Prokopowicz, 2016). People with disabilities face major stigma and prejudice, although they form an important part of each society. In recent years, there has been a change in perception of possibilities and needs of people with disabilities in Poland. This improvement has not been seen in all aspects of everyday life of this group (e.g. job market, public life, some limitations connected with partial or full incapacitation). The Polish Constitution, as well as other legislation including UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD), provides a general protection from discrimination and exclusion and guarantees access to education, employment and care. There are some new organizational solutions that support people with disabilities (including those with an intellectual disability) and help them to participate in society as equal citizens. The education system and preparation to adulthood are a crucial stage to enable persons with disabilities to function as equal members of society with high quality of life. The article analyzes different aspects of family, educational and vocational situation of young adults with disabilities in Poland and shows main barriers, chances and recommendations to improve their access to social life according to assumptions of CPRD. There is still a need to develop a system of support and to improve cooperation between different entities like local government, educational bodies, employers, members of NGO and adults with disabilities. Keywords: Adults, Disability, CRPD, Support

Conceptual Mapping As An İnspiring Strategy Of Mathematical Lifelong Learning

245 – 249

Martina Uhlířová

The paper summarises our experiences with the concept mapping strategy in mathematical education and classroom experiences. Most pupils did not have any experience with the concept of concept mapping. It was a new idea for teachers as well. We were wondering whether future teachers of mathematics at primary school know the strategy of concept mapping and how they evaluate it. The paper deals with the preliminary results of the partial results ascertained in the research entitled ACPM (Attitudes Towards Concept Mapping in Mathematics), which was practiced in 2016 and 2017. This research was focused on student attitudes to the using of the concept mapping strategy for a better understanding of mathematical foundations. We believe that if future teachers accept concept mapping as a strategy that leads to a successful understanding of mathematical fundamentals generally, they will pass on this progressive method in the future teaching profession. Keywords: Mathematics, Learning, Teaching, Concept mapping, Prospective teachers

International cooperation in mathematical education between the Czech Republic and the Arab Republic of Egypt

250 – 254

Martina Uhlířová and Jitka Laitochová

This paper presents results of the research on mathematical literacy of pupils of the fifth year of primary schools in the Czech Republic and Egypt. A non-standardised didactic test for pupils of the 5th year of primary schools was created, containing ten mathematical problems with a choice of answers. In choosing tasks, due to the different socio-cultural environments in which pupils grow up in the participating countries, emphasis was placed on the clarity of the context of the tasks. The research results from the two countries are compared. An analysis of the success of individual tasks is done. The test was supplemented by a questionnaire survey to determine the subjective perception of the set of problems solved by pupils. The research survey brought interesting results. Although mathematics is universal in its nature, teaching mathematics, especially in elementary schools, is related to the social and cultural environment of the country. Keywords: Mathematical literacy, Didactic test, Primary mathematics 

Functional Thinking as a Part Of Mathematical Literacy In Lifelong Learning

255 – 261

Jitka Laitochová and Martina Uhlířová

The aim of the research was to find out how students of mathematics at the beginning of their Bachelor's degree program can use their knowledge and skills of learning about functions in solving problems with functional content, if the success of students in solving problems with functional content at all faculties of education in the Czech Republic is the same, to propose appropriate steps to increase the level of functional thinking of pupils and students, to determine the rate of success of the individual test tasks, to analyse the set of respondents, students of mathematics of the first year of university studies at the faculties of education at the beginning of the study. Quantitative research has been proposed to achieve these objectives. The research confirms the need to further develop problem-solving skills for students. Keywords: Mathematical literacy, Functional thinking, Non-standardised didactic test

Visual stimulation as one of the conditions for successful development of a child with visual impairment

262 – 267

Veronika Růžičková

The birth of a child with visual impairment, a sudden interference by a child's health condition that affects his visual function or the progression are circumstances that affect both the child himself and his family. The child is suddenly needed to approach differently. One of the important tasks for both parents and early care workers is the need to consider whether and how the vision and visual functions of the child can develop and then do so. The technique we are talking about is called visual stimulation, and we want to present it not only theoretically but also practically - from the perspective of the parents of children with visual impairment. The paper will present the results of an investigation carried out between parents of children / young people with severe visual and combined disability related to early care and related services - visual stimulation. Keywords: Child with visual impairment, visual stimulation, early intervention, family

Lifelong education of mathematics teachers in information and communication technologies

268 – 274

Květoslav Bártek, Jitka Laitochová and David Nocar

To form a more exact idea of the procedure, effectiveness, results and system of further / lifelong education of teachers in information and communication technologies (ICT), let us summarise selected results of several researches that dealt with this issue. A report of the Czech School Inspectorate describes the results of the TALIS2013 research (Kašparová, V., Boudová, S., Ševců, M. & Soukup, P., 2014), in which 34 countries of the OECD and partner countries participated, and which involved all Czech teachers at the ISCED2 level, i.e. the 2nd level of primary school and the lower years of six-year and eight-year grammar schools. Teachers in the Czech Republic mostly (65 %) participate in professional training focused on facts and knowledge in subjects that they teach; skills in the field of information and communication technologies (hereinafter referred to as ICT) necessary for teaching (53 %). Teachers in the Czech Republic are mostly aided in professional training by having the training financially covered in full (this fact was declared by 77 % of teachers); two-thirds of teachers also stated that they were given time off work. What teachers see as crucial is especially the need of specialist training in ICT skills, necessary for teaching (15 %); however, this result was below the TALIS average, which was about 19 % (see p. 29). As regards education in ICT as such, the evaluation of the effect of professional training on the teaching of teachers in the Czech Republic and on the international average (the percentage of teachers who stated that the relevant training had a positive or medium-positive influence) reached about 83 % in the case of ICT skills (which was a higher score than the TALIS average, which was around 80 %). But there is only 40 % (in international average) of teachers participated in TALIS, who stated that their students use ICT in teaching. So there is a large group of teachers, who are not inclined to use ICT and ready to use them in teaching (MŠMT, 2015).

Utilizing a systems management model to explore future leadership in early education

275 – 280

Patrice Farquharson and Michelle Beauchesne

Currently all children in the United States (U.S.) have access to free public education beginning in kindergarten or at the age of five years. However, research has shown that children who are afforded earlier formal preschool education experience multiple long-term benefits (Hard, 2011). Although many children attend preschool in the U.S., it is most often privately funded with limited publicly funded access. In 2013, Barack Obama, then President, proposed that all children have universal access to preschool, which is a significant change to early childhood education (ECE). The purpose of this study was to identify existing facilitators and barriers to implementing a systems wide change in the education of young children through conducting a comprehensive needs assessment in the State of Connecticut (CT). Keywords: Early childhood education, leadership