Social and Civic Benefits of Higher Education

127-136

Carlos Sousa Reis ,Maria das Dores Formosinho,Marta Oliveira,António Castro Fonseca

The main objective of this study is to explore the impact that the successful completion of a course will have in the early years of adulthood in Portugal, in particular, in the civic and political participation, as well as in the respect for social values and norms, among others issues. A longitudinal methodology was applied in order to follow up students from the first years of primary school until the last years of the twenties, coinciding with the period of the Bologna Process. The sample was composed of 893 subjects, 445 of the 2nd grade and 448 of the 4th grade. Subsequently, the participants were divided into two groups (those who have completed a degree and those who did not) that were compared on several measures relating to the areas in question. Data were collected using a battery of instruments, including structured interviews and several instruments in order to evaluate: civic participation, community involvement, social development and adherence to norms and social values. We found significant differences with advantage to those that have concluded courses in the following aspects: community involvement and the importance given to community involvment. These scores include the level and the importance given to civic participation. The results confirm the existence of an effect, as reported in other countries, from higher education in the civic and political involvement of young adults, which is felt several years after finishing studies. An inference that can be drawn is that we should put more emphasis on education (formal or informal) directed to promote a school environment conducive to the development of skills, values, attitudes and behaviors that contribute to increasing the civic and political participation of students.

Keywords: Higher Education; Civic Engagement; Social Benefits; Life Satisfaction; Meaning of Life; Family.

Innovation Strategies and Its Effects on Competitiveness

137-145

Abdullah Karakaya, Emine Genç

Under today’s economic conjuncture which arises as a result of globalization and puts the businesses in such a cruel competition environment, it’s compulsory for businesses to create new strategies and apply them correctly in order to survive. It’s possible to place the innovation strategies among the most important ones. The aim of this study is to define the effects of the innovation strategies on the business’ competitivenes. It is also aimed to determining the strategies which are in use by the businesses and making a comparison between the strategies applied by the businesses and the demographic features of them. The datas were collected from 300 businesses via survey method among the first 500 + second 500 businesses which were set in 2014 by Istanbul Chamber Industry. As a result of this study it is determined that, businesses usually follow the aggressive and traditional innovation strategies, and there is no significant differences of the innovation strategies between influence degree of the business’ competitiveness and it has been found that there is a meaningful differences between the number of employees and the innovation strategies followed by the buseinesses.

Keywords: Innovation Strategies, Competitivenes, Istanbul Chamber Industry (ISO)

Public Administration Equity vs. Equality Debate on Public Spending for Higher Education in the United States

146-155

Alvin Chang, Yong-Shun Lin, Chih-Yang Chao

This research addresses an issue about funding for higher education in the modern United States. Ideally, to reduce financial pressures for the young adults, the government should either raise financial aids or educational spending. Yet, the decision between financial aid and educational spending is an “equity versus equality” debate, since financial aids are funds to low income students, whereas educational spending will benefit every student. With limited resources, the federal government should efficiently apply its funds to satisfy the public interest. To explore the public interest on education policy, this research will analyze opinions reported in the American National Election Study. Since the policy emphasizes on public spending, the study about opinions is based on income differences. The main research is about which of the two policy goals, aids to the poor for equitable education or equally affordable tuition to all students, and is preferred by Americans in different incomes. The research tool is chi-square statistical test, since the variables (income quintile as independent variable, preferences on public school spending and on aiding poor as dependent variables, employment status and education level as confounding variables) are ordinal. According to the chi-square tests for the relationships between independent and dependent variables, both relationships are significant (0.05), which indicates a rejection of null hypotheses (H0) for both relationships. With the addition of both confounding variables, employment and education, the proportion of preference on public school spending is higher than the proportion of preference on aiding poor. Comparing the two relationships, the study is confident to emphasize on public school funding.

Keywords: Public Administration, Equality in Education, Social Equity, Education Policy

Evaluation of ELT Course Books with Their Limits

156-163

Deniz Yalçınkaya

Course books used in EFL classes are one of the most important decisions a school of foreign languages will make in designing their concept of language teaching and learning. It means the method will be used and it is the purpose of learning a foreign language and the aspect of the curriculum. Do the course books fulfil the expectations in language learning? What are the limits of course books? Are the presentations of the skills in the course books satisfactory? All these questions are prepared and analyzed in this paper and the course book (series titled ‘English for life’ by Oxford University Press) is evaluated from the language teachers’ perspective. The course books as a core material in EFL classes need to be designed and placed in language education when we are aware of the goals must be achieved in language teaching and learning. Course book should be accompanied by supplementary digital materials, which serve a self-autonomy for the learners encouraging their efforts and self-esteem to learn a foreign language beyond classroom. Surely, the course books should have i-tools availed for class teaching to attract the attention and not to fall behind in age of technology.

Keywords: course books in EFL classes, language teachers ‘perspective, teaching skills

Multilingual Parenting: Benefits and Challenges

164-172

Ieva Margeviča-Grinberga, Anna Stavicka, Ligita Grigule, Anita Berķe, Gunta Kraģe

The growing mobility and opportunities for international cooperation lead to the necessity for parents to ensure the possibility for their children to acquire two or more languages. Mass media and web portals for parents are increasingly highlighting the benefits of the bilingual and bicultural development, as bilingual children have higher cognitive skills, language awareness and sensitivity to other cultures. Despite the research results revealing the positive impact of bilingualism on human development and labour market opportunities, the issue of bilingual education is still ambiguous and challenging for many parents due to their insufficient knowledge of the methodology related to bilingual education provision. To promote bilingualism and support parents in their decision-making, many countries regularly issue manuals for bilingual and/or multilingual multilingual parents. The article reports the results of the research conducted in the framework of the project (CB35) “PIM Development of Parent Involvement Models for Bilingual Pre- and Primary School” supported by the programme “Interreg Central Baltic”. Within the research framework, 70 manuals and handbooks on raising a multilingual child were analysed with the aim to identify the core aspects of multilingual education addressed within the research sample. Based on the data obtained in the research framework, the conclusion can be drawn that the manuals and recommendations are mostly based on long-term observation studies, communication with parents, the research of experts’ (speech therapists, paediatricians, educators, psychologists, etc.) viewpoint; as well as the analysis of bilingualism or multilingualism experience in their own families. The research data substantiated the conclusion that the primary goal of the available resources is to dispel myths about the negative impact of bilingualism/multilingualism on the child’s development and language acquisition.

Keywords: benefits of bilingualism, multilingual parenting, manuals for bilingual or multilingual parents

DSDI and DSDII as a Strong Base for a Consecutive and Qualitative German Acquisition

173-179

Rūta Ķemere

In a multicultural society, which increasingly becomes the most characteristic European feature in globalization conditions, one of the most essential types of communication, which unites different groups of culture, is the language. The variety of cultures and wealth of languages are important European resources whose acquisition influences significantly both the procedure of social processes in Europe in general and every individual’s life activities. Representatives of all generations are certain that skills of several foreign languages guarantee possibilities of career development and improve the quality of life. Acquisition of several languages as a goal and tool is particularly important among the school youth whose self-realization process has just started. Therefore in the current society’s learning phase positive tendencies should be emphasised in the acquisition of modern languages at school. One type of schools in Latvia which offer a qualitative acquisition of several languages is schools with specialization in German, which obtained a new status in 1993- German Diploma Schools. In Latvia the internationally recognized German Diploma Examination has been taken for more than 20 years and lots of youth from Latvia have been enrolled in higher educational establishments in Germany, Austria, etc. without any extra examinations in German schools, because the obtained scores in the DSDII examination according to the “Common European Framework of References for Languages” are high (B2/C1). In a few schools in Latvia also the DSDI examination has already been taken for three years which checks the compliance level of pupils’ German skills to A2/B1, which provides an opportunity to study at the colleges mentioned above. Both the DSDI and DSDII diplomas are also an advantage when applying for a job. When learning several languages in one educational establishment, the succession and intensity of languages acquisition are important, as well as the approbation and gradual introduction of modern teaching methods which are based on multilingual didactics. The DSDI examination is the first important German competence level, which motivates pupils for the next and most difficult step in German acquisition – the DSDII examination. Goal of the article: assess the DSDI examination as a novelty and an integral part in the complex acquisition of foreign languages in schools with German specialization in Latvia, which already in primary school alongside the acquisition of other languages gives pupils an opportunity with a more profound understanding about the foreign language, including the significance of German skills, to get involved into the formation of own individual European Language Portfolio (ELP) , which is a significant investment in every young person’s future.

Keywords: multicultural society, multilingual didactics, complex language acquisition, schools with language specialization, German diploma examination.

Significance of Operational Art in the Lifelong Education of Military Professionals

180-188

Ján Spišák, Ivo Pikner

The purpose of this paper was to investigate and describe opinions about the significance of operational art, submitted by military officers who studied the career courses at the Centre for Security and Military Strategic Studies, the University of Defense in the Czech Republic in the years 2014-2016. The data were collected using the qualitative and quantitative research methods. The case study model encompassing three research inquiries, completed with a structural questionnaire were used for this research. The questionnaire included 11 questions/statements that were complementary with the content of the case study. The research was conducted with the sample of the courses participants, which comprised 101 students from different military units within the organizational structure of the Czech Armed Forces. The results indicate that there are different opinions about significance and understanding of the operational art theory, its significance, and its skillful application in practice. The findings of the study are as follows: (1) The operational art is an important part of studies. (2) Inadequate system of officers’ training at units has a negative impact on the development of knowledge and skills. (3) Officers from the battle units or those who were deployed in military operations have a better understanding of the operational art. (4) Including more practical exercises, related to the operational art theory into a course syllabus is very beneficial.

Keywords: operational art, career courses, education, questionnaire

Learningapps.org E-Environment as a Tool of Blended Learning Form of Education at Elementary School

189-196

Anita Jansone, Olga Sakadiņeca

Development of information technologies in the modern world creates conditions of a paradigm of education change and causes prerequisites for introduction of the new forms and methods of training with use of the e-environment in educational process. Blended learning is one of the forms of electronic learning in the course of education based on application of Internet technologies. Informal methods and forms in education in the process of transition to a competent approach can possess a high potential of students' personal and social skills development. In the article methods and techniques of introduction in educational process of electronic-educational environment Learningapps.org are described, as a tool of mixed educational form at elementary school. One of the research objectives was to identify the educational motivation of pupils of 3 - 4 grades during the process of introduction of the electronic environment Learningapps.org in educational process. The results of the questioning, which was carried out at Liepaja Secondary School No. 7, defining educational motivation while using such a form of education, are given in the article. 54 respondents took part in the questioning. Questionnaires contained statements, answers to which were estimated according to Likert's 5 point scale. The results of the questioning of the pupils of 3 and 4 grades revealed a rather high level of educational motivation – in the 3rd grade - 100% and in the 4th grade - 95,8% of pupils were referred to motivated while Blended Learning form of education with the use of the Learningapps.org e-environment was applied. The statistical analysis of the results of the questioning revealed regularity of the decrease of educational motivation in the 4th grade, in comparison to the 3rd grade, that is confirmed by psychological researches of Markova (1983) and Matyukhina (1984). In general, the use of Blended Learning forms with application of the Learningapps.org e-environment at the lessons at Elementary school causes interest of pupils and promotes formation of competences of 21 century.

Keywords: blended learning, Learningapps.org, students’ motivation, e-environment.

Integrated Health-enhancing Physical Activities for Liepaja University Students

197-204

Helena Vecenane, Antra Alksne, A.Talbergs

Nowadays, highly skilled professionals are in high demand, therefore many young people choose to enter higher educational establishments. The higher education environment demands from the young people a high self-organization level as during the studies intense intellectual activity must be balanced with various other activities of young people’s lives. Therefore, it is particularly important to support and encourage students to choose a healthy lifestyle and make it as a foundation for their daily routine, as it is one of the most essential prerequisites for qualitative engagement in activities and self-actualization process. To solve this problem, a programme of integrated health-enhancing physical activities (IHEPA) was elaborated for promoting a healthy lifestyle for students in higher education environment. The Aim of the research: the effectiveness test of IHEPA programme. For testing effectiveness of IHEPA programme, the survey method was applied. Two questionnaires were elaborated: the first has 3 sections for determining students’ physical activity, eating habits and health self-evaluation, but the second questionnaire allows assessing the students’ knowledge about healthy lifestyle before and after engagement in IHEPA programme. The Results. After implementation of IHEPA programme, statistically credible changes are observed in self-evaluation of students’ knowledge: before the study course the average self-assessment of students’ knowledge in 5-point scale was 2.8 points, but after – 4.3 points. The results are statistically credible (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test). Also positive statistically credible changes are observed in regards to frequency and duration level indicators of physical activities (p < 0.01). Credible positive changes are observed in muscle strength and strength endurance position where 19.1 % more students got involved, and also improvement of 34.2 % is found for duration and frequency indicators of flexibility promoting exercises. With regards to healthy nourishment, statistically credible (p < 0.01) positive changes are observed for all eleven indicators, and also significant statistically credible changes are observed in self-evaluation category (p = 0.01) (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test), which shows the effectiveness of IHEPA programme for students during the study process.

Keywords: students, physical activities, eating habits, knowledge, integrated health-enhancing physical activities.

The Effect of Optimism Level’ on Career Decision-Making Competence and Professional Results Expect

205-210

Emine Sener, Mustafa Kocaoglu

This study has been carried out so as to identify the effect of level of optimism upon career decision-making competence and professional outcome expectancy. Career decision-making has been defined as one’s choosing a profession by being aware of his own capabilities, while Professional outcome expectancy is defined as the beliefs related to the long-term outcomes of achievements attained through certain educational or career decision-making behaviors. It is considered that the students of the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, which aims to raise students who will become the executive candidates of the future and professional individuals in the fields of economics, management, international relations, politics and public administration in both public and private sectors, should have positive perceptions so as to make significant effect on the future of the country. Positive psychology, which aims to discover the strengths of an individual, has started to be in the limelight in recent years. In this study too, the relationship between the level of optimism, which is one of the strong points of university students who are on the verge of a critical transition period in their lives and thus faced with several worries and problems, and their career decision-making competence and professional outcome expectancy has been analyzed. Target population of the study consists of the students currently attending the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences of Ahi Evran University in 2015-16 educational year. No selection process has been carried out during the study for a special sample; instead, all the student population has been included in the study. 967 students have participated in the study. Three different scales have been used in the study in order to identify students’ career decisions, their professional outcome expectancies and level of optimism. The data gathered have been analyzed with the help of a statistical package program. As a result of the statistical tests that were carried out, it was seen that most of the participants were first-grader girls and that a great majority of them had willingly chose their departments at the university. It was observed that their career decision-making competence and professional outcome expectancies were at the medium level, whereas their degree of optimism was high. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was observed between the level of optimism and levels of career decision-making competence and professional outcome expectancy (p0.05, r=.309; p0.05, r=.369). As a result of the regression analysis that was made in order to identify the degree of optimism, which was the fundamental item of the study, on career decision-making and professional outcome expectancy, it was seen that the 9% change in career decisionmaking competence was explained through level of optimism.

Keywords: Optimism, Career Decision Efficacy Expection, Professional Results Expect, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

The Predictive Power of University Students’ Alienation to the Learned Resourcefulness

211-219

Ejder Çelik

The aim of this study is to determine the predictive power of students’ perception of alienation (weakness, anomy, meaningfulness, isolation) over students’ learned resourcefulness perception. The participants of this research are 820 university students at Bozok University in Turkey during 2013-2014 school years. In the research Student Alienation Scale and Learned Resourcefulness Scale were used. Student Alienation Scale has four sub scales which are weakness, anomy, meaninglessness, isolation. Learned Resourcefulness Scale has one dimension. A simple linear regression analysis was carried out to identify how the perception of alienation of students affects (predicts) the learned resourcefulness perception of the students. It is concluded that there is a significant positive and low-level relationship between students’ alienation perception and learned resourcefulness perception. According to the results, it can be said that, 7% of the total variance in the students’ perception of learned resourcefulness results from their weakness perception. Also 1% of the total variance in the students’ perception of learned resourcefulness results from their anomy perception. And 2% of the total variance in the students’ perception of learned resourcefulness results from their meaninglessness perception. Finally 2% of the total variance in the students’ perception of learned resourcefulness results from their isolation perception. It can be said that learned resourcefulness perception is related to alienation perception weakly. To determine whether the relationship between the two concepts is needed for more research.

Keywords: Weakness, anomy, meaningless, isolation, durability.

The Transformation of Femininity in Modernity

220-226

Ejder Çelik

Before approaching the question of defining the phenomenon of femininity within social relations, the terms of “gender” and “sexuality” are required to define. Western models refer “sex” as biological state of a person as well as anatomical features and “gender “is referring to representation of social and cultural roles. (Newman, 2002: 353). Ann Oakley ,who adds the word “gender” to the Sociology Literature, uses the word “sex” to express the differences between man and woman biologically, in addition to this, Oakley defines the Word “gender” as the social division between masculinity and femininity. Therefore, it is emphasized that gender indeed draws attention to the social dimension of the differences between man and woman. However, later in the process, this term has been extended to cover stereotypes and ideals of masculinity and femininity (Marshall, 1999: 98). Zehra Dökmen (2004: 3-10) uses the word “sex” to express biological state of a person and word “gender” to refer representation of socil and cultural roles of man and woman as the Western models. Dökmen has stated that sex, a demographic category which is determined according to the biology of the individual and also “gender” is given roles to man and woman by the culture. It is said that “gender characteristics” belongs to mostly innate physiological concepts that refer to the biological and psychological aspects. In addition to this, issues of “gender roles and attitudes” towards gender concept is the social and cultural requirements, refers to qualification and achievements. When the issue is “gender roles and attitudes”, the term refers to qualification, achievements and cultural and social requirements for sex. Another is the concept of "gender behavior" refers to the behaviour as sociologically reflects to the situation in the social system. The term “gender culture” is a broader concept and encompasses these concepts. Gender culture encompasses all descriptions and evaluations which is based on sexual orientation in the social system. That is is to say that this concept includes sex, gender and gender roles. The term is related to determining side of the culture. And it is stated that gender behaviour is about values for sex, attitude and convenient behaviors and warns in this regard (Ersoy, 2009).

Life in a Chemically Safe Environment: The Education Aspect

227-235

Ludmila Karule, Olga Glikasa

Every moment the child is affected by the environment in all its diversity and complexity. Natural environment is a very stable system, whereas the social environment is governed by stereotypes, fashion trends, financial considerations, importunateness of psychologically efficient advertising, and the moral pressure of peers, characteristic of the time period and the region. Besides, each family forms their own habits, priorities of purchaces and treatment of values. Joining various children's groups (in the playground, the kindergarten, the sports team, the art club, etc.), the child is influenced by the atmosphere prevailing there, wants to fit in and to be like the leaders. It determines their desire to wear certain types of clothing and footwear, use school and hygiene accessories of special design, and have trendy toys. The chemical composition of the object that can affect health is of least consideration for them. Skills obtained at school are not an end in themselves - they need to start being used as early as possible in life. In deciding how to treat natural environment, what to consume, and what things to buy, opportunities arise at every step. Introducing junior schoolchildren to dangerous substances is utterly important, but the complexity of the topic and the students’ lack of necessary knowledge in chemistry makes the task difficult. Game elements, practical research activities, and training brought closer to the realities of life, ensure positive results. Children should be encouraged to search for information in both using literature and listening to teachers and specialists, performing cognitive activities in their neighborhood, and being observant and careful in everyday life. Objectives: 1) to establish the primary school pupils’ and their parents’ and teachers’ knowledge of hazardous chemicals and their attitude to the choice of various things and hygiene products; 2) to develop a methodology for teaching and learning the theme in the study process and extra-curricular activities. As there is no special subject in the syllabus, the most appropriate subjects, teaching which issues related to hazardous chemicals prove to be the sciences, social sciences, arts, manual training, and sports. Students do not know chemistry and are not sufficiently aware of the presence of hazardous chemicals in the living environment as shown by questionnaires, brainstorms, discussions, and analysis of drawings. Our study shows that the teaching/learning process should emphasize the presence of hazardous chemicals in the household, and skills to avoid them by using diverse teaching methods should be mastered.

Keywords: Chemicals, environment, lifeskills

Academic Field of Your Paper: Educational Sciences for LLE Relationship Between Lifelong Learning Levels and Information Literacy Skills in Teacher Candidates

236-244

Dilek Yalız Solmaz

This study was aim to examine the relationship between lifelong learning levels and information literacy skills in teacher candidates. The research group consists of 127 physical education and sports teacher candidates. 41.7% of the students in the study population were female, 58.3% are male. According to the grade levels, it is observed that students are 1st class of 24.4%, 2nd class of 27.6%, 3rd class of 25.2% and 4th class of 22.8%. Data were collected by means of “Life Long Learning Scale (LLL)” which was originally developed by Coşkun and Demirel (2012) and "Information Literacy Scale" which was developed by Adıgüzel (2011). In the data analysis, “mean, standard deviation and Product-Moment Correlation coefficients” were used. As a result of the study, it has been observed that participant student’ lifelong learning levels are above the average. Sub-dimensions of lifelong learning levels have been analyzed, it shows that participant student’ curiosity, perseverance, motivation and self-regulation subscale scores, were slightly above the mean score of the scale. Another result obtained from this research is that teacher candidates’ information literacy trends are also quite high. It shows that students' “defining information needs”, “access to information”, “use of information” and “ethical and legal settings in use of information” subscale average scores is the high level. According the results of the analysis, there is a significant relationship between teacher candidates’ information literacy skills and lifelong learning levels. This relationship is positive and at moderate level. Thus, it is understood that when teacher candidates' information literacy skills increase their attitudes toward lifelong learning will also increase in parallel at moderate level.

Keywords: Lifelong learning; information literacy skills; pre-service teachers; physical education and sport; correlation.

Lifelong Learning and the Use of Technology in Music Education

245-248

Vahdet Çalışkan

The concept of lifelong learning which was introduced in the 1970s continues to gain increasing importance in various fields. In music, as it is in many different fields, to train highly motivated, research-oriented and updated individuals about the changes in technology is of paramount importance to promote lifelong learning. Although individualized training namely master-apprentice understanding has been favored in music education, this approach should be reconsidered to improve the participation and sustainability. In the light of all these components, music education should be done in line with the lifelong learning according to the developing and changing dynamics of the era regardless of individual’s being an amateur or a professional. Most of the fields in education ongoing with traditional teaching methods gained a new perspective with the technological developments which make life and learning easier and accessible. The importance of technology, which is an indispensable part of our lives nowadays, cannot also be ignored in the progress of music within the framework of lifelong learning concept. As a result of technological developments, it is possible and easier to access not only to music, but also its meta-data, note, records, software and lots of other data quickly today, regardless of time and space while in the past it was only possible to access to music in real-time. Variety and limitlessness of applications in areas such as flow of information, quick transfer of information, access to information and information sharing provides new perspectives to individuals. The efficiency of such applications and contents will increase if they become multilingual rather than being limited to only some particular languages and if they become free in order to enable equal opportunities. In addition to these, creating a music- based data base among the institutions which give amateur or professional music education will play a very important role in raising equipped musicians who have self-confidence. Therefore, in this study some of the useful websites, applications, databases and magazines are stated.

Keywords: lifelong learning, music, education, technology

Text-Formation In The Context Of Cultural Studies

249-256

Elita Balčus, Indra Kalniņa

The time when Latvian schools were mono-ethnic has gone, as different nationality students, each with his awareness and emotional attitude, study in our schools. If the same teaching methods are used as 50 years ago, the academic results will not be successful. The teacher with his vision and desire to change the learning process and change himself with his values orientation and knowledge can build a future human - free from stereotypes and prejudices against the other. The term "multicultural class" has entered our school perceived as a class which has multinational students and a cultural studies program which includes: * Knowledge of other cultures * Awareness of one’s own culture * Tolerance towards other cultures The task of cultural studies is to discover, learn and understand the mental code of an unknown nation to tolerate its differences. Knowledge of other people's cultural heritage creates this awareness. We need immersion and to look for answers to the questions which we even do not sense at the beginning of the process. The article aims to look at various examples of cultural study texts which allow the cognition process to take place naturally and change the linear approach to the more dimensional. When students themselves put forward questions and find solutions, they advance their understanding and create a conscious working style. Activities that contribute to this process will be offered in the article.

Keywords: cross-cultural education, hypertext, the storyline method.

Outdoor Sports Recreation to Improve the Well-being of 45-55-year-old People

257-264

Ieva Zvigule, Juris Grants, Intars Nikonovs, Ilze Mikelsone

Physical activity is of a fundamental importance not only for improving the physical health, but also for increasing and improving the level of well-being. Increase of beta-endorphin (β-EP), leve ls in the blood plasma depends on the load intensity, amount and type. The trends of changes in β-EP levels as a result of physical load are connected with β-EP levels before physical activity. The level of β-EP affects a person's positive and negative emotions. A type of physical recreation affects positive and negative emotions of a human being. In order to realize the aim of research - to discover how the natural means for outdoor recreation (biking, Nordic walking, cross-country skiing) influence the beta-endorphin levels in the body and the positive and negative emotions of the 45-55 year-old people, a total of 16 participants were tested. Before and after physical recreation (50 min with personalized heart rate frequency 65-70% of HRmax) positive and negative emotions (using facial expressions analyzing tool "Face Reader 3.0" (FR)) and β-EP level in blood plasma (using the ELISA method) were tested. The most explicit increase of β-EP level was experienced in cyclists (+ 15.3%, p> 0.05). The changes detected in Nordic walkers and skiers are similar (+ 5.9% and + 6%, p> 0.05). Also the obtained results demonstrate the following link: for the people with relatively low beta-endorphin levels prior to performing physical recreation activities, it will be relatively lower also after such activity and vice versa (p <0.05 ). The average results of the group for the emotion of joy has increased by almost half - before the recreational activities it was estimated at 5.6 ± 1.8% level, while after 10.1 ± 3.2%. A similar situation was observed while analyzing such positive emotion as surprise. Before carrying out recreational activities the average percentage is 16.5 ± 3.4%, while after it has already reached 23.1 ± 3.1% margin. Clarifying the trends of changes in the negative emotions we found out that before the physical exercise the average negative emotion ratio is 29.5% ± 6.1, but after it - 28.2% ± 5.4 (p> 0.05). By analyzing separately the average changes of negative emotion in the group, "Face Reader 3.0" results demonstrate the reduction of average indicators of sorrow - 1.3%; anger - 3.3% and disgust - 2.8% (p> 0.05). The link between levels of positive emotions - joy and surprise, and beta-endorphin levels in the blood prior to recreational physical activity (Nordic walking, cycling and skiing) demonstrate the following trends: in accordance with the correlation coefficients, the changes in beta-endorphin level has no incentive effect of positive emotions. Therefore people with more joyful emotions have lower beta-endorphin levels and vice versa – people with lower beta-endorphin levels have more joyful emotions (r = -0,403; p > 0,05). Analyzing the changes of beta-endorphin level and negative emotions affected by physical recreation, moderately strong correlation was found between the emotion of anger and the level of beta-endorphin before the physical recreation activities. It is understood that for the people with higher beta-endorphin level the level of anger will be lower and for the people with low endorphin level the level of anger will be high (p <0.05).

Keywords: well-being, beta-endorphins, physical recreation, emotions.

Instructors’ Emotional Labor and Burnout

265-272

Emine Selin Kepekcioğlu

The aim of the current study is to investigate if there is a significant relationship between instructors’ emotional labor and burnout. The population of the study which is structured on relational survey model is made up of 126 instructors working at different faculties associated to a university in the Black Sea Region of Turkey . Emotional Labor Scale which was developed by Diefendorff, Croyle and Grosserand in 1999 and adapted into Turkish by Basım and Begenirbaş (2012) and M aslach Burnout Inventory that was developed by M aslach and Jackson in 1986 and adapted into Turkish by Ergin (1993) were used as data collection tools in this study . In the analysis of the data, in order to obtain the instructors’ surface acting, deep acting, naturally felt emotions, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment, average and standard deviation and to find out the if there is a significant relationship between instructors’ emotional labor and burnout Spearman Rho correlation coefficient were applied. The findings of the present study documented that instructors’ exhibition of naturally felt emotions was higher than their exhibition of surface acting and deep acting and instructors’ emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment was found to be low. It was found that there is a positive significant relation in a low level between instructors’ exhibition of surface acting and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, but a negative significant relation in a low level between instruct ors’ exhibition of deep acting and reduced personal accomplishment and instructors’ exhibition of naturally felt emotions and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment.

Keywords: Instructors, Emotional Labor, Burnout

Adult Education Trends in the Enterprises of Latvia

273-279

Inga Zeide, Indra Odina

The article deals with the survey carried out at 27 enterprises in Latvia. The aim of this study is to find out how companies in Latvia tackle the issues of adult education and to outline the main trends in adult education in the past 3 years (that is – in the period from 2013 until the beginning of 2016). The Human Resource managers of 27 companies representing over 18 000 employees have been interviewed during the survey. The following research questions have been put forward: what the attitude of different types of organizations: private, state, municipality are towards the employees’ education, what the priorities of learning are, how learning is supported, planned, and promoted in organizations. The main conclusions are that 58% of the respondents consider there is a tendency for staff training needs to change both in quality and quantity. There are differences in state, municipal and private business training structures in terms of creativity approach. Similarly, it can be concluded that the organization of corporate creativity training – in both form and content – is largely dependent on the size of the company. The data also reveal that in general companies have no convincing mechanism to evaluate the return on investment (ROI) in employee training.

Keywords: adult learning, workplace learning, non-formal learning, the return on investment (ROI).

Lifelong Learning and the Effects of Think-Aloud Protocol on Reading

280-287

Meltem Baysal

Research during the past several decades has demonstrated that when students interact with text while reading, reading comprehension improves. As it is already known reading is normally a silent, hidden process and researchers cannot determine what is happening in the brain by simple observation or by product-based assessment. Asking readers to provide verbal reports or protocols is the most direct way to access this process. Think aloud protocols provide language learners with a means of monitoring their own reading processes as well and characterize reading skills in which they describe each strategic step in learning or comprehending information immediately after it occurs. Although thinking-aloud differs from silent reading, it can be introduced to learners at any level or age, because lifelong learners are supposed to be metacognitive. Lifelong learning (LL) which has been introduced since decades is of vital for both educators and learners in any field and it is possible with LL for anyone to embrace different approaches, teaching and learning methods and practices. Therefore, the learners from early childhood to elder ages can be introduced with thinking-aloud protocols. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of think aloud protocol in language teaching has a crucial impact on learners and their achievement in reading skills. A qualitative research has been carried out to gather data for the study. The research has been implemented on B2 level Faculty of Medicine students and the study tries to determine whether there is an enhancement of reading skills via think aloud integrated reading courses.

Keywords: think aloud protocol, promoting reading skills via thinking-aloud, lifelong learners

The Opportunities of Teachers’ Further Education Model Improvement in the Context of Inclusive Education Reform

288-298

Dina Bethere, Ilma Neimane

Publication initiative is based on two inter-related areas of the education system: inclusive education and teachers’ further education. Modern teachers should be professionally competent to provide education for children with special needs in comprehensive school. The following condition includes professional skills related to the optimal learning environment provided for each pupil. At the same time the following condition causes certain discrepancies between two above-mentioned areas of the education system. In Latvia teachers’ lifelong education in professional development segment is governed by the regulations. Meanwhile in inclusive education practice the influence of regulatory factor is conditioned, because each pupil is unique. Therefore the teacher should understand the expressions of developmental disorders and disabilities, contribute social integration of the child with special needs as well as provide communication with pupils, colleagues and cooperation with parents(Knauer, 1999; Maikowski, 2000; Sander, 2000). The important landmark for the quality of teachers’ futher education implementation is Index for Inclusion. In accordance with the following conception the foundation for the effective inclusion process is educational institution culture which influences inter-related areas: support for pupils’ participation and diversity in the educational process as well as use of appropriate teaching methods and resources (Booth, Ainscow, 2002). In the following publication the aim of the research is to evaluate critically the opportunities of the current further education model to provide effective teachers’ professional activity in the context of inclusive education. This is intended to make the analysis of development trend of teachers’ further education and inclusive education scientific and regulatory conditions. For the basis of the current problem there have been used long time period summarized survey data of teachers – further education cources participants. Within the research there have been reflected teachers competence inclusion obtained in the further education segment for the formation of the promoting educational institution culture, the respect of pupils diversity and the use of appropriate didactic methods for individual needs. The set of results obtained during the research confirms that for the implementation of teachers’ further education it is necessary to ensure a close link between theoretical knowledge acquisition process and its practical implementation in the specific educational institution. This implies the need to promote school autonomy in the implementation of further education programs. In that case there will be possibility for the observation of educational process as well as teachers’ intern exchange. Implementation of such further education model is related to the structural changes in the planning and implementation of the programs.

Keywords: inclusive education, teachers’competences, teachers’further education

Professional Needs as One of the Factors that Influence Quality of Work Life

299-307

Ērika Gintere, Diāna Oļukalne, Arturs Jankausks

Quality of work life is one the most important aspects why people are satisfied with their jobs and can professionally self-realize. Studies on the quality of work life have shown that one of the essential factors that influence quality of work life is professional needs, which are the foundation of a high level of quality of work life. In everyday life, each person deals with existential issues to achieve a good quality of life, therefore quality of work life, as a part of the overall quality of life, is very important for every individual in their personal life and in their relationships with others. The human strives for wellbeing in all areas of life, including work life, but, to achieve that, various professional needs have to be provided for. The aim of this research – to find out the current professional needs of teachers and to create a model for the provision of said needs. The study included 78 respondents from the regions of Kurzeme, Vidzeme and Zemgale. Research methods – to identify the professional needs of teachers, a survey (pilot study) was developed and carried out. The survey was based on M. Burns’, J. Lawrie’s (2015), L. Calvert’s (2016), G. V. Caprara’s (2006), L. Hall’s (2007) and APA’s researches on teachers’ professional needs. The development of professional needs provision model was based on the results of education management staff focus group discussions. The study revealed the current needs of the teachers. The most frequently mentioned needs were the need for vocational education, professional development courses and seminars, the need for creativity and related activities, the need for the latest teaching aids and IT solutions to be provided during classes, the need for adequate wages and social guarantees, the need for the school management to be understanding, supportive and appreciative, the need for friendly and supportive colleagues, and the need for a convenient, safe and psychologically comfortable working environment. The provision of teachers’ professional needs activates certain aspects of the work done by the director of an educational institution. These include providing adequate working conditions and work environment, maintaining the institution’s budget and spending it according to the needs of the teachers, cooperating with the teachers to achieve goals, providing information about courses and seminars, their contents and quality, provision of feedback and a safe and supportive microclimate, caring for the balance between a teacher’s work load and leisure time. It is concluded that an all-round cooperation among employees, the management of the educational institution, the management of the education sector and on the international level is the primary basis for the provision of teachers’ professional needs and an increase in quality of work life.

Keywords: Professional needs, Quality of life, Quality of work life, Teachers

Educational Science School Museum in Forming Pupils` Understanding of the History

308-317

Ārija Kolosova, Kintija Ozola, Irisa Otrupe

In relation to School Museum development, Latvia has accumulated experience from the beginning of the 20th century, however, its content was influenced by historical and political processes. More contemporary activities and stock accumulation took place after the political restoration of the Republic of Latvia in the 1990’s. Nowadays the importance of School Museums is growing, triggered by the research direction of microhistory, the epicentre of which is „little people" with their views on the historical periods and events that are different from the views, explanations and versions expressed formally. The research carried out is an interdisciplinary qualitative study and describes pedagogical experience gained over a long term period. The methods used are the following: theoretical (scientific literature analysis), empirical (observation, discussions, interviews, situation analysis), historical and descriptive. It is concluded that the school museum materials can be practically used in varied forms of study and methods; the involvement of pupils, parents, alumni and local community is essential in the museum development process and activities; pupils, investigating and finding out the nearest history and events, make the vision of the future – towards a city, country, as well as world history. Classes at the School Museum promote not only the knowledge of the history, but, according to a survey of senior students, they also have an educational function, they form the attitudes of students towards their school, city, and country.

Keywords: School Museum, microhistory, historical cognition, teacher and student activity.

Analyzing Tutors and Learners Opnions towards Adult Education in Public Education Centers: Expectations, Challenges and Solution Offers

318-328

Zeynep Demirtaş, Perihan Ökten

These innovations and changes in the world force people to improve and develop themselves. The knowledge that the person acquires in life is not going to be satisfactory so he/she is going to be aware of learning new things in every fields of her/his life. In this research, the opnions of the tutors working in public education centers and the adult learners attending courses in different areas were aimed to be investigated. In accordance with this aim, the tutors and learners’ expectations about adult education, kinds of problems encountered and their own solution offers were tried to be defined. The research was carried out with the interview method, which is one of the methods of qualitative researchs. The semi-structured interview forms seperately prepared for tutors and learners were formed in accordance with expert opinions. There are 27 tutors and 126 learners in the study group defined with the data obtained in the research was analyzed with descriptive analysis method. 1-From the point of the instructors, most of the problems are due to physical disabilities, lack of course materials, level differences among learners, curriculum (modules) and inconsistency between the learners’ needs and demands 2- Related to the problems experienced the instructors suggest that learners should be seperated in groups by age and level of education, the material support should be provided and curriculum (modules) should be revised in accordance with the instructors’ opinions. 3- At the top of the learners’ expectations are having a job, improving oneself, being beneficial to one’s family and environment. 4- The problems encountered by the learners were defined as lack of course materials, small classes, over population of the learners, ignoring hygiene, long duration of the course, late ending of the courses. 5- The solution suggestions of the learners were that the buildings containing new, well-equipped, large classes should be allocated to public education centers, courses should be taught at early hours, textbooks should be given for free, repetitions should be done frequently.

Keywords: Public education, adult education, lifelong learning, public education center.

Development of Music Therapists’ Professional Competence in the Pedagogical Process

329-335

Liga Engele, Mirdza Paipare

The aim of this research is to clarify the music therapist’s professional development opportunities in the context of lifelong learning. Professional competence includes the actual work experience, obtained skills and abilities during the work process, as well as academic knowledge (education, courses, seminars, foreign languages, computer skills, etc.) and its role in the professional advancement process. Professional competence reveals the employee’s attitude towards work, his/her ability to improve and willingness to obtain new knowledge. This research was organized in order to clarify whether the new specialists with music therapist’s qualification consider themselves as sufficiently competent in their profession, as well as to clarify the missing or insufficient knowledge, skills and competence of their therapeutic activity. Music therapist’s professional competence can be described as integrative that implies a set of sub-competences and practical abilities, where the musician, medical practitioner, psychologists and teacher’s skills are in continuous interaction. In music therapy in Latvia the integrative eclectic approach is recognized, and above mentioned professional competence is necessary for its successful implementation. For this study a survey was carried out with participation of professional music therapists. The survey questions inquired about the obtained professional skills and abilities and about the ones that still need perfection in order to improve music therapist’s professional competence. Music therapists rated their professional competence according to specified criteria. When asked to name the lacking or insufficient knowledge, skills or competence to which the study programme should pay more attention in order to develop them, the graduates suggest to devote more time and space for acquiring different techniques and methods, and to provide deeper insights for work with various groups of clients/patients both individually and in the group. Similarly, the new specialists recommend to increase the amount of practical classes, to pay more attention to mastering arts-based assessment instruments (assessment diagnostic), as well as to practical application of principles of short-term music therapy process. Summarizing the survey results it can be concluded that the knowledge and skills acquired during the study process at University make up the core competence of music therapist, however, for professional development and professional maturity the further education is needed, which is provided both by the certification process and participation in supervisions.

Keywords: music therapist, professional competence, integrative eclectic approach.