The Effect of Feedback in English Language Education

533-547

Nuriye Semerci

The significance of English Language within the world, as well as in Turkey, reveals the importance of language teaching and evaluation techniques within the learning-teaching process. Through the whole process, feedback is claimed to hold an important place as it forms the basis for understanding the missing aspect of learning-teaching process. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of feedback on the students’ success in grammar and writing skills. For this purpose, 36 students were taken into the analysis –19 being the experimental group and 17 being the control group. The students were given a pre and post-test on their grammatical skills, and a post-test on their writing skills. In between the pre and post-tests the students went through a process in which they did some writing practices on some specific grammar topics they were tested on, and the experimental group took feedback during this process while the control group didn’t. As a result, the variables collected through the pre and post tests were analyzed through non-parametric tests MWU and Wilcoxon. Finally, the results of the study revealed that feedback wasn’t effective on the students’ overall success in grammar as well as writing.

Keywords: Feedback, English Language, English Language Education

Effects of Tourism Students' Optimist-Pessimist Features on their Leisure Satisfactions and Interpersonal Relations

548-558

Gülseren Yurcu, Zeki Akıncı

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of optimistic and pessimistic characteristics of tourism students, who will determine the future of the tourism sector, on their psychological, social and physiological leisure satisfaction and empathy, emotion awareness and trust in others, in interpersonal relationships. A quantitative survey was applied to 378 tourism faculty students. Data analysis results show us that the scales that were used are highly reliable, and that there is a positive correlation of optimistic characteristics to psychological, physiological, and social leisure satisfaction, but there is a negative correlation of pessimistic characteristics to psychological, physiological, and social leisure satisfaction, optimistic characteristics have positive correlation to empathy, but negative correlation to social leisure satisfaction, pessimistic characteristics have positive correlation to emotion awareness and trust in others, but negative correlation to empathy, physiological leisure satisfaction have positive correlation to empathy, but negative correlation to trust in others and emotion awareness, social leisure satisfaction has positive correlation to empathy and emotion awareness, but negative correlation to trust in others. It was also revealed that optimistic characteristics affect social satisfaction, pessimistic characteristics affect psychological satisfaction most widely, psychological satisfaction affects empathy positively, but trust in others negatively, social satisfaction affects empathy positively, but trust in others negatively, psychological leisure satisfaction has positive correlation to empathy and emotion awareness, but negative correlation to trust in others, optimistic characteristics affect empathy positively but trust in others negatively, pessimistic characteristics affect empathy negatively but trust in others positively, and pessimistic characteristics affect emotion awareness most widely.

Keywords: Optimist-Pessimist Feature, Leisure Satisfaction, Interpersonal Relation, Tourism Student

Attachment Need and Fear of Loneliness in Close Relationships

559-571

Neslihan Yaman, Simel Parlak, Feride Öksüz Gül

The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between attachment need in close/romantic relationships and fear of loneliness. The study is designed according to mixed research approach. Quantitative and qualitative research instruments were used respectively. Firstly Experience in Close relationships Inventory (ECR) and Adult Separation Anxiety Survey (ASA) were applied to 200 adult individuals aged between 25-35. In the second phase, 30 interviews were conducted with voluntary participants. Data gathered through quantitative and qualitative instruments were interpreted and evaluated together. Independent Samples T-test and Pearson Correlation analyses were conducted for examining quantitative data. Significant difference was found in ASA questionnaire and avoidance dimension of ECR Inventory scores between the groups formed according to gender, relationship status and relationship history. And also, significant differences were detected in both dimensions of ECR and ASA scores between participants who experienced fear of losing someone during a relationship and who did not. Pearson correlation analysis shows that there is a significant relationship between ASA questionnaire and anxiety dimension ECR Inventory. There is also positive and significant relationship between anxiety and avoidance dimensions of ECR. In qualitative phase, phenomenological research design was used. The analysis shows that participants have the fear of losing their partners and family members. Besides, they associated their fear of loneliness with leaving home and being abandoned by parents. Meanings attributed to presence of a partner consist of four themes: safety, sharing life, joy and love. Another finding indicates that absence of a partner leads to feeling incomplete, not being worthy of love and loneliness. Some participants described absence of a partner as a positive process. Possible feelings attributed to hypothetical ending of current relationship are expressed in seven themes: incompleteness, fear, unhappiness, relief, hopefulness for future, disappointment and loss of trust. Loneliness and attachment processes in relationships are not only related to each other, but also they may have significant roles in close relationships. It is suggested to consider dynamics of these concepts and help individuals develop through therapeutic interventions in order to strengthen close relationships, which can deeply affect individuals’ existence in personal and social mental health.

Keywords: Attachment Need, Close Relationships, Fear of Loneliness.

Values and Future Challenges of Children’s Socialization in the Family

572-582

Alida Samusevica, Blazma Vikmane

Socialization in the family is an essential condition and mechanism for the child‟s personality development. Each person‟s life experience, acquisition of social norms and values are based on the daily habits in the family, mutual relationship, communication and interaction. The ideal in upbringing is constructive socialization. Constructive socialization as a targeted personal life activity, and based on generally accepted values, both ensure and promote individual‟s inclusion in society and affects formation of the life position. At the same time, it is socialization in the family that provides opportunities to develop and cultivate individual talents and abilities, thus, discovering the human factor – their own spiritual identity and manifold possibilities for self-empowerment. The constant, dynamic and turbulent changes in modern society strongly influence the modern family and the processes within it. They leave unavoidable and often a negative effect on the family‟s social and psychological microclimate, increase the level of stress, intolerance and even aggressiveness among family members. Quite often, the child and tackling the issues related to the upbringing are the main causes of parental dispute. Disagreements in the family lead to deformation of the child‟s awareness of the social norms and successful acquisition of the roles needed in life. Indisputably, creation of the new generation‟s attitudes and value orientation largely depends on the influence directly from the social environment and family, the parents‟ needs, expectations and vision of future perspective, on their pedagogical experience and understanding of the child‟s potential growth, as well as a particular parenting style, communication culture and interest in children‟s life scenario formation process. Under the influence of multiple external and internal factors the need for deliberate and values-based parents‟ pedagogical competence and its purposeful research increases.

Keywords: Children, Family, Socialization, Necessities, Values

Pedagogical – Psychological Regularities of Civic Education and Civic Engagement

583-593

Pāvels Jurs, Alīda Samuseviča

Young people are an important group of society, which is located in his life transition, young people have unlimited potential for growth, they are social capital and development resource which will ensure the sustainability of society and state development. In this context, special attention and topicality obtained the promotion of youth civic engagement in the pedagogical process. The aim of publication is describe pedagogical-psychological regularities of civic educations and civic engagement, revealing the concept of civic position, civic upbringing, civic education, civic competence and civic engagement, identifying the concept of regularities and pedagogical-psychological aspects of formation and promotion process of youth civic engagement.

Keywords: civic competence, civic education, civic engagement, civic position, civic upbringing.

Role of Purposefulness in the Development Process of Personality

594-602

Madara Priedoliņa, Irina Strazdiņa

As stated in the National Development Plan of Latvia for 2014-2020, people have realized the truth that only through targeted and wise investing in their own and their children's education they have opportunity to ensure personal competitiveness in the labour market and in the country's overall growth in long term. Nowadays, to be successful, it means to acknowledge own goals and to utilize opportunities. Purposefulness is considered as one of the most important characteristics of the will. "Focused person can independently and deeply acknowledge and analyse his or her motivation and scope of needs, can adapt their needs to their knowledge in order to consecutively get closer to reaching the goal." (R. Nemov) Whereas A. Adler points out that the person in movement, striving for personally important goals, can be perceived as entirety - undivided and consistent with himself. Person, striving for perfection, is always moving towards personally important life goals. These goals are selected individually to a certain extent. Reaching the set goals, the person not only increases his or her self-esteem, but also finds own place in the life. People have a creative power, which ensures possibility to deal with their life – it is free, conscious activity, aimed on improving the quality of life. This creative power influences person’s experience: perception, memory, imaginatio n, fantasy and expectations. The creative power makes person a self-determined individual, architect of own life. The article analyses self-determined learning, efficiency of own performance, personality’s securitability, habits of purposefulness in the context of diversified competences development and personal self-development.

Keywords: sef-determined learning, personality’s securitability, habits of purposefulness, personal self-development

Impact of Interest-Related Education on Personality Self-Realisation

603-610

Ineta Klasone, Inta Klasone

Implementation of interest-related education is an opportunity to create an environment where everyone can use their abilities and potential, discover themselves, become independent, develop their personality and self worth, get meaningfully involved in various events and be creative and experience success. Participation in interest-related education can be seen as a search for meaningful direction in life. Interest-related education can influence the mental development and education level of the new generation and this is reflected in the students’ views, actions and attitude towards life and various happenings in their nearby environment, their region, country and the world. Development of a spiritual system of values gains a special importance for personality development within the constantly changing rhythm of life. Culture can contribute awareness to the new generation about the values of the past and present, preservation of its values and continuation of it in the future thusly creating the development of a cultural identity that strengthens the feeling of belonging to their country, community and nature. Comprehension of their own culture can be a cornerstone to finding a person’s place in the world, improve understanding of other cultures and value and respect these. The social crisis is currently marked by inequality, strained relationships between people, abundance of short emotional reactions, moral crisis and widespread violence and crime. At the same time socialisation has an important role, because people are drawn to each other and need each other. Development of social skills is one of the tasks of personality development. Through hands on participation in interest-related education students can become aware of their rights and responsibilities, learn about values and become responsible and helpful members of the community who can participate in public life. Aim of the research: Based on the theoretical analysis of the bibliography and research carried out, to investigate and evaluate the opportunities of interest-related education for self-implementation of individuals. Research question: Can interest-related education ensure the self-realisation of students during the process of personality development? Results of the research: Explored the opportunities of interested-related education in ensuring students’ self-realisation.

Keywords: Interest related education, culture, personality, socialisation

Examining the Attitudes of the Students of Anatolian High Schools and Other High Schools towards Physical Education Classes

611-617

Mustafa Altınkök

This study was conducted to determine the attitudes of high school students towards physical education classes. The sampling of the study consisted of 217 female and 217 male students (a total of 434 students) who were studying at 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th Grades of Anatolian High schools and in other high schools that were later converted into Anatolian high schools. The “Physical Education Classes Attitude Scale”, which was developed by Güllü and Güçlü in 2009, was used in order to determine the attitudes of the students towards Physical Education Classes. The scale consisted of 35 items and the validity and reliability studies of it were conducted. The students participated in the study voluntarily. The statistical package program was used to analyze the data and to find the computed values in the study. In order to determine the distribution of the variables, the frequency and percentage values were used. The “t” Test for Independent Variables was used in order to reveal the differences between the variables. The One-Way variance analysis, post-hoc Scheffe and Levene’s Tests were used to find the relation between the parameters. It was determined in the study that the movement education, extracurricular social and sports activities, the contents and application styles of physical education classes, the viewpoint on physical education classes, the attitudes that are transferred from previous learning-teaching medium, and the differences in regional sports culture influence the attitudes of the high school students towards physical education classes in a positive or negative manner.

Keywords: Physical Education, Attitude, Physical Education Class Attitudes, High School Education

A New Model for In-Service Education in a Public Hospital: Web-Based Distance Education

618-624

Özlem Doğu, Oğuz Karabay, Zekeriya Parlak

The unprecedented developments in information and communication technologies, together with other developments, such as increased prevalence of the internet, limited time of individuals allocated to face-to-face health trainings, and the enhanced availability of accessing web-based information have increased the indispensability of web-based educations. Web-based educations, compared to traditional educations, are more flexible and interactive for adult training, and therefore become preferable alternatives for education. In this study, within the scope of life-long learning, it is aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of web-based in-service education given to the nurses. The sample of this study was based on the nurses working in a research and education hospital in Sakarya. After obtaining the necessary permissions, between June 2013 and December 2013, it was planned to give the subjects of “Clinical Microbiology, Hospital Infections, Hand Hygiene, Blood-Borne Infection, and Hospital Cleaning and Waste Management”, under the main title of “Infection Protection”, which was involved in the in-house education program. The participants in the study were given standard username and password by the program managers. Username was set to the first five digits of national identity number. In order to solve user problems and respond to interface page, in which the technical problems are reported, researchers were given to one-day education in distance education center (DEC). The participants were asked to answer four questions both before the each education subject and after the each education subject, and participants got score of 50 or above were evaluated as successful. It was seen that the number of correct answers given by majority of the nurses was increased after the education, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) (Table 1). Distance education, which dates back to the first quarter of 20th century, has created competition in traditional education through combining different education materials in different settings. Today, health education is also transferred to web-environment through the increasing developments in information technologies. In this direction, it is possible to suggest that in-service education might also be transferred to web-environment due to the potential benefits offered by information technologies.

Keywords: Web-based distance education, in-service education, pretest-posttest, nurse

Development of Creative Behavior Observation Form: A Study on Validity and Reliability

625-634

Zeynep Dere, Esra Ömeroğlu

In this study, Creative Behavior Observation Form was developed to assess creativity of the children. While the study group on the reliability and validity of Creative Behavior Observation Form was being developed, 257 children in total who were at the ages of 5-6 were used as samples with stratified sampling method. In order to make assessment between the ranges zero-four, a total of 26 items were defined; six items in flexibility dimension, eight items in fluency dimension, six items in originality dimension and five items in elaboration dimensions in line with the literature review and views of the experts. Content Validity Index (CVI) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were applied in order to measure validity of Creative Behavior Observation Form. As a results of confirmatory analysis, it was found out that X2/sd=3,97, CFI=0,94 and NNFI=0,94. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient was calculated in order to ensure reliability of Creative Behavior Observation Form. Coefficient of the form’s flexibility factor was calculated as 0,85, fluency factor as 0,88, originality factor as 0,77 and elaboration factor as 0,87. Coefficient for overall Creative Behavior Observation Form was computed to be 0,94. Test-retest method was used in order to determine if Creative Behavior Observation Form has reliable measurements in time. 60 of the 257 children included in the research were randomly selected for this purpose. T-test was used for related samples and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient of the average values obtained from both application. Correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0,51 as a result of statistical processes. Findings show that Creative Behavior Observation Form can be regarded as a reliable and valid instrument to measure creativity of preschool children. This study concludes with recommendations for the applicators, researchers and teachers who will use Creative Behavior Observation Form as an instrument to develop creativity of preschool children.

Keywords: preschool education, creativity, creative behavior observation form

Level of Public Education Center Students' Digital Literacy: An Example of Duzce

635-641

Kaan Arık, Mahir Bektaş

Aim to this research to observe level of public education center students’ digital literacy and state new suggestions in literacy field. In this research, data was carried out through Digital Literacy Scale. Also were associated 100 students who study in Düzce Public Education Center. SPSS program was used to analyze research’s data. Gender, age, education level, technological ownership, computer ownership and time of use internet are our variables were used to identify digital literacy level. Of quantitative research method, survey research method was specified for our research. In public education center with 170 students, 100 students were attended voluntarily. Data in performed from research; percentage, frequency, average, standard deviation was calculated and prepared as tables in research. In this research, observed that have no relation level of digital literacy based on gender as statistics in public education center students. When analyzed to other variables, it has been observed that doesn’t differentiation between male and female variables as statistics. Also, all variables (handing an internet connection, handing a technological material) tested in analyze. But, it hasn’t been observed that any variables have differentiation with level of digital literacy as statistics. Moreover; according to the age groups, level of digital literacy doesn’t differentiation significantly.

Keywords: digital literacy, public education center, literacy in education

PISA 2012: Analysis of Measurement Invariance of Openness for Problem Solving Scale

642-648

Alperen Yandı, Gözde Sırgancı

In this study, with Turkey, Finland, Shanghai-China samples Means and Covariance Structures Invariance (MACS) and measurement invariance of Openness for Problem Solving Scale coded as ST 94, which was one of the subscales used in PISA 2012, was examined and the findings obtained were discussed. Student numbers in Turkey, Finland, Shanghai-China samples were 3159, 5676 and 3429 respectively, after the missing and invalid data had been removed. LISREL 8.72 programs were used for MACS analyses. For comparing two sequential phase in analyses process, significance of Chi Square differences (∆χ2) between sequential models were examined at differences the degrees of freedoms of two phases for 0,05. Since chi-square values were affected by the sample size analyses were performed pursuant to phase testing method; and to compare models that follow each other significance of Chi Square differences, comparative fit index and goodness of fit index differences were used. According to the findings, it was recorded that all stages of measurement invariance had been accomplished for Openness for Problem Solving Scale in paired comparisons made for subsamples. Because Chi Square differences were affected by the sample size and degrees of freedom; in some stages, invariance was accepted to be accomplished when the other two fit indexes both indicated invariance. Since, measurement invariance has a great importance for the validity of the results obtained from multi-cultural, large-scale tests; it is recommended to test measurement invariance of this kind of exams. Additionally, it was stated for other researchers that measurement invariance studies could be conducted for different subscales of PISA test.

Keywords: Openness for Problem Solving Scale, Measurement Invariance, Means and Covariance Structures Invariance, PISA

Strategic Human Resource Management and Organizational Innovativeness in Private Schools

649-655

Türkan Argon, İbrahim Limon

The purpose of this study is to determine private school teachers’ views on strategic human resource management (HRM) and organizational innovativeness and whether there is a statistically significant relationship between their views. The study was designed in relational survey model and the study group consisted of 187 teachers working in private schools in Sakarya during 2015-2016 educational year. Strategic Human Resource Management Scale and Organizational Innovativeness Scale were used as data collection tools. To test the normality of the distribution of data Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was conducted. The result demonstrated that data did not have a normal distribution so to analyze the data means, standard deviations were calculated and correlation analysis (Spearman rho) was conducted. Some of the findings of the study are as follows; teachers’ view on strategic human resource management in private schools is “Moderately Agree” and their view on organizational innovativeness is “Strongly Agree”. There is significant and positive relationship between teachers’ views on strategic HRM and organizational innovativeness. The correlation is moderate in strength. On the other hand, it was observed that there were significant and positive relationships between subscales of strategic HRM and organizational innovativeness. These correlations were at different levels in strength. Based on the results of the study, it can be suggested that private schools should reward their teachers more frequently. They should also train the teachers systematically, especially novice ones. Additionally, private schools should take higher risks and create opportunities for the teachers to participate in organizational decisions. To foster innovation they should follow a strategic approach in HRM.

Keywords: Strategic human resource management, Organizational innovativeness, Private Schools.

Continuing Education Center Administrators’ Administrative Competence: Teachers’ and Employee’s Opinions

656-662

Aydın Balyer, Kenan Özcan, Ali Yıldız

Recent changes in university-industry relations have made continuing education centers become more important institutions. These centers provide many programs ranging from language courses to project management for both students, academics at university and people outside the campus. Therefore, the administration of these centers becomes more crucial. There is an administrative body, which manages all the programs as well as building relationships with the society at these centers. This study aims to determine the administrative competences of these administrators according to teachers’ and employee’s opinions. The research was conducted qualitatively and the participants of this study were 20 teachers and 20 employees chosen by maximum variation sampling method from different programs conducted at 5 Continuing/Lifelong Education Centers in Istanbul, (Istanbul University, Marmara University, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul Technical University, and Boğaziçi University ), Turkey, in the 2015/2016 academic year. Their views on their administrators’ competencies decision making, managing programs, supporting staff professional development, developing relations with the society, evaluating and improving instruction and creating a positive learning environment and climate were researched. Results reveal that while administrators have competencies in all areas, they do not do much for staff professional development. It is recommended that administrators should support the staff development more.

Keywords: Continuing education, administrators, administrators’ competencies

Community Music Therapy and (Special) Education – Understanding the Interdisciplinary Relationships

663-673

Jiří Kantor

This paper is focused on understanding the relationship betweenspecial educational intervention and community music therapy (CoMT) in pupils with disabilities. Because of many overlaps between (special) education and CoMT the boundaries of these disciplines are often not clear . The study in this paper uses interpretative approach to qualitative research to understand the differencies and similarities in the usage of musical community practices in both disciplines. The data had been collected from two sources. The first was a qualitative research focused on education of students with multiple disabilities that used 30 semi-structured interviews with teachers, content analysis of pedagogical documentation of 30 pupils and observation of education in 4 classes. The second one used 10 case studies from music therapy praxis in educational facilities based on semi-structured interviews, content analysis of therapeutic documentation and observation of therapy. The transcribed data was interpreted by the system´s theory of education of Blížkovský, key categories of theory developed by Bruscia to define music therapy practice and by the assumptions of CoMT suggested by Ansdell. Theoretical principles that identified areas of essential differences include the professional qualification, the level of musical experience, experiences in individual-communal continuum, meaningfulness of the use of musical community practices and the procedural character (including procedures for assessment and evaluation). However, it was only the professional qualification that showed stable consistency throughout the whole set of data. Practical applications of the research outcomes can be viewed in further research of interdisciplinary relationships, for legislative purposes and for revision of professional boundaries of music therapy. The findings are relevant for legislative purposes, for understanding the interdisciplinary relationships between education and music therapy and for improving the music therapy practice.

Keywords: Music therapy, Education, Community, Disabilities

Self-Advocates with Intellectual Disabilities in Poland and Their Way to Social Participation

674-679

Agnieszka Żyta, Katarzyna Ćwirynkało

This paper presents findings from a research on a meaning of self-advocacy for adult members of this organization in northern Poland. Self-advocacy movement contributes to a new social understanding of disability and helps people with disabilities gain authority over their lives and experiences. In the current study adults with intellectual disabilities participated in focus groups interviews through which they invited researchers to their inner world to map the multiplicity of their powers and resistances (Roets, Goodley, Van Hove 2007). They talked about how it felt to be a member of a self-advocacy group. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of membership of self-advocacy group on the social participation and social identities of people with intellectual disabilities. Using a constructivist grounded theory methodology, three semi-structured focus groups interviews were conducted with 18 members of self-advocacy groups in northern Poland. . Grounded theory methods were used to code transcripts (Charmaz, 2009, Anderson, Bigby, 2015). Results show that self-advocacy groups provided new opportunities and gave a chance to participate in different activities, to develop new skills and relationships. For all members of self-advocacy groups being a participant of the organization played an unique role in building their sense of empowerment both on individual and collective basis. Self-advocacy is an important way to social participation and social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities. The need to organize self-advocacy groups for people with disabilities and to conduct larger scale studies on the phenomenon is highlighted.

Keywords: adults with intellectual disabilities, self-advocates, social participation, qualitative research

Mainstream School Teachers’ Attitudes toward Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs in Poland

680-687

Katarzyna Ćwirynkało, Iwona Myśliwczyk

The need to provide education for all the children regardless their abilities and disabilities is highlighted in initiatives and legislation not only in Poland but worldwide (UNESCO, 1994). The literature shows a growing evidence that teachers play a key role in the development of high-quality inclusive systems (European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education, 2015). This paper presents findings from a cross-national survey conducted among 147 teachers from mainstream schools in Poland. The authors investigated the teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education of children with different types of special educational needs as well as several factors associated with them: gender, age, work experience, and special education training. To examine the problems Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (Wilczenski, 1995) was used. The analysis was prepared in SPSS program and statistical tests were used to find correlations. Overall, the participants supported inclusion of children with mild emotional problems, mild learning difficulties, physical disabilities and communication disorders but were not so much in favor of accommodating students with sensory disabilities (deaf and blind), very low academic achievements (2 or more years below other students) and challenging behaviors in regular classes. These students presumably have high support needs. Furthermore, correlations between the attitudes of teachers toward inclusion and demographic features were examined and compared with other research available in current databases. In the discussion part benefits and drawbacks of the research and its implications for practice were discussed. A special emphasis is put on the need to support teachers in providing high-quality education for all children.

Keywords: Polish teachers, attitudes, inclusion, special educational needs

Analyzing Lifelong Learning Competencies of Undergraduate Students of Preschool Teaching

688-696

Yücel Gelişli, Elçin Yazıcı

Lifelong learning is defined as some information, skills and attitudes that individuals are required to have to be able to become lifelong learners. Lifelong learning has gradually been an important part of individuals’ and societies’ lives based on influences of phases, changes and transformation until today. The reason of increasing interest in lifelong learning is because of its effect on job opportunities and in order to meet the educational requisites necessary for adjusting to changes in this day and age. Working areas are changing due to the speed of globalization and changing working conditions and unqualified jobs are disappearing nowadays. People are expected to have more knowledge and skills to maintain their jobs. People are in need of furthering their education and improving themselves even after completing their formal education. Therefore, lifelong learning competencies are found vital to be obtained by individuals in terms of career development. From this point forth, the aim of the research is to analyze lifelong learning competencies of undergraduate students of early childhood education. The study group of the research is comprised of 124 students studying preschool teaching at faculty of education of a private university in Cyprus during 2015-2016 academic years. Relational screening model one of the screening models that helps the current situation be revealed was used in the research. The data collection tools used in the research are “General Information Form” to collect general data related to students and “Key Competencies Scale for Lifelong Learning” developed by Şahin, Akbaşlı and Yanpar Yelken (2010) to evaluate students’ lifelong learning competencies. The data were analyzed through SPSS 20 program. Standard deviation and average values of students’ lifelong learning competencies were included in the research to explain which level students’ lifelong learning competencies were. Kruskal Wallis H-Test was used to detect whether there is difference between the class levels of lifelong learning competencies of students.

Keywords: Lifelong learning, early childhood education, preservice teacher

A Scale for Students’ Attitude towardsTeachers (SATTS): The Validity and Reliability Study

697-705

Yücel Gelişli, Lyazzat Beısenbayeva

Attitudes are the person’s emotionalpredispositionsor tendencies generated towards people, objects, things, phenomena and events. The attitudes and feelings that we have developed towards teachers have influence on our motivation and success. This study aims to develop a scale which may be used in future research serving to determine students’ attitude towards their teachers. The study is a kind of descriptive research. The study is based on developing a scale to determine students’ attitude towards their teachers by testing it in practice, and identifying the technical aspects (validity and reliability) of the scale. The sample of the exploratory factor analysis consists of 334 high school students (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades) who were studying in Ankara during 2014-2015 academic term. The Exploratory factor analysis was carried out with those students to determine the factor structure of SATTTS and to calculate reliability coefficient. Construct validity (by means of factor analysis), Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test, Bartlett Sphericity test, varimax rotation and Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient were determined in the development process of the scale. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Group is the one which the data was collected from to see whether the structure obtained by exploratory factor analysis was confirmed. The sample for the confirmatory factor analysis consists of 229 high school students (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades) studying in Ankara during 201-2016 academic term and whether the factor structure was confirmed was tested. Before the pilot implementation of SATTS, it was prepared as a five-point Likert-type scale which had 43 items. At the end of exploratory factor analysis, the scale had 25 items and four factors were elicited. According to the results of the confirmatory factor analysis of SATTS, it was found that the structure of the scale was confırmed. The findings of the study reveal that SATTS is a valid and reliable scale which consists of four factors. It was found that the scale was a valid and reliable data collection tool to examine the attitudes towards teachers in the future research.

Keywords: Teaching Profession, Attitude, Validity, Reliability

Effect of Organizational Silence on Organizational Cynicism: an Empirical Study on Healthcare Industry

706-714

Burcu Yiğit, Serdar Bozkurt

Today`s dynamism and competitive business environments result with the alteration change of working conditions and as well as the emergence of new concepts. Due to the increasing competition, employees experience higher performance towards productivity and performance. Therefore, based on difficulties and pressures of the work conditions, the employees may exhibit negative attitudes towards the organization. One of the negative attitudes towards the organization is the concept of organizational cynicism that takes its roots from Ancient Greek Times and involves negative attitudes towards the organization such critical, pessimistic and disdain (Türköz, Polat & Coşar, 2013; Sağır & Oğuz, 2012). On the other hand, the employees can hide the knowledge and ideas they have consciously and deliberately (Kılıçlar, Harbalıoğlu, 2014; Aktaş & Şimşek, 2015). This can lead to organizational silence behavior. In recent days, the healthcare industry is considered to be more active in service production, effective usage of human resources and competitive conditions compared to the others. In this context, this study is conducted on nurses as the most important actors of the healthcare sector. The survey that includes organizational cynicism and organizational silence expressions items was carried out on 131 nurses in a training and research hospital in Istanbul. The findings of the study are considered to be useful for the field of organizational behavior and management practitioners. Correlation analysis, regression analysis, and one-way ANOVA test are used for testing our hypotheses. This study aims to examine the effect of organizational silence behavior on organizational cynicism. As a result of this study, it was observed that the organizational silence behaviors have an effect on organizational cynicism attitudes (p <.01, R2 =.09). However, it was not calculated this effect too much. Silence behaviors describe the rate of 9 % cynicism attitudes. In addition, a positive correlation was found between two variables at moderate level (p <0.01, r = .30). The most powerful relationship was found in organizational silence and also organizational cynicism in emotional dimension (p <0.01, r = .30). Generally, it was observed that nurses do not exhibit organizational silence behavior ( ̅= 2,66). At the same time, it has also been found that organizational cynicism attitude is to be negatively ( ̅= 2,77).Another finding is the study there is no difference in the cynicism according to demographic variables. It was only found significant differences in occupational seniority for nurses’ cynicism. In this context, the results were considered to be useful to practitioners who are working on organizational behavior and managerial sense. Especially, defining and identifying these behaviors and attitudes will be useful for managers in reducing these behaviors in organizations.

Keywords: Organizational silence, Organizational cynicism, Factor analysis, Regression Analysis

Digital Competences of Teachers

715-721

Ionut Vladescu

A detailed list of roles and tasks of a teacher is difficult to build. Anyway, when looking at the most activities in the classroom, it is quite clear the these roles and tasks are not linear, and therefore the skills and competences to be developed through preservice and inservice teacher training programmes are almost impossible to address without continuous practice and without solid grounding into nowadays technological and pedagogical frameworks. The article is exploring the digital competences for teachers and the ways they are integrated into the assembly of the profile and skills of today’s education practitioner. Modern technology is used for the purpose of resource and must be content elements is connected to disciplinary action and to target the objectives pursued by the unit. The role of the teacher in traditional education, a transmitter of information, can be transformed into a facilitator of learning by rethinking its mission: creating an ambience (purpose, information, resources, strategy) to enable the student to build / develop knowledge by using ICT. Integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching -învăţare - evaluation, the past two decades has become a priority of educational policies all over the world as open new horizons for the practice of education: facilitating processes of disclosure of its processing by the pupil, building knowledge. Contemporary world is a new and permanent challenge for education. Life of every particular individual or of the whole society is increasingly dynamic and asking for rapid, real and complete information about what is around to enable future strong, pertinent and competent decisions. To do this, a large amount of facts and data are to be analyzed after collecting and working on them, the process implying the use of a computer not only in everyday life but also in teaching or learning. Therefore, digital technologies shouldn’t represent a mere addition to the teachings curricula but “an integrated part of the process” no matter the level of educational system. Those involved in this process have to be trained to face changes, uncertainty or innovation in order to perform the learning-teaching act in a new manner. This work aims to show the advantages and the limits of using a computer in class and to focus on the efficiency of its use.

Keywords: Teaching staff, continuous professional development, ICT skills

Individualization and Differentiation – Part of Postmodern Education

722-725

Ionut Vladescu

If teaching were as simple as using the one best way to teach everything, it would be considered more of a science. However, there isn’t just one best way to teach everything, and that’s why teaching is an art. If teaching meant simply following a text book and using the same size fits all approach than anyone could teach, right? That’s what makes teachers, and especially special educators, unique and special. Long ago, teachers knew that individuals’ needs, strengths and weaknesses must drive instructional and assessment practice.We’ve always known that children come in their individual package and that no two children learn the same way even though the curriculum may be the same. Instructional and assessment practice can be different to ensure that learning happens. This is where differentiated instruction and assessment comes in. Teachers need to create a variety of entry points to ensure the student differing abilities, strengths and needs are all taken into consideration. Students that need varying opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge based on the teaching hence differentiated assessment.

Keywords: postmodernity,differentiated pedagogy, teaching-learning, post-modern paradigm,learning.

Constructivism and Guerilla Literacy Method in Teaching Comparative Children Literature

726-733

Imron Wakhid Harits, Jitka Plische, Stefan Chudy

Children literature is the meaningful and profound subject for introducing the widespread of culture and diversities. From the Primary school till university, children literature is an effective way of teaching literacy, identity, and morality as well. The similarities of the children literature across nation together with their own uniqueness are the essential aspects in learning children literature. The constructivism as one philosophical method in teaching engages will engage the prior experiences or schemata of the learners for understanding the content of the children literature packs. This research is aimed to draw the learners comprehending through the reconstructing of the learner’s schemata, socio – cultural and historical notion of children literature. Since the children literature media are English, the teaching of English as Second Language (ESL) and English as Foreign Language (EFL) should be emphasized. Thereby the Guerilla method, the new ways of English as second language teaching from European Union project, can use as the solution in teaching comparative children literature. The combination of Constructivism as the basic thought and the Guerilla method as the teaching strategy in the class will be an ideal concept and perspective in the teaching comparative children literature.

Keywords: Constructivism, Guerilla method, Comparative Children Literature

Change Cynicism in Educational Organizations

734-746

Emine Çavdar, Mehmet Akif Helvaci

The purpose of this research is to determine the organizational change cynicism level of the administrators and teachers and determine whether administrators’ and teachers’ demographic properties such as their gender, duty, branch, seniority and education status differentiate or not on the basis of organizational change cynicism. The study group of the research consisted of 119 administrators and 434 teachers working within the boundaries of Uşak City Government Primary and Secondary Schools during academic year of 2014-2015. The data are collected with ‘Change Cynicism Scale’ developed by the researchers. SPSS 18 packaged software is used for the analyses of the data. In data analyses, descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA were used. According to research findings, teachers’ organizational change cynicism in terms of general average is at the mid-level; administrators’ organizational change cynicism is at the low-level. Teachers feel high-level change cynicism in affective sub-dimension; mid-level change cynicism in cognitive sub-dimension; and low-level change cynicism in behavioral sub-dimension. As for administrators, they feel mid-level change cynicism in affective sub-dimension; and low-level change cynicism in both cognitive and behavioral sub-dimensions. It was found that there weren’t significant differences between participants’ organizational change cynicism perceptions and gender, seniority and educational status variables; but found significant differences between participants’ organizational change cynicism perceptions and duty and branch variables.

Keywords: Cynicism, Organizational Cynicism, Organizational Change Cynicism, Cynicism in Teachers, Cynicism in Administrators

Effect of Creative Drama on Students’ Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

747-763

Hale Erden, Tufan Aytaç, Ali Erden

Numerous theses and doctoral dissertations are conducted in Turkey showing the relationship between creative drama and students’ achievement. These studies are great potential for meta-analysis studies. The aim of the current study is to identify the effectiveness of creative drama on students’ academic achievement. This study is a meta-analysis study of 70 studies meeting the inclusion criteria from master’s theses and doctoral disserations, donwloaded from the web-page of the National Council of Higher Education. The total size of samples of this study is 4507. 2266 of the students are at the experiemental group and 2241 of them are at the control group. Variables, which are not evaluated as part of the primary researches, of school type as moderator, publication type, course, year of publication, region the research has been carried out, educational level, scale development, whether validity and reliability studies conducted or not and gender of the researcher are included in this study. The research results yielded that according to the fixed effects (d=0,872) and the random effects (d=0,912) models in favour of the experimental group, a statistically significant large effect size was determined. There is not any significant difference among the effect sizes of the studies according to the gender of the researher (p=0,665), educational level (p=0,493), publication type (p=0,618), region where the study has been conducted (p=0,756), whether validity and reliability studies conducted or not (p=0,338). In terms of effect sizes of the studies, students’ academic achievement at the experimental group, there is a continued significant difference.

Keywords: Creative Drama, Meta-Analysis, Academic Achievement, Student