The Relationship between the Children Aged Five and Six Who Have Compliant and Aggressive Behavior According to Views of Their Teachers and the Emotional Intelligence of Their Mothers

336-341

Handan Asûde Başal, Burcu Sari, Demet Koç, Serap Canbay, Damla Şahine

The first social relationship of a baby born into the world is established with its mother. Children acquire their first social experiences through their observations of first their mothers and then the other members of the family. Therefore, the interaction a child establishes with his/her mother is crucially significant in developing his/her social relationships later in life. The fact that the mother has a healthy emotional life and positive emotional behavior also help the child to develop healthy and positive emotional attitude. The general purpose of the study is to determine whether there is a relationship between the compliant and aggressive behavior of children aged five and six attending pre-schools and the emotional intelligence of their mothers. The universe of the research was composed of children aged 5 and 6 who attended the pre-school education institutions of Bursa Provincial Directorate of National Education in the 2015-2016 Academic Year, and the mothers of these children. In order to comprise the sample of the study, twelve pre-school teachers were interviewed and were asked to determine compliant and aggressive children among the students in their classes taking into account the items available in a questionnaire prepared by the researchers containing characteristics of compliant and aggressive children. Therefore, within the scope of the study, a total of 160 subjects 80 of whom were children, 35 female and 45 male, who had compliant and aggressive behavior and 80 mothers of these children. As a data collection tool in the research, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Test developed by Bar-On and Parker (2000), and translated and adapted into Turkish by Füsun Tekin Acar (2002) and Karabulut (2012) was used. t-Test was used to acquire findings from the data obtained from the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Test used to determine whether there was a significant relationship between the emotional intelligence levels of mothers and compliant and aggressive behavior of their children. The findings obtained were illustrated by tables and then interpreted on them. Based on the findings obtained from the study; the emotional intelligence level of the mothers whose children had compliant behavior was higher than those of mothers whose children had aggressive behavior. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between the aggressive children and “personal awareness” and “compliance with the conditions and environment” sub- sections of the emotional intelligence of their mothers. In other words, it was revealed that the “personal awareness” and “compliance with the conditions and environment” level of mothers whose children had aggressive behavior was lower than the “personal awareness” and “compliance with the conditions and environment” level of mothers whose children had compliant behavior.

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Compliant Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, Pre-School Period, Social Development.

The Comparative Study of Married Couples’ Marital Adjustment and Depression Levels

342-346

M. Engin Deniz, Azize Gül Ozan

The main purpose of this study is to study the relationship between the depression levels and the marital harmony of the married couples. Studying the effects of demographic variables on on marital harmony and depression is another purpose of this study. The researcher of this study worked with a total of 348 individuals, 178 women and 170 men, gathering demographic and socio-economic variables with survey conducted by the researcher. To examine the harmony of the married couples Marriage Adjustment Scale, to examine for the depression levels of couples Beck Depression Scale applied. The survey is limited with those couples living in Çorlu, a town within the territory of Tekirdağ City, Turkey participants’ages were between 26 to 55. According to the results of the study, gender and education level of participants have a significant effect on their depression level, ages of couples, marriage duration, ages of couples at that they were married, the type of marriage whether marriage after a friendship or an arranged marriage does not have any significant effect on depression levels of couples. Whereas being in a big or an elementary family, the number of child in the family, having a permanent job or not, income level, the frequency of fulfillment of expectations related to care and respect of the couples to each other, the level of the family arguments have a significant effect on the level of depression. The results obtained after those statistical analyses are discussed in relation to the literature and all those studies in the field

Keywords: music therapist, professional competence, integrative eclectic approach.

Teachers’ Job Dissatisfaction and Administrators’ Role

347-356

Turkan Argon ,Mehmet Ismetoglu, Didem Çelik Yılmaz

The purpose of this study is to reveal the reasons of job dissatisfactions of teachers and examine the effect of administrators on this dissatisfaction. The study group consists of 63 teachers and administrators who work at different schools in Akçakoca. Descriptive analysis and content analysis, two of qualitative data analysis technique, were used to analyze the data, collected with semi-structured interview form. The results show that teachers experience job dissatisfaction because of problems originating from administrators, process, materials, parents and themselves. The majority of teachers have job dissatisfaction problems originating from administrators and this situation effects schools’ climate, academic and group working success and productivity in a negative way. Teachers show reactions like disagreement, impatient, aggressive and opponent attitudes or work stoppage as results of dissatisfaction. They suggest school administrators should be assigned according to merit based, modern administration approach should be adopted and strong communication canals should beused.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Job Dissatisfaction, Teacher 

Increasing the Stability of the Organization: Spreading the Fundamental Knowledge of Management

357-366

Olga Kamforina, Rostislav Kopitov

The proposed concept is aimed at identifying the organization's ability to respond promptly to the influence of the large-scale external circumstances, due to the timely preparedness of management to act on their negative manifestation. Solving the problem is carried out in the framework of the full scale strategic management contour in the context of advance adaptation problem and continuing education negotiation. This is a new methodological approach, the accumulation of knowledge about management in process of eliminating serious errors and organizational problems. As fundamental bases the positionsof constructing purposeful systems in terms of ensuring business resilience is used. Such positions make it possible to identify the levers of organization growth and with their help to develop measures of controlling system transfer to a new level of quality. Thus, an improvement of objective means of diagnosing the state of the organization occurs. The introduction of such facilities helps to prevent the effects of negative trends and guide the saved resources to the development of the organization. During the implementation phase the interaction of all parties involved in organizations are worked through. Such interaction is assessed taking into account the principles of collective responsibility and achieving overall efficiency of the organization. A full-scale assessment is made on the basis of cost control mechanisms and is carried in the long term perspective from the point of synchronization of business coverage assessment tools. Developed mechanismsare consideredas tools to improve the structure of the organization during the support ofconformity of unified leadership and overall management of the process. This tool is being finalized on the basis of the description of the identified large-scale circumstances in terms of education and skills training for staff behavior in the event of their reappearance. During the training, fundamental knowledge about performance management are accumulated. Such management is focused on the formation of effective leadership through the acquisition of skills to timely determine the fault status and to configure the control system on a timely warning for detected fault. In the course of adjustment the level of prevented losses are determined as well as the forms of promotion for the ones who find the fault are developed. In this case, not only the professional consciousness of people who are not afraid to be punished for the mistakes is changing, but the level of trust to the leadership during the formation of the collective knowledge of the management is also increasing.

Keywords: purposefulness, diagnostics, errors, amending, training

The Evaluation of Teachers’ Perceptions about Multicultural Education In Terms Of Abroad Experience Variable

367-378

Turkan Argon ,Mehmet Ismetoglu, Didem Çelik Yılmaz

The purpose of the study is to define multicultural education perceptions of teachers who have abroad experience and who do not with Erasmus+ programs. The study group consists of 40 teachers who have abroad experience (n=20) and who do not (n=20). The participant teachers work in Düzce, Akçakoca. Descriptive analysis and content analysis, qualitative data analysis techniques, were used to analyze the data, collected with semi-structured interview form. Some of the research results are as following: the most used concepts for multiculturalism concept are race, ethnicity, culture, language, religion, giving different point of view, cultural richness, transfrontier interaction, empathy, tolerance-respect, overcoming prejudice, human rights- democratization etc. concerns about multicultural education are stated as teacher efficiencies, cultural erosion, biased manners of decision makers- practitioners etc. probable problems are also intolerance, prejudice, conflict of value judgement, racist attitude, political obstacles etc. most of the participants find themselves inadequate. The obstacles to implement multicultural education in Turkey are political and racist manners, social structure and prejudice etc. ın order to overcome these obstacles education programs and laws should be organized. This training program should include nongovernmental organizations and media.

Keywords: Erasmus+, Multiculturalism, Multicultural Education, Teachers’ mobility

Attitudes of Teachers toward Multicultural Education

478-487

Nurhayat Çelebi, ÖzerAtasayar

The purpose of this study is to examinate the attitudes toward multicultural education (MCE) of teachers working in elementary and secondary schools by demographic variables.The “Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey (TMAS)” was conducted to a random sample of 649 teachers working in 32 elementary and secondary schools in Küçükçekmece district of Istanbul. The research was employed using a quantitative method based on survey model. Percentages, arithmetic means, independent samples t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse the data collected in the study. No significant difference was found in the teachers’ attitudes toward MCE by age, years of service, level of education, branches, and type of school they worked in. On the other hand, the study showed significant difference in teachers’ attitudes toward MCE by gender, where male teachers showed to have more positive attitude towards MCE than their female teachers.

Keywords: Multicultural Education, Teacher, Attitude

Beliefs of Prospective Mathematics Teachers about their Preparedness for Teaching Mathematics

488-493

Radka Dofková

The paper is focused on beliefs about the preparedness for future mathematics teaching by prospective mathematics teachers at the Department of Mathematics of the Faculty of Education, Palacky University in Olomouc. There are lots of various students’ beliefs about mathematics - perceiving mathematics, the appropriateness of particular instructional activities or various teaching strategies used to facilitate the learning of mathematics. The paper is aimed at future teachers´ beliefs about the degree to which their lectors modelled good teaching practices. It is obvious that students graduate from the Faculty of Education with different beliefs as to their preparedness for mathematics teaching. The objective of the paper is to establish whether there is a difference in the evaluation of the degree of preparedness in two groups of students (students of Teaching at the 1st Level of Primary School and students of Teaching at the 1st Level of Primary School and Special Pedagogy) as part of the seminars Didactics of Mathematics (DIM) and Mathematics with Didactics (TMA) – the seminars are two-semester seminars, are taught by the same teacher (the author of the paper), they have the same content, but they differ in the number of lessons in each semester. The aim was to find out whether a larger number of lessons in the case of the DIM course significantly affected the evaluation of the preparedness of students. That is why a questionnaire survey was conducted in both groups in May 2016. The paper presents the results of the survey among students of didactics of mathematics which was based on the international study entitled “Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics” (TEDS-M) which examines the beliefs of future mathematics teachers about their current studies and prospective work. A total of 56 students participated in the survey and the data were processed using the relevant statistical apparatus (the chi-squared test was used to establish a statistically major difference).

Keywords: mathematics, special education, beliefs, preparedness, teaching

Investigation of the Association between Facebook Connect Strategies and Academic Procrastination Behavior of Adolescents to Ongoing Different High Schools

379-384

M.Engin Deniz, A.Ensar Uzun

The aim of this research is examination the relationship between on going different High school adolescents connection the Facebook strategies with the academic procrastination behaviors . Academic Procrastination was examined whether differed by gender, frequency of use of Facebook, the type of high school and class level. Totaly 450 students, including 9th,10th,11th students, participate in this study. A stratified sampling method was selected. First, schools are subdivided into lower middle and upper socio- economic groups . Then students selected sample group was formed by random sampling method. This study is a descriptive study in the relational model. Relational screening model aims to determine the existence of the exchange agreement between two or more variables (Karasar,2003). The research data was collected by Facebook connection strategies scale, Academic procrastination scale, Personal Information Form. Significant difference has been found in academic procrastination by frequency of using Facebook account of sample from the group of students’ (F=5.48; p<.01). it is also found that students’ academic procrastination scale score differ according to the gender variety (t=.,054; p<.001), class level (F=8.61; p.001). According to High School Types, no meaningful difference is found (F=2.94; p>.05). Finally, it was observed that Facebook Connect strategies initiating (r:.337; p<.001), maintaining (r:.223; p<.001), information- seeking (r:.116; p<,05) at a scale of higherscores of students committed information search score rises.

Keywords: Puberty, Facebook Connect Strategies, Suspension, Acamedemic Procrastination Behavior.

An Analysis of Distribution and Causes of Discipline Problems Encountered in Vocational High Schools According to Grade Levels

385-394

Esef Hakan Toytok, Mehmet Behçet Bahadır Yıldırım

As it is known that school and classroom management are rather important in creating an effective school. Demonstrating an effective functioning of the school and classroom according to the purpose also requires to comply with certain rules. Failure to follow these rules leads the emergence of disciplinary problems. Schools are graded as elementary, middle and high school and varied in structure as a type such as Social Sciences, Anatolian and Vocational High Schools.Because of its structure, it is known that the intensity of the discipline problems have increased especially in Vocational High Schools. The purpose of this research is to determine how the discipline problems of the students studying in vocational high schools in Siirtcity center are distributed with respect to class-level variable and the causes of these discipline problems. Ethnographic (culture analysis) method as one of the qualitative research methods was used in this research. This research was conducted by examining the disciplinary board decision books of five Vocational High Schools in Siirt city center between 2011-2016 and conducting an individual 9-question semi-structured interview form with school administrators whose are the members of this board, 3 Counselors and 5 Teachers. Descriptive analysis was used for the data obtained in the interviews and tabulation method was used for comparisons with the records of the disciplinary committee decision book. According to the results obtained in this study, it was observed that discipline incidents vary according to grade level. Most penalties were given to 11. grade classes, while the minimum penalties were given to 12. grade classes,while the students are punished, yet awarding mechanism does not work at all.Another result obtained from the study is that, with changes in school management, new administrators tend to give more penalties. It was also observed that disciplinary committees are not being effective in preventing and fighting against unwanted student behaviours, and punished students were found to be penalized again for the same offense.

Keywords: Discipline Crime, Discipline Committee, Grade Level, Vocational High School

The Role of Information Technology and Knowledge Management in Higher Education

395-403

Dimitris Drosos, Miltiadis Chalikias, Michalis Skordoulis, Mary Mandalenaki

In the era of information technologies, all organizations have identified the significance of knowledge management. The expansion of information technology (IT) and particularly the use of web technology have allowed the establishment of networks which enable vast amount of information to be transferred around the globe. Hence, the new internet economy requires organizations to seek opportunities in e-business and expand their ability of managing knowledge. Therefore, knowledge management systems (KMS) have been developed in order to support the main processes of knowledge management; knowledge creation and exchange. Knowledge management in a strategic, innovative, and operational level of decision making aims to develop awareness of the interactive role of technology and science towards business success. Furthermore, knowledge management strategies aim to the development of flexible organizational structures that encourage entrepreneurial creativity, structural flexibility, and managerial change. Managing business processes in higher education institutions appears similar to contemporary organizations and therefore, practices of knowledge management and information technology equally influence this industry. In the present study, the determining parameters of the role of information technology and knowledge management in higher education are presented in a literature overview. The structure of this paper aims to assist the reader in understanding deeply the issues of knowledge management through the use of information technology in higher education by providing a holistic view on the aforementioned concepts.

Keywords: Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management Systems, Higher Education

An Analysis of Students’ Satisfaction Using A Multicriteria Method

404-412

Michalis Skordoulis, Dimitris Drosos, Mary Mandalenaki

Quality is a very important factor for a contemporary higher education institute. Modern management considers the satisfaction of students as an important performance measuring criterion. Students’ satisfaction measurement and analysis should be one of the core processes of an institution as it contributes to the improvement of its internal organization, its quality of services and its image strengthening. The aim of this research is to measure and analyze students’ satisfaction from a higher education institute using a multricriteria method. The views of students on image-reputation, teaching staff, curriculum, administration services and facilities-infrastructures were examined. The data from the relevant literature were used for both the selection of the criteria for measuring students’ satisfaction and for a better understanding of the research results. The data for the research were collected from 211 questionnaires and were analyzed using the Multicriteria Satisfaction Analysis (MUSA) Method. Furthermore, the collected data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross tabulation analysis and correlation analysis. The research results have revealed a low satisfaction of students from the examined institution. Furthermore, a statistically significant correlation between students’ satisfaction and students’ gender, semester, department of studies and performance was pointed out. Thus, a need for further analysis of students’ satisfaction is created as the satisfaction levels and the needs for improvements are not equally formed for all the institution’s departments.

Keywords: Quality in education, Student satisfaction, Higher education, Multi-criteria analysis, Total quality management

Heart Rate Variability: Biofeedback and Controlled Breathing, Competitive and Recreation Sport Athletes

413-418

Sunitha Ravi, Intars Nikonovs, Juris Grants, Ieva Zvigule

Breathing techniques have significant influence on heart rate variability (HRV). The effects on HRV in athletes using two different controlled breathing techniques is under researched. With a hypothesis that Two different controlled breathing techniques can produce differences in HRV, this experiment aimed to investigate the influence and compare effects of one time HRV biofeedback (BFB) and Alternate Nostril Breathing (ANB) on immediate HRV in athletes participating in competitive and recreational sport. Healthy female athletes (N = 14) in the age group 19 to 22 (SD +/- 3) years who were novices to the BFB and ANB were invited to volunteer. The experiment was conducted in an outdoor environment with a picturesque nature view. Biofeedback (BFB) and Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) were two variables used. A commercially available HRV app cold HRV+ was used to record the readings of HRV for BFB and ANB. The difference in the heart rate variability (HRV) in breathing techniques were recorded and analyzed through t-test. There is a positive correlation (r=.69) in HRV between biofeedback (BFB) and alternate nostril breathing (ANB) technique. There is also a positive correlation (r=.86) in HRV between start and end of the 20 minute experiment. α <0.05. Thereby, the conclusion is that two different controlled breathing techniques (BFB and ANB) at a similar pace (6 breaths per minute) can significantly influence immediate HRV in healthy female athletes. Further researches are warranted to investigate HRV effects with a sustained duration of biofeedback training (with device) and ANB in athletes.

Keywords: Heart Rate Variability (HRV), breathing, athletes.

Lifelong Military Education in the Field of Military Art

Sayfa Aralığı : 419-423

Ivo Pikner, Vlastimil Galatik

The aim of the article is to present the new trends in education in the field of Military Art at the University of Defense. Authors describe the reasons and the changes which could modify content of course Military Arts in military carrier educations programs. The article presents the results of the project ROZUM -,, The development of the theory of military art and military history research in the era of modern and postmodern wars” and national approaches to lifelong education conducted within the Faculty of Military Leadership, the University of Defence. For the purpose of this case study, authors used both qualitative and quantitative research methods such as system analysis, synthesis, comparative analysis and structured interview. In order to clarify proposed modifications in education, authors used exploration methods. Results and later recommendations should lead to the development of new subject or course as part of military career education. Complex demands placed on professional development of military officers require their lifelong training and education through courses and training. These increased requirements for the competence of officers are now not only military in nature. The expertise in the fight against terrorism and organized crime, knowledge of diplomacy, economics, psychology, humanitarian and healthcare are also crucial. The very specific knowledge is that of the activities and missions of the non-governmental and governmental organizations, interacting in the areas of operations and CIMIC knowledge, forms of state establishment and its functioning. Knowledge and application of the theory of military art still remains the basis for practical action of officer - leader. On the other hand, frequent and sometimes significant changes in the understanding and interpretation of the theory of military art, the cases where the theory does not match the needs of the practice, influences the approaches to education in this area.

Keywords: Military career education, Military Art, Leadership

Investigation of Relation between School Adjustment and Attachment in Five-Six-year-old Children

424-428

Turan Akbaş, Gülgün Uzun

The purpose of this study is to determine the significant difference and relationship school adjustment and attachment in five-six-year-old children, who are attending pre-school classes. The research has been implemented with 100 children who go to an independent kindergarten or kindergartens dependent on three schools in Basaksehir/Istanbul. In this study, a simple random sampling method was used .In this study, descriptive techniques intergroup comparisons and relations are tested. This study is a descriptive study in the relational model (Karasar,2003). Data were collected by means of ‘‘Cassidy Incomplete Stories with Doll Family’ (Seven,2006), ‘‘Teacher Assessment Scale of School Adjustment’’(Gülay, 2010) “Individual Information Form” . Obtained data have been analyzed by using Mann Whitney U, Pearson Moments Correlation Coefficient According to the results of the research, it has been observed that %70 of the kindergarten students have avoidance attachment with regard to TOBAH attachment scale and it is the biggest group. In addition, it has been observed that %21 of children have secure attachment and %9 of children have negative attachment. When we look at the rates of secure, avoidance and negative attachment, it has been determined that %79 of children are insecure and %21 of them are secure. TOBAH attachment scale grades do not differ according to genders of kindergarten students, their mothers’ working conditions, people who look after them at 0-1 age. As a result of the research, it has been determined that there is not a relationship between attachment conditions of kindergarten students and school adjustment levels and lower scales.

Keywords: School adjustment, attachment, five-six-year-old children

Multistructural Model of Speech and Language Development in Montessori Pedagogy

429-437

Anita Līdaka, Gundega Tomele

The goal of the article is to provide theoretical justification of the speech and language development multistructuralmodel, analyse speech therapists’ opinion about the significance of various language development preconditions in the child’s speech and language development, as well as justify application options of the multistructural model in the Montessori pedagogy aspect. In Latvia every second or third pre-school aged child has insufficient or impaired speech and language development. Assessing the child’s language development, it has to be taken into account how it is influenced by the combination of different endogenous and exogenous factors, which lie into a diverse mutual interaction. The interaction model of factors in each individual case is different and it determines the individual character of the child’s language development process. The speech or language impairment is not quite often the leading (primary) symptom, but as a part of an illness, specific psychological or socially economic condition and is considered as a secondary phenomenon. In order to state all possible causes of the language development delay or impairment, their possible interaction and to work out an appropriate correction and development plan, the peculiarities of the speech and language development multistructural model of each individual case have to be found out. Understanding the reasons of the insufficient language development or impairment and their elimination, reduction or compensation guarantees a more efficient pedagogic or speech therapy correction process. However, teachers or speech therapists do not always observe it in their professional work, as still the main attention is being paid to the expressions of development insufficiency or impairment and not to the causal identification and decrease of their negative impact. Montessori pedagogy is as one of the methods, in which the holistic approach is implemented in the educational and also correction process, and thus also the speech and language development multistructural model.

Keywords: speech and language development, speech and language development multistructural model, speech and language impairment, Montessori pedagogy.

The Unity of Social Work Education and Practice – Problems and Solutions

438-448

Irīna Vereščagina, Vinita Vītola

The objective of the article is to look at the basic requirements of social work education and practical work, and the way they cooperate. To discover the factors influencing cooperation in the practical work areas in municipalities, and to offer recommendations to promote future cooperation and the professional development for future needs in the areas of education, science and practice. The modern 21st century's education in the social work must help to induce changes in the social work practice. The future social work professionals have to develop the skill to comprehend the social processes and the causes of problems, to gain the answers among the contradictions, to substantiate the social issues, to revise the trends not only at a national level but also in a global perspective. To perform a wide range of professional activities it is necessary that social workers would have not only the acquired knowledge, skills and abilities during period of studies, but also to continue their nonstop improvement, the professional support - supervision. Is it necessary to have a supervision system, which would help to reduce the possibilities of professionals' occupational burnout? The study respondents were students and professionals working in the social work area. The study proves that the system of supervision - the professional support is an important precondition in educating the social work students and for professionals in their field training and cooperation. The knowledge of functions, methods and techniques, process management, work with groups and motivation will allow the further development of specialists' professional competence and the quality of delivered social services, and also will improve the cooperation model - the theory (education) - practice - science.

Keywords: Education, Supervision, cooperation, social work professionals, methods

Educational Science Socio Pedagogical Aspect of Addiction Prevention

449-457

Svetlana Lanka ,Vinita Vītola, Dace Erkena

Alcohol, narcotics or psychotropic substances related harm is a serious and topical problem, which harms both the health and welfare of the society as well as directly affects one of the less protected groups - the minors. This article points out the models of addiction prevention and its role of socio-pedagogical work with minors. There are particular elements included and indicated in the addiction prevention theories, which decrease or conversely promote the possibility of use of addictive substances and the matter development related to the use of them, furthermore the theoretical background helps to beware of an inconsiderate and instinctive action. It is difficult to deliver a high quality professional approach to the solving of addiction problems without any knowledge of theories and patterns applicable in addiction prevention and their use in practice. Performance of qualitative preventive work from professionals requires: to be able to think strategically, to analyze social problems and to foresee the development of social process of micro, meso and macro levels. The aim of the study: on the basis of addiction prevention pattern analysis and the research results, summarize the knowledge, skills and acquirements necessary to the social pedagogue in order to promote a performance of high quality preventative work in all addiction prevention levels. The research results summarize the necessary knowledge for social educator, skills and abilities in order to reduce dependency on the sustainability of the development of dependency and the use of addictive substances.

Keywords: adolescents, addiction, prevention, social pedagogue.

Mediating Role of Adhocracy Culture in the Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Organizational Performance of Businesses

458-467

Ebru Aykan, Mualla Akçadağ

In this study, the effects of entrepreneurial orientation resulting in high performance of ever-changing and developing dynamic businesses were investigated and the mediating role of adhocracy culture providing an environment for risk-taking, entrepreneurship, innovatives and creativity in these effects was evaluated. Research universe was composed of 700 manufacturing firms operating in Kayseri Organized Industrial Region of Turkey. A questionnaire form composed of 4 sections was used to gather research data. The entrepreneurial orientation was composed of innovativeness, risk-taking tendency, proactivity and competitive aggression sub-dimensions. Current findings revealed that proactivity and competitive aggression dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation had significant positive effects on firm performance, but innovativeness and risk-taking tendency did not have such positive effects. It was observed that proactivity, risk-taking tendency and competitive aggression dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation affected adhocracy culture, but innovativeness did not affect adhocracy culture. It was also observed that adhocracy culture had a mediating role in the effect of proactivity dimension of entrepreneurial orientation on organizational performance.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Orientation, Firm Performance, Adhocracy Culture

Subjective Health and Life Satisfaction in Young Adults with a Physical Disability

468-477

Jarmila Adamove, Jiří Kantor

Subjective health and life satisfaction are in the focus of interest of special education as well as other helping professions. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated connection between them. Research compared subjective health and life satisfaction between young adults with physical disability of lower extremities and intact population. There were 55 respondents in each research sample. Quantitative design had been chosen using two self-assessment scales: 12-item version of WHODAS 2.0 (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule) and SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale). The first had been translated into Czech language for the purposes of the research and is now freely available. Statistical analysis involving both causal-comparative and correlation testing had been used to determine the existence and the character of the relationship between subjective health and life satisfaction and the impacting factors and to identify the differences between the two groups. The results show that there is a causal relationship between life satisfaction and subjective health in both groups, while it seems to be stronger in the group of people with physical disability. It seems that in people with a physical disability when compared to intact population the degree of life satisfaction is influenced by subjective perception of health in greater measure. However, although in people with a physical disability the impact of subjective perception of health on their life satisfaction is substantial, subjective health is not as tightly linked with objective state of health. This means that even in situations when their medical condition and functional impairment may not be significantly improved it is meaningful to attempt to improve subjective perception of health. This may be achievable by interventions aimed at factors impacting subjective perception of health. More research, especially of qualitative or mixed design, is needed, however, to determine the key factors of subjective health in people with a physical disability.

Keywords: Subjective Health, Life Satisfaction, Physical Disability

Teaching Processes of ‘ Ettirgen Anlatım’ in Turkish to the Foreign Learners in the Mean of General and Comperative Linguistics

494-497

Ömer Aydogdu

The basic aim of this study is identifing the teaching – learning process difficulties of the subject called ‘Ettirgen Anlatım/Ettirgen Çatı’ in the Turkish grammar. Causative form in English means the ‘Ettirgen Anlatım’ in Turkish, and so, the syntactic, morphological, semantical, and phonological comparisons in both languages have been exampled in the mentioning subject. It is hoped that the study can be a good source for the researchers studying on General Linguistics. The structure of Turkish ‘Ettirgen Anlatım’ in the mean of Syntax is known easier than its English Causative Form. Since Turkish is an agglutinative language, the morphological and the phonological necessary changings are formed with the help of suffixes. Those suffixes can be used either in the middle or in the final positions while the processes of Word Formation and the Verb Tense Formation are being done. In addition, The vowel harmony rules of Turkish should be known as well while those changins are being formed. The verb-the action is always used in the final position in a Turkish sentence structure. This item is called as ‘yüklem’ in the Turkish Grammar Terminology. In this study, ‘Ettirgen Çatı’ as a part of ‘Yüklem’ which means the causative form of Turkish, is going to be studied into examples. The formation of it is such as: Verb stem+ suffixes of causative + suffixes of the tenses+ suffixes of the personal pronouns. The suffixes of Turkish causative forms are /-t-/ /-tır- , -tir- , -tur- , -tür- /, /-tırt- , -tirt-, -turt- , -türt-/ The third group become in the forms of –tırt-, -tirt-, -turt-, -türt- as shifting the phoneme in the first group/t/ to the final position so that the meaning of the whole sentence can give the ordering under a social presure. Those suffixes are used just after the verb stem and followed by the verb tense suffixes. Actually, they are only three of them as the /-t- /, /-tır- / and /-tırt- /. The others are the necessary changing forms of those because of the vowel harmony rules of Turkish. Finally, while the causative sentence structure is being formed in English, the syntactic chain of the words, the person doing the work or the person ordering the work to do and some other details about the verb tense formation are the difficult rules to be learnt or to be taught for the foreigners. Therefore, Turkish learners are also in difficulties of learning English Causative Form. Those are; have something done, get something done, have somebody do something, get somebody to do something, make somebody do something, let somebody do something. Contrary, the causative form in Turkish which is called ‘Ettirgen Yapı/Ettirgen Çatı/ is easier than the English Causative forms for the foreign language learners.

Keywords: Turkish Ettirgen Çatı, English Causative Form, Causative Suffixes in Turkish

Teaching Problems of Modern Turkish as a Foreign Language to the Adult Foreigners in Abroad and Solution Suggestions

498-505

Ömer Aydoğdu

As a member of The Ural-Altaic Languages Family, Turkish is known as it is being one of the best phonetic languages in the wold. It is also recognizable as it is being an agglutinative language. Its linguistic properties has been studied much in the mean of sentax, semantics, morphology or phonetics. However, the subject of the teaching techniques and the teaching difficulties of Modern Turkish to the adult foreigners living in abroad has not been studied in various aspects. The linguistic views and the educational suggestions given in the last two stages are the main ideas of this presentation. First, Modern Turkish is taught to the adult foreign university students at the Teaching Turkish Centers of the universities called TÖMER. Those Institutes have already progressed their own Turkish teaching sets. Most of them are written into techniques of Content- based and Task-based. The lessons plans have been progressed in the Top-down teaching technique under the influence of Foreign originated various English language teaching sets. The writers of those text books did not take in consideration wheather the techniques are being applied during the teaching/learning processes pair with the students’ expectations or not. I suggest that It may be better if the all teaching activities can be organized and the lesson plans can be designed and developed in the technique of the Bottom-up because Turkish is an agglutinative language. Yet the students are able to learn Turkish well enough eventualy as using the advantages of living in Turkey for about five years. The other adult foreigners in the group two are the students who were born in a foreign country. They are the citizens of that country. Teaching Turkish Process to those adult foreign students is easier like it is the same in the first group because their parents are Turkish and because they speak Turkish at home. Although those immigrant parents’ language is the broken Turkish of the rural areas in Turkey, it may effect the students’ learnings positivelly because they will be having the advantages of practising the standart Turkish they have learnt at school when they come back home. They may change their parents’ poor Turkish into standart Turkish as well. The third group students want to learn Turkish may be the foreigners who are living in their own country and have already known one or two or sometimes more other foreign Languages. In addition, their Turkish teacher(s) may know the students’ mother tangue as the communication language in the classroom. In this circumtance, the teaching prosess may be more interesting or more complecated than the ones have been studied in the first and the second stages. Because the same books are used for all kinds of foreign learners who wants to learn Turkish, they may be in learning difficulties during the teaching process. Those books do not work aspecially for the lower class students’ teaching. I experienced it personally and I became successful while I was teaching Modern Turkish in the UK, and in Bangladesh. The most difficult Turkish teaching process is for the forth types of foreign adult groups I think. They do not know any piece of Turkish. There are not any Turkish people living in that country. They want to learn Turkish on be half of immigriating to the Western Countries. The main aim of them is being not in difficulties as they are travelling through Turkey. They do not say so, but it is the reality. In that case, they just want to learn practical and situational Turkish. They do not care to know the standart Turkish. Therefore the Turkish Government’s teaching Turkish target in abroad does not match with the goals of those adult university students in the countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan, or Afganistan. I taught them the Modern Turkish in the Bottom-up teaching technique with the teacher-made teaching materials. I started with teaching the Modern Turkish Alphabet and its special vowels and consonants which there are not in the Latin Alphabet. Such as: Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff Gg Ğğ Hh Iı İi Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Öö Pp Rr Ss Şş Tt Uu Üü Vv Yy Zs Vowels are / A …………….E / / I ……………..İ / / O…………….Ö / / U………………Ü / The wovels on the left are low, the ones on the right are high vowels All the others are consonants. Turkish has 29 letters and those letters are also the voices of the language. It is called as the best phonetic language in the World. Turkish does not have voices like in English /sh, ch..etc/, Just writing them into one letter means the voice, /Ş, ş/ /Ç ç/ /Ö ö/ /Ğ g /..etc. A vowel can be a syllable itself alone, combination of vowel+consonant can be a syllables, consant+vowel+ consants can be sylables. Etc. Than I started to teach according to my programmes. /A/, /B/……BA BA+BA=BABA= father, An+ne=Anne= mother, de a+de=dede=grand fathers bot. I did writing and reading practise in this technique for one month, and they became productive. Because this presentation is on teaching techniques and solution suggestions, the examples used in those teaching processes are limited with a few ones.

Key words: Modern Turkish, adult foreigners, teaching problems, in abroad, foreign language

Meaningful Interaction between Childrens and Teacher in Pre-School Education Practice

506-515

Jana Grava, Vineta Pole, Ilze Mikelsone

A topicality of this research is based on idea that by implementing a child-oriented approach in pre-school education, a meaningful interaction is provided between a child and a teacher as well as between a child and a child. It has been found that in a pre-school education the meaningful nature of interaction is revealed deeper in a child - teacher than a child - child relationship. The dominant figure in this relationship is an adult. In order to implement the child-oriented approach it is relevant to balance the child - adult relationship as well as to establish a meaningful child - child interaction. The goal of this article is to characterize the indicators that show the meaningful interaction of child - adult and child - child relationships. The theory of this research is grounded in work of Röbe (2009), Wood (2009), Оsorina (2008), etc. on children’s initiative and balancing of teacher-children’s activities. The research results are analysed in the framework of a case study. The data are obtained as the result of video analysis. As the result of this study the exogenous and endogenous indicators of a meaningful interaction were determined, and they are linked to a purposefulness, positive mutual relationship and self-realization of pre-school age children.

Keywords: meaningful interaction, pre-school children, child-oriented approach.

Didactic Potential of Cloud Technology in Creating a Unified Educational “Space” in a Sla Classroom

516-519

Kamilya Karabayeva

In this article the author will provide evidence for the effective application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the educational process of a university, evidence regarding cloud technology. The urgent need to change educational priorities at the present time has necessitated wholesale changes in the methodology of teaching foreign language at the linguistic university. Accordingly, at the present time, teaching English as a second language (second language acquisition, or SLA) at the university requires a radical revision in terms of the choice of new methods and technologies.Today, the enhancement of the cognitive activity of future foreign language teachers is impossible without the use of modern pedagogical technologies in the educational process at the university, among which are new information and communication technologies (software platforms and learning management systems) as well as Internet resources (podcasting and cloud technology).Currently, the importance of cloud technology is rapidly growing. This offers universities new capabilities to provide modern network-based applications with a high level of educational service. Key characteristics of the cloud technologies (self-service on demand, universal access to the network, resource grouping, flexibility, etc.) greatly enhance the user experience in the sphere of educational services.The author will consider the opportunities and prospects for the application of cloud technologies in teaching foreign languages at university, evidence from the use of cloud platforms such as Google Apps Education Edition and Microsoft Live@edu, Microsoft’s SkyDrive, and AppleiCloud online storage. The author will also suggest challenging applications of these resources in the cloud-based educational process both during in-class learning and in the course of students’ self-training.For this purpose the author presents a “local cloud” model of an educational institution or a faculty. During testing of this model each trainee out of 75 students participating in the project was given a personal learning environment (in the form of personal account) based on cloud services.The experimental work was conducted within the framework of the English teaching programme as a second language through the creation of educational content, based on cloud technologies at the university level and has confirmed the didactic benefits of such technologies, namely the intensive upgrading of educational content, the development of individual creative initiative, and self-organisation practice in the new educational environment.Moreover, the author analyses the prospects of creating a “collective cloud”, uniting in the Internet network “clouds” of different universities with their educational content into a unified educational “space”, which would expand the capabilities of both students and teachers.

Keywords: cloud technologies, SLA classroom, ICT technologies.

Burnout among Instructors

520-523

Emine Selin Kepekcioğlu

The aim of the current study is to find out instructors’ level of burnout. Descriptive method was used in the present study . The population of the study is made up of 231 instructors who work at Education Faculty, Science and Letters Faculty, M anagement and Business Administration Faculty, Engineering and Architecture Faculty and Faculty of M edicine associated to Abant İzzet Baysal University in Turkey in the 2007-2008 Academic Year. M aslach Burnout Inventory that was developed by M aslach and Jackson in 1986 and adapted into Turkish by Ergin (1993) was used as the data collection tool in this study . M aslach Burnout Inventory has three dimensions named as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Emotional exhaustion has 9 items, depersonalization has 5 items and reduced personal accomplishment has 8 items. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions are formed of positive expressions but reduced personal accomplishment is comprised of negative expressions. The Cronbach-Alfa coefficient of consistence was found to be .86 for emotional exhaustion, .68 for depersonalization and .69 for reduced personal accomplishment in the current study . In the analysis of the data, in order to obtain the instructors’ emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment, average and standard deviation were applied. The findings of the present study revealed that instructors’ emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment levels were low but their depersonalization level was very low.

Keywords: Instructors, Burnout, Universities.

Consumer Satisfaction in the Facilities Where Leisure Activities are Organized in Public Institution: Eskisehir Municipality Sample

524-532

Kerem Yıldırım Şimşek

Nowadays to determining satisfactory level of recreation consumers with the content of art, health, sportive, cultural and social represents one of the priority issues to be paid attention by local managers. Inasmuch as recreative services that local managements produce should be in the direction of individuals’ needs and views who benefit from these kind of services. In this regard, in order to make the managers in local management develop, diversify and evaluate the recreational activities, to determining the consumer satisfaction level presents significance. In this context, in this study it is aimed at to determine the consumer satisfaction level in the facilities where spare time activities in public institution. The population is composed of the individuals who benefits from recreation services with the art, health, sportive and social content during their spare time in the facilities that belong to Eskisehir Metropolitan Municipality. From within the determined population, thanks to convenience sampling method 58 female (%24.2) and 182 male (%75,8) in total 240 recreation consumers were chosen. In the study as data collecting tool ‘Consumer Satısfaction Scale’ that Alexandris and Palialia (1999) developed was used. In order to determine the effects of recreational activities that take place in Municipality facilities on consumer satisfaction; gender, education level, age, occupation and income state differences were examined with t- test and ANOVA analysis. As a consequence of the committed analysis, there are no differences according to gender. The individuals who have primary school level education and are officers have high level satisfaction in dimension of facilities/ services. In comparing the sample group age with the age groups, having high level significant differences in all dimensions that compose consumer satisfaction is remarkable result of the research.

Keywords: Consumer Satisfaction, Leisure Satisfaction, Local Administration