Data Collection Methods to Use in School Supervision and Supervision Areas

764-771

Süleyman Göksoy

This research aims to determine the data collection methods to use in school supervision and supervision areas. Case study method from qualitative research methods was used in the research. Data collection was carried out with interview and document examination methods. Purposeful sampling method was used in determining the working group of the research. The working group consists of 18 educators (4 school managers, 4 deputy managers, 10 teachers) who have been commissioned in Düzce Provincial Directorate for National Education. Virtual platform, document examination, observation and interview methods were constituted as data collection methods in school supervision and the following questions were posed to participants: Which areas can educational supervisors supervise using the information communication technologies (virtual platform) without coming to school? Which areas can educational supervisors supervise in schools using the documents examination? Which areas can educational supervisors supervise in schools using the observation or interview methods? The data were summarized and interpreted by descriptive analysis method according to previously determined themes. The following results were obtained in the research: Educational supervisors who are commissioned within The Ministry of National Education and are responsible for school supervision need to use the data collection methods ( a) information communication technologies (virtual platform), b) documents examination, c) observation and interview methods) in a system integrity in school supervision. In this way, educational supervisors can benefit from multiple data resources through documents examination, observation and interview both in distance and in school. As a result, they can carry out their counseling, leadership, consultancy responsibilities in higher quality.

Keywords: School, school supervision and supervision areas

Teacher Candidates’ Opinions about Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education

772-778

Pınar Bağçeli Kahraman, Gönül Onur Sezer

Teachers, who raise future generations, are expected to indigenize certain themes such as social justice, critical thinking, reducing prejudices, fighting against discrimination, strengthening intercultural diversity, human rights, democracy and equality of opportunities. This research is about knowledge levels of preschool and classroom teacher candidates about multiculturalism and multicultural education and it asks them whether they would practice multicultural education or not. Survey Method was used in this reseach. The sample of the research was formed through random sampling. The sample of the research was formed of Classroom (N=113) and Preschool (N=106) teacher candidates. The data of the research was collected through a questionnaire that is formed of three open-ended questions to determine the opinions of teacher candidates about multiculturalism and multicultural education. The related body of literature was scanned and open-ended questions were formed within the scope of research objectives. Three expert opinions were taken to validate the questionnaire and it took its final shape in accordance with these expert opinions. There are questions in the questionnaire to determine the opinions of teacher candidates about multiculturalism, multicultural education and their capacities to practice this multicultural education. The data was analyzed through descriptive analysis method. The descriptive analysis was implemented in four stages. In the first stage, the data was read by researchers and draft codes were built. Draft codes were combined and themes were created in the second stage. Then themes and codes were reorganized in order to make them easier for readers to understand. In the last stage, findings obtained were presented in tables as frequencies and percentages. In order to increase the internal reliability of the research data, the data was recoded individually by two researchers and then two researchers came together to examine the consistency between analyses. General agreement coefficient between researchers was determined to be .78. When the answers of teacher candidates to the question “Define multiculturalism concept?” were examined, it was seen that opinions fell under two different themes; in terms of individuals and Society. It was determined that classroom and preschool teacher candidates define multiculturalism as to know about different cultures in terms of individuals and various cultures living together in terms of society.When the answers of teacher candidates to the question “What does multiculturalism mean to you?” were examined, it was seen that opinions fell under two different themes; in terms of education and in terms of Teacher/Student. Classroom and preschool teacher candidates define multicultural education as an education with various cultural values.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, multicultural education, preschool and classroom teacher.

More Girls to Choose Engineering as a Major: Perspectives from “Honey Bees are Becoming Engineers” Project

779-788

Ezgi Pehlivanlı Kadayifci, Esra Gedik

The situation of women in fields related to natural sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is one of the significant research topics of the 2000s. The main argument behind this agenda is that some professions traditionally considered to be suitable for women and some for men, due to gender stereotypes. It is also argued that provided the necessary social and economic conditions, women can accomplish as well as men do in mentioned fields. Engineering is one of these professions which is traditionally attributed to men. On the basis of these, the purpose of this study is to determine the factors that influence the choices of female students in high school as they choose engineering as a profession. The data set of this research is collected through a series of high school visits within the course of a project called Honey Bees are Becoming Engineers. We conducted surveys with 420 tenth grade female students in six high schools from selected cities of Turkey. As a result, we argue that female students do not choose to study engineering because of gendered prejudices and gendered stereotypes regarding engineering education and when their perspective change with a positive encouragement, they might consider choosing to engineer as a profession.

Keywords: Engineering, gender stereotypes, female students, high schools, Turkey.

Teacher Supervision (Teacher Supervision and Evaluation System)

789-797

Süleyman Göksoy

Supervision in educational system is a tool that enables the educational system to give qualitative products by developing the teaching-learning process, rather than the act of detecting and reporting a situation. The aim of contemporary educational supervision is to take necessary precautions for the evaluation of the process embracing the all items that affect the teaching-learning process. The current research aims to develop the supervision of teachers and to improve the quality of the teaching-learning process by synthesizing the opinions, suggestions, applications of educators and their academic works. In this way, developing a teacher supervision evaluation model and implementing it to the educational system are determined. In this research, case study method from qualitative research methods will be used. Case study method mostly has the features of qualitative research methods, therefore it provides thoroughly analysis of the subject. Posing the questions of “what, how, why” while studying a variety of educational subjects is a frequently used method. The following questions will be studied in the frame of ‘five n and one h’ concerning the general aim of the research; why it should be done, how it should be done, when it should be done, where it should be done, what should be regarded and to what extend they should be sone, who should do it. The following steps will be followed in creating an effective teacher supervision and evaluation structure: Educators and educational managers will be interviewed. The data will be organized after analyzing the literature and legislations. The model of teacher supervision and evaluation will be formed. After teacher supervision and evaluation model will be created and reported. Scientific publications (notice and article) including the analysis of the qualitative data will be done.

Keywords: Teacher, School, Supervision, Evaluation

Analysis of the Effects of Theorem Proving with Mathematical Models on the Proving Skills of the Students Studying in the Department of Teaching Elementary Mathematics

798-810

Alper Çiltaş, Kübra Yılmaz

In the present study, we aimed to analyse the effects of theorem proving with mathematical models on the proving ability of the students. In this regard, a study was conducted with 45 second-grade students currently studying in the Department of Teaching Elementary Mathematics during 2014-2015 academic year. Case study method was used in the study. Research data was collected via Mathematical Skill Test. In the data analysis, percentage and frequency tables and descriptive analyses were employed. As a result of the data analysis, it was seen that students did not know and were not able to prove in the pre-test. However, in the final test, it was observed that students were able to prove the theorems based on the mathematical models more easily, and they also improved their proving skills. In this study, case study method has been applied. McMillan (2000) defines case studies a method in which one or more cases, environments, programmes, social groups or other interconnected systems are analysed in depth. In one-group pre-test and final test model, an independent variable is applied to a group and measurements are taken before and after the application.45 second-grade students from Atatürk University Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education Department of Teaching Elementary Mathematics in 2014-2015 academic year constitute the research group. This test has been applied as pre-test and final test in order to analyse the effects of theorem proving with mathematical models on students' proving skills. Answers of the students have been classified into five categories as "empty", "false", "partially correct", "partially false" and "correct" via descriptive analysis and percentage and frequency has been applied in the analysis.When the proofs of the three theorem were considered in general, it was observed that students could not prove the theorems in the pre-test and many of them did not even want to try to prove it, therefore left it empty.

Keywords: mathematical proof, theorem, mathematical model, elementary mathematics

The Relationship between Prospective Teachers’ Readiness and Satisfactions About Internet-Based Distance Education

811-821

Duygu Saniye Öztürk, Faruk Öztürk, Raşit Özen

Distance education is a kind of education in which learner and teacher communicate through a means either simultaneously or at different times being present in different places. In this study, it is aimed to determine the prospective teachers’ readiness and satisfaction levels after the procedure related with the courses which they take through distance education. Descriptive survey model is used in the study. The study was conducted with 261 undergraduate students who took some of the courses distantly in diverse undergraduate programs in the faculty of education at Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu-Turkey and 232 students of pedagogical formaion in the same faculty. The study group consisted of 493 prospective teachers. In the study, “e-Readiness Scale” and “e-Satisfaction Scale” by Gülbahar (2012) were used as data collection instruments. As a result, the levels of readiness and satisfaction from internet based distance education of prospective teachers was found to be above the mean score. Readiness levels according to the sub dimensions of the Readiness Scale are generally positive; however, prospective teachers think that they are equipped in the subjects including the sub dimensions of “technical skills” and “factors that affect success”. It was determined that prospective teachers are generally satisfied with the subjects related to all the sub dimensions of the Satisfaction Scale. It was revealed that there is a meaningful relationship between readiness and satisfaction levels. The readiness and satisfaction levels of the prospective teachers having pedagogical formation education were higher when compared to those of the prospective teachers of education faculty. The department having the highest readiness and satisfaction levels was History-Geography department.

Keywords: Internet-Based Distance Education, e-readiness, e-satisfaction, Online Learning, Prospective Teacher

The Relationship between Anxiety, Motivation, Self-Efficacy Beliefs Towards English Class and Class Success

822-832

Özlem Karakış, Süleyman Çelenk

The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between English language learning anxiety, motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and English class success of high school students. The sample of the present study consisted of 1505 high school students, studying at 9, 10, 11 and 12th grades in a city located in Black Sea region of Turkey. The data regarding the students’ English language learning anxiety were collected through “Foreign Language Learning Anxiety Scale” developed by Horwitz, Horwitz ve Cope (1986); the data regarding the students’ foreign language motivation were collected through subscales called “Motivational Intensity, Desire to Learn English, Attitudes toward Learning English and Instrumental Orientation” of “The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB)” developed by Gardner (1985); the data regarding the students’ foreign language self-efficacy beliefs were collected through subscale called “Self-efficacy” of “Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)” developed by Pintrinch and De Groot (1990). Students’ grades in relation to English classes were obtained by the researcher with the assistance of vice principals of the schools. The results of the present study demonstrated that; (1) students’ anxiety towards English class, motivation, self-efficacy belief levels and English language class academic achievement did not differ according to their school type, gender, class level, parents’ educational status, whether there is someone in the family (mother, father, sibling) who knows English or not, how many hours they study English on average in a week and the monthly income of the family. (2) students’ English class achievement average was 69,04. In other words, English academic achievement of students was slightly above average. (3) students’ anxiety towards English class, motivation and self-efficacy belief levels were high. (4) all correlations between students’ anxiety towards English class, motivation, self-efficacy belief levels and English language class academic achievement were statistically significant but weak at both .05 and 0.01 level. (5) correlation between students’ Social Desirability subscale scores, total scores of Social Desirability Scale and other scales was low and students were not under the influence of social desirability while answering the scale questions. (6) students’ anxiety towards English class affected their English class academic achievement directly most and indirectly self-efficacy belief and motivation towards English class affected their English class academic achievement respectively. Suggestions based on the data obtained in this study can be summarized as follows; (1)In the present study, that there was a meaningful relationship between English course success and anxiety towards English course, motivation, self-efficacy belief was determined. Thus, despite students’ high level of anxiety towards English course, improving their English course success can be provided by increasing their motivation and self-efficacy beliefs towards the course. (2)In the present study, students’ anxiety towards English course, motivation and self-efficacy beliefs were identified as indicative of English course success. Such an approach limits casual implications as this study had a relational pattern. Therefore, longitudinal and / or experimental research that will be done in the future may reveal important results in terms of allowing the causal inferences about it.

Keywords: Anxiety Towards English Class, Motivation Towards English Class, Self-efficacy Beliefs Towards English Class, English Class Achievement, High School Students

Metaphoric Perceptions of Private Schools Employee Teachers about Concepts of Supervision and Supervisor

833-846

Salih Paşa Memişoğlu, Ayça Kaya

The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of private school employee teachers about the concepts of supervision and supervisor via metaphors. Within this context similarities and differences of the perceptions of private school employee teachers have been revealed; suggestions about review and reevaluation of the concepts supervision and supervisor have been presented on a scientific basis. This study, conducted with the pattern of phenomenology a qualitative research design, has a working group determined with snowball sampling one of purposeful sampling methods and consisted of 100 teachers working in private schools in cities Sakarya and Kocaeli in 2015-2016 academic year. Data has been collected with a semi-structured form consisting of expressions such as “Supervision is like... Because supervisor is like… Because…” Metaphors used by teachers and their reasons are analyzed with content analysis method. According to the results of the study; the concept of supervision has been expressed with 75 different metaphors while concept of supervisor has been expressed with 71 different metaphors. Metaphors for supervision have been gathered under 7 categories while metaphors of the concept supervisor have been gathered under 11 categories. Participants have perceived supervision mostly as correction and development and supervisor mostly as advisor. It’s also determined that participants’ perceptions of supervision and supervisor are generally positive.

Keywords: Supervision, Supervisor, Metaphor, Private School Teacher

The Features of Female and Male School Principals in Turkey

847-858

Emine Babaoğlan

The purpose of this research is to specify the features of female and male school principals comparatively. The study is a qualitative research. In the study, interviews were done with 25 female and 25 male school principals from different cities of Turkey and the data was analyzed with content analysis. It is determined that male and female principals have similar specialties on the themes; individual characteristics, human relations and communication, being development-oriented, diligence, leadership and professional competence, in the research. Male principals emphasize the themes of democratic management, student-centeredness, worker centeredness and being encouraging/ incentive more than female principals; whereas female principals emphasize motivation more than male principals. In the study, it came to light that the features of successful male and female principals are: justice-fairness, determination, reliability, tolerance, self-confidence, honesty, well-communication, giving value to people, empathy, self-development, owning a vision, openness to change, democratic management, team-group work, diligence, disciplined-planned work, being skilled for the job, leadership, model behavior, loving students, promoting student activities, orienting student success, professional skills, knowing laws and regulations, giving motivation, rewarding achievements, encouraging/ being-incentive and love of the job. In addition, male principals emphasize justice-fairness, democratic-participative management, orienting student success and giving motivation more; while female principals emphasize determination, information exchange and disciplined-planned work more. It was determined that successful male and female principals have more common features than different ones, and their competence were at the same level.

Keywords: Successful principal, female principal, male principal, gender, school principal.

Teacher Capacity Building in The Context of International Partnership: Metaphors, Models and Prospects

859-867

Ligita Grigule, Rita Skara-Mincane

In Latvia, in a very brief period of time, a transition from being an aid-recipient to an aid-donor country has taken place, and education is one of the fields for sharing experience and providing support. The article deals with the University of Latvia (UL) scholars’ experience of providing their expertise, knowledge and resources and facilitating education reforms, particularly multilingual education, in Eastern Europe and Central Asia countries. The article reports the results of the qualitative research conducted in the consultancy framework. The article aims at exploring the main aspects of action for the teacher education and professional development and methods for evaluating the impact and opportunities that international consultants can bring to development cooperation to ensure efficient and sustainable changes. One of the most important aspects for Latvian scholars who are involved in teacher education events in the development countries is a need for valid evaluation methods of effectiveness of the proposed knowledge and skills. The four level Kirkpatrick's evaluation model and application of the methodologies approbated at UL, Faculty of Education, Psychology and Art study program “Teacher” were explored in order to monitor the effectiveness of training. Particular analysis is devoted to metaphor creation and investigation. The metaphor grouping examines in some depth the diversity of skills, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and attributes that the teachers who are part of the education reform and should be able to cope with the challenges of the teaching currently possess. Qualitative research tools and techniques proved to be very useful from both: the training and the research perspective and have been further investigated and used as content for teacher education and professional development. The study proposes the further direction in international partnership.

Keywords: international consultancy, multilingual and multicultural education, teacher capacity building, programme evaluation

A Study on the Effects of Creativity Training Program on the Creative Behaviors of Preschool Children

868-874

Zeynep Dere, Esra Ömeroğlu

This study aims to explore effects of creativity training program on the creative behaviors of preschool children. In this study, quasi experimental design has been used as pretest-posttest control group experimental design. Study group consisted of 30 children in total who were students in two separate nursery classes, 16 in experimental group and 16 in control group. Creative Behavior Observation Form was applied to both groups as preliminary and final assessment. A secondary observer was assigned for video recording and assessment of the activities in full. Creative Training Program which consisted of 36 activities to support creative thinking of the children in the experimental group was applied 3 days a week for 12 weeks by the researcher. Control group students were applied Preschool Education Program (2013) by their teacher. Creative Behavior Observation Form was used also to determine retention of Creativity Training Program. Behaviors of the children were separately assessed in the Creative Behavior Observation Form by a secondary observer. Paired sample t-test was used in order to determine if there are significant differences between pre-assessment and final assessment obtained from observation form of the experimental and control group; independent sample t-test was used in order to determine if there are any differences between pre-assessment mean of the experimental and control groups. ANCOVA analysis was used to compare final assessment mean obtained from pre-assessment results of the experimental and control groups with significant differences. Consistency between primary and secondary observer was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Significance level was identified as p<.05 for all the analysis throughout the study. Creativity mean of the children involved in Creativity Training Program is significantly higher than the children in the control group. Results of retention test indicate that Creativity Training Program is still effective.

Keywords: Preschool education, creativity, creativity training, creative behavior observation form.

Text-Formation in The Context of Cultural Studies

875-882

Indra Kalnina, Elita Balčus

The time when Latvian schools were mono-ethnic has gone, as different nationality students, each with his awareness and emotional attitude, study in our schools. If the same teaching methods are used as 50 years ago, the academic results will not be successful. The teacher with his vision and desire to change the learning process and change himself with his values orientation and knowledge can build a future human - free from stereotypes and prejudices against the other. The term "multicultural class" has entered our school perceived as a class which has multinational students and a cultural studies program which includes: Knowledge of other cultures, Awareness of one’s own culture, Tolerance towards other cultures. The task of cultural studies is to discover, learn and understand the mental code of an unknown nation to tolerate its differences. Knowledge of other people's cultural heritage creates this awareness. We need immersion and to look for answers to the questions which we even do not sense at the beginning of the process. The article aims to look at various examples of cultural study texts which allow the cognition process to take place naturally and change the linear approach to the more dimensional. When students themselves put forward questions and find solutions, they advance their understanding and create a conscious working style. Activities that contribute to this process will be offered in the article.

Keywords: cross-cultural education, hypertext, the storyline method.

The Effect of Mistake-Handling Activities in Mathematics Education: Example of Proof

883-898

Solmaz Damla Gedik, Alper Cihan Konyalıoğlu

The purpose of this study is identifying the effect of mistake-handling activities applied on the subject of proof which would be accepted as mathematics content knowledge of the teachers over the progress of the teachers about the proof. The applications of mistake-handling activities (MHA) were realized with a group composed of 5 teachers intended for this purpose based on voluntariness. The data collection tools as “getting written reflection”, “semi-structured face-to-face interview”and “diaries” were used in the study. The focus group discussions were realized during the application progress and application was colored by arguments. The acquired data were analyzed by document review method and codes, categories and themes were identified. The findings obtained showed that; Mistake-handling activities applications result some affective affirmativenesses as; increasing the relevance and curiosity of the teachers, critical thinking, self-reliance, awareness, different point of view and some cognitive affirmativeness as distinguishing the deficiencies, understanding the importance of theorems expression and proofs using them.

Keywords: mistake-handling activities(mha), proof, mathematics content knowledge, mathematics teacher

Senior Education and Acquisition of a Hobby

899-906

Arzu Arslan, Merve Karanfil, Osman Titrek

Demographic changes which are observed around the world have reached to an apparent position in Turkey, as well. In the context of these changes, it is inevitable that the quality of youth society will turn into the quality of aged society. Turkey will be an aged society ahead by staying connected to these changes. The quick increment in elderly population makes a trend toward the quality of aged society, the sustenance requirement against the difficulties of longevity, to be dealed with eld issues and its services in all its parts, and especially the necessity of giving importance to the advanced age education a current issue. In this day and age, the policies and programs about elderliness stays focused on increasing life quality and general state of health. Lifetime length, biological and mental healthiness, cognitive and social sufficiency and performance, self-control, and getting pleasure out of life are indicators of healthy aging. Individuals’ growing older healthfully, closely associated with not only their individual features but also socially provided service supports towards psychosocial, economic and physical. The perspective toward aging, beyond providing care to old people, some subjects should be discussed such as integration with society, gaining missing status and roles again, increasing functions, and utilizing free time effectively. Furthermore; it has importance to take the perspective of aging much further from the frame of conventional values of respect and protection dimensions; to extending active aging awareness. In this assertion, it is focused on providing education and service to group of elder age and it is observed that there is an increment in committed practices last years. Especially in metropolis municipalities, the dilated courses which are about the advanced age education present the improvement clearly, and trying to transmit all these related innovations to the society which includes elder population draws the attention, as well. However; these kind of opportunities can not be extended sufficiently so it is perceived as a huge deficiency, and the necessity of increasing the advanced age education services is emphasized. The method of this study is statistical compilation. According to the statistical data which shows the situation of Turkey and European Union’s elder people’s training, it is tried to reveal the situation of Turkey and European Union’s hobby and advanced age education to old people. According to the situation which is presented comparatively, the subject will be discussed by means of the essential comments and outcomes and suggestions will be enhanced.

Keywords: Lifelong, Senior Education, Hobby Education, EU and Turkey

Senior Education and Acquisition of a Hobby

907-914

Osman Titrek, Arzu Arslan, Merve Karanfil

Demographic changes which are observed around the world have reached to an apparent position in Turkey, as well. In thecontext of these changes, it is inevitable that the quality of youth society will turn into the quality of aged society. Turkey willbe an aged society ahead by staying connected to these changes. The quick increment in elderly population makes a trendtoward the quality of aged society, the sustenance requirement against the difficulties of longevity, to be dealed with eldissues and its services in all its parts, and especially the necessity of giving importance to the advanced age education acurrent issue. In this day and age, the policies and programs about elderliness stays focused on increasing life quality andgeneral state of health. Lifetime length, biological and mental healthiness, cognitive and social sufficiency and performance,self-control, and getting pleasure out of life are indicators of healthy aging. Individuals’ growing older healthfully, closelyassociated with not only their individual features but also socially provided service supports towards psychosocial, economicand physical. The perspective toward aging, beyond providing care to old people, some subjects should be discussed such asintegration with society, gaining missing status and roles again, increasing functions, and utilizing free time effectively.Furthermore; it has importance to take the perspective of aging much further from the frame of conventional values of respectand protection dimensions; to extending active aging awareness.In this assertion, it is focused on providing education and service to group of elder age and it is observed that there is anincrement in committed practices last years. Especially in metropolis municipalities, the dilated courses which are about theadvanced age education present the improvement clearly, and trying to transmit all these related innovations to the societywhich includes elder population draws the attention, as well. However; these kind of opportunities can not be extendedsufficiently so it is perceived as a huge deficiency, and the necessity of increasing the advanced age education services isemphasized.The method of this study is statistical compilation. According to the statistical data which shows the situation of Turkey andEuropean Union’s elder people’s training, it is tried to reveal the situation of Turkey and European Union’s hobby andadvanced age education to old people. According to the situation which is presented comparatively, the subject will bediscussed by means of the essential comments and outcomes and suggestions will be enhanced.

Keywords: Lifelong, Senior Education, Hobby Education, Eu and Turkey

The Profile of Secondary Education in Province of Bolu

915-924

Türkan Argon, Şenay Sezgin Nartgün

The aim of this study is to present the educational profile of high school level in Province of Bolu and determine to what extent the qualitative objectives put forward in 10th Development Plan were achieved. It was conducted in descriptive survey model and the population of the study consists of qualitative data (2014-2016) on high schools in province of Bolu. The data was obtained from the documents of 10th Development Plan, Bolu Provincal Directorate of National Education, Turkish Statistical Institution and related web sites. To analyze the data, frequencies and percentages were calculated. The enrollment ratio was based on gross enrollment ratio and all the data was presented in tables. Also, document review technique was utilized to examine the related written resources. The results of the study showed that the goal of 30 or less students in per classroom which was set in 10th Development Plan was achieved. The entrance ratio to university is 42.67 % in 2015-2016 educational years. There is a decrease in number of students in Seben and Kıbrısçık, the districts of Bolu. This has an influence on schools. There is a imbalance in terms of student, teacher and school numbers and ratios in Bolu district.

Keywords: Province of Bolu, secondary education, development plan.

Entrepreneurship Education in Sports

32 – 35

Julide Inozu and F. Zeynep Dinç

Media Image if Ederly People in Poland

36– 41

Jarosław Kinal and Dorota Rynkowska

Modern society is becoming an aging society. At present, this process is strongly dynamic, and demographic indicators indicate that this trend will intensify in the near future. It is a process that leads to huge transformations in many areas of life - politics, economy, culture, education, medical care, the media, and ultimately the future of all of us. Older people are often perceived by others as weak, insecure, alone, dissatisfied with life, abandoning participation in social life. These are the first symptoms leading to the marginalization and social exclusion of this category of persons. This may be due to a lack of knowledge about the functioning of the elderly, stereotypes or prejudices, as well as their image in the media. In the social sense, often mediated by the media old age and old man is the object of embarrassment, the sense of danger, which is reflected in senseless euphemisms. The aim of this article is to try to present the image of a senior and his social functioning in the media and social space. Keywords: old age, senior, image, media, ageism 

Concept of friendship among Russian university students in the Czech Republic

42 – 48

Tereza Janečková and Martina Cichá

The study is concerned with the perception and experience of the phenomenon of friendship among Russian university students in the Czech Republic, considering its relation to the complex context of their life and adaptation to the mainstream Czech society. The research problem is approached from a combination of sociological, psychological, anthropological as well as cognitive-linguistic perspectives. The main research questions focus on the perception and experience of friendship among young representatives of the Russian minority in the Czech Republic and the meaning attributed to this phenomenon in the participants’ lives with a special emphasis on the context of living and studying abroad. The study is based on an original qualitative research, conducted as an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The data were obtained via in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed in accordance with the IPA methodology with respect to the whole context of the participants’ lives. Keywords: Russians, University students, Linguistic anthropology, Cognitive linguistics, Friendship, Identity, Multicultural Education. 

Forums and The Reflection on Teaching/Learning The Mother Tongue: Conceptions of Students

27 – 31

Cristina Manuela Sá

Students’ conceptions on the teaching/learning process influence the way they learn. In a course we teach in a second cycle of studies of Bologna, they must engage in two on line discussion forums to co-construct knowledge on essential topics concerning the teaching of the mother tongue and deliver an individual essay, one of the topics being the expression of their views on their contribution to their training. To determine how these students conceive the teaching/learning process and the role ICT play in it and to discuss their probable consequences, we selected relevant phrases/sentences in the essays and submitted them to content analysis, concluding that they have a very traditional conception of the teaching/learning process, which prevents them from taking profit of an organization that places them at the center of it and affects negatively their ability to propose this kind of interaction to their future pupils. Keywords: Teacher education; Mother tongue; Conceptions; ICT.

Czech Schools in Croatia and Their Importance For Preserving Czech National Identity

49 – 55

Jana Máčalová and Andrea Preissová Krejčí

The study deals with evaluation of the importance of Czech schools in Croatia for the local expatriate community, specifically for preservation of the Czech national identity abroad. The aim of the study is to provide a description of educational reality in Czech schools in Croatia and consequently explore the potential of using gathered data in the process of improvement the quality of education, both with regard to the needs of the Czech minority and the preservation of its national and cultural identity. The research seeks to discover whether there are any specific educational needs of children belonging to the Czech national minority in the context of cultural models of education in Croatia and Czech schools in Croatia and what is the role of the Czech language in the process of maintaining the Czech identity. The study is based on field study conducted in Croatia in 2016 via qualitative research methods (interviews with Czech teachers and other compatriots). The research results pointed out the significant role of bilingualism as an integral part of participants' identity. However, there is a strong tendency identified by Czech minority members to prefer the Croatian language in everyday communication at Czech schools. The representatives seek to create measures that would contribute to preservation of the Czech identity in Croatia in future generations. The anti-assimilation tendency applied in Czech minority education in Croatia is mainly of a language character. This condition results in emphasizing the need to formulate and implement a new objective - development of the Czech language competencies of the teaching staff. Keywords: Czech minority, Croatia, Bilingualism, Minority education, Multicultural education 

Reflection on Cultural Diversity in Czech Schools

56 - 63

Andrea Preissová Krejčí and Martina Cichá

The study aims to explore the value orientation among the representatives of Czech educational system – teachers and students – and their attitudes towards cultural minorities in order to get an overview about the perception of heterogeneity in contemporary Czech society, specifically focused on the status and perspectives of multicultural education. The data was gathered by the researchers’ own questionnaire combining closed-ended, half-open and open format questions, sometimes giving respondents the possibility to substantiate their other answers. The acquired data were primarily processed through the statistical methods of the SPSS program, however, during the open-ended questions analysis, we also used some qualitative methods such as open coding and categorization. Teachers and students are influenced by their mutual interaction, which is why we came to the conclusion that effective multicultural education is important for both groups. Unfortunately, accepting the ideas of multiculturalism that are very distant to the Czech society and particularly the acceptance through the pedagogical process is going to be a long-term process. Keywords: Diversity, Culture, Multicultural education, Values, Attitudes

The role of social capital and cultural capital in the process of lifelong learning

64 – 71

Hubert Kotarski

This paper presents the results of sociological quantitative research conducted in south-eastern Poland on a sample of 2,500 respondents. The purpose of this article is to confront the theory of cultural capital and social capital social reality in crossborder regions of the south-eastern part of Poland, with particular emphasis on the role played by the process of lifelong education. This confrontation will include both theoretical reflection on the nature, focusing on the problem of the application of the theory of cultural capital and social capital to describe societies of the south-eastern part of Poland. The specific objective of the paper is to analyze the concept of cultural capital and social capital as a factor of computers skills and language skills inhabitants of Poland. The present paper is an attempt to reflect on the role of social capital and cultural capital in the process of formation and functioning of the knowledge society. In the theoretical paper will be appealed to the role of social capital and cultural capital in contemporary society. The paper will be to establish the classic manuscripts of: Pierre Bourdieu, Robert Putnam , James Coleman or Francis Fukuyama , raising the problem of social capital and cultural capital. The concepts of social capital and cultural capital are today one of the most frequently raised concepts in the social sciences dealing with the changes taking place in the modern world. Social capital is a frequently discussed in the literature and examined empirically, factors affecting the formation , operation and development of the knowledge society. Keywords: Social capital, Cultural capital, Computer skills, Language skills, Knowledge society.

Effects of Multi-Learning Environments on Student Attitudes in Social Studies Courses

72 - 85

Ramazan Bulut and Hakki Yazici

The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of multi-learning environments on student attitudes in social studies courses.The study also deals with the student views about social studies courses which are delivered through multi –learning environments. The study has both qualitative and quantitative research questions to achieve these goals. The quantitative research question of the study is as follows: “Do pre- and post-test scores of the experimental and control group students significantly vary?”. The qualitative research question is as follows: “what are the views of the students about the social studies courses which are delivered through multi-learning environments?”. The study was designed as a sequential explanatory research, which is part of mixed research methods. In the sequential explanatory design the first part is qualitative implementation. Then the qualitative part is constructed based on the findings obtained from the quantitative data. The participants of the study were the fifth-grade students attending two sections of a public secondary school in Afyon. Their pre-test scores did not significantly vary. The quantitative data obtained were analysed using percentage, frequency, the Mann Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The findings showed that there was no statistically significant differences between pre-test attitude scores of experimental students and those of control students. The pre-test attitude scores of both groups were found to be “high”. The post-scores of the participants showed that social studies courses which were delivered through multi-learning environments positively influenced students’ attitudes towards socials studies courses. This effect was found to be statistically insignificant. The qualitative findings showed that more than the half of the participants reported that social studies courses which were delivered through multi-learning environments positively affected their interest in the courses. It was also found that the participants liked social studies courses which were delivered through multilearning environments and that the most interesting part of the courses for them was the use of animations. Keywords: Multi-Learning Environments, Student attitudes, Social studies

Interaction in university classrooms in Spain

86 – 97

Carmen Alvarez

Research has shown the advantages of interaction and dialogue-based teaching in classrooms. However, in Spain, it is still only used in a minority of cases. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of interaction as a teaching-learning method in Higher Education. An exploratory study was carried out based on fifty in-depth interviews with students from all fields of knowledge from two Spanish universities. The results show that the usual teaching methods in Spanish universities are expository in nature, whereas teaching-learning through interaction takes place only sporadically. It can be concluded that there is an urgent need to introduce interaction-based teaching-learning practices in Spanish universities: students demand a methodological change, and those who have had some interactive experiences stated that they thoroughly enjoyed them, were more involved in their studies, further deepened their learning, and obtained better results. Keywords: Learning interaction, University teaching, educational debate, oral language.