Self-Image and psychological well-being among Turkish adolescents

146-151

Bakhtiyar Aliyev, Lecturer Abdullah TÜRKMEN

Recent literature suggests that poor self-image is related to various types of mental disorders among adolescents and young adults such as depression. In this sense, this study investigates self-image and psychological well-being among seventy two adolescents in Turkey. The first purpose of this study is to evaluate psychometric properties such as factor structure, reliabilities and validity of Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents. The second purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between mental health problems such as depressive symptoms and three important constructs of selfimage: (a) social relationships, (b) emotional tone and (c) body image. To argue the reliability of analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were made. The multiple regression analysis was conducted for the second purpose of this study. Using scale from CDI describing depressive symptoms as dependent variable, its associations with subscales in SIQYA such as family relationships, peer relationships, emotional tone and body image were examined. All the analyses were performed using SPSS except that confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using SAS. Results indicate that there is a significant negative relationship between depressive symptoms and social relationships among Turkish adolescents, and much more.   
Keywords: Self-image, Psychologıcal well-being, Turkish adolescents   

Content and language integrated learning as a topic for mathematics teachers lifelong learning

134-140

Martina Uhlířová, Jitka Laitochová

Lifelong learning is defined as learning that is pursued throughout life: learning that is flexible, diverse and available at different times and in different places. Lifelong learning can develop creativity and individual skills needed for adaptability in a rapidly developing modern society. Teachers are expected to develop as professionals and they need to acquire new knowledge, become familiar with new didactics trends, learn about new teaching and learning methods. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a teaching method based on teaching a non-language school subject through a foreign language. Pupils acquire knowledge and skills in both subjects at the same time. Suitable subjects include mathematics, biology, art and physical education. The CLIL method is supported by the European Commission in its Action Plan 2004-2006 yet, because it enables pupils to apply their newly acquired language skills. The paper describes the proposed course Application of English in teaching primary mathematics through CLIL. This course, for students and teachers, provides a better view of the possibilities of cross-curricular links Mathematics and English based on CLIL. The course includes examples of selected activities, realisable in school practice. The authors are convinced, in agreement with the results of international studies, that the inclusion of information on the method CLIL and its implementation in individual subjects has potential use for lifelong learning of both teachers and students. Successful integration of CLIL contributes significantly to the transformation of schools towards international communication and cooperation.  
Key words: CLIL, primary mathematics, lifelong learning 

Forming a cloud computing based lifelong learning platform: integration of basic computer courses as mass open online courses to university

141-145

Hakan KÖR, Hasan ERBAY, Hamit AKSOY

Today’s formal educational institutions remain incapable of keeping people’s knowledge up to date. Updating information in fields like general culture, information technology, language education and vocational education is needed. Online learning settings, certificate trainings, in service trainings and social network settings greatly contribute to updating information. The learning function is a lifelong process besides formal educational institutions. Lifelong learning can be defined as individual’s whole collaboration of events which aims to develop their knowledge, skills and talents individually, vocationally or socially in order to manage their lives. It can be said that a web based learning settings has contributed to the learning processes the most these days. In this regard, people and especially universities grants free access to supply of information they have through Mass Open Online Courses (MOOC). In order for users to access MOOC, having an internet browser is enough.  MOOC is also able to develop lifelong learning skills and brings the participants ways of self-learning and information gathering. Strong hardware and software substructure is needed for an MOOC system which will be accessed by thousands. Rapid developments in information technology have decreased hardware costs significantly. By decreasing the costs, developed software and hardware platforms are formed and brought into mutual use of people. Bringing the hardware and software components (storage, data base, mail services and some private software) into people’s mutual use form the basis of cloud computing. Cloud computing systems provide great advantages in terms of cost and workforce. Also, through cloud, many subunits can be managed at one origin. In this study, processes of forming a cloud computing based MOOC platform where basic computer technology subjects are included are given place. Through the formed platform, individuals learn new information in the information technology field or keep their knowledge up to date. This will ease people’s learning interest and provide lifelong learning opportunity.   
Keywords: Lifelong Learning, Mass Online Open Course, Cloud Computing, Distance Education 

Forming a cloud computing based lifelong learning platform: integration of basic computer courses as mass open online courses to university

141-145

Hakan KÖR, Hasan ERBAY, Hamit AKSOY

Today’s formal educational institutions remain incapable of keeping people’s knowledge up to date. Updating information in fields like general culture, information technology, language education and vocational education is needed. Online learning settings, certificate trainings, in service trainings and social network settings greatly contribute to updating information. The learning function is a lifelong process besides formal educational institutions. Lifelong learning can be defined as individual’s whole collaboration of events which aims to develop their knowledge, skills and talents individually, vocationally or socially in order to manage their lives. It can be said that a web based learning settings has contributed to the learning processes the most these days. In this regard, people and especially universities grants free access to supply of information they have through Mass Open Online Courses (MOOC). In order for users to access MOOC, having an internet browser is enough.  MOOC is also able to develop lifelong learning skills and brings the participants ways of self-learning and information gathering. Strong hardware and software substructure is needed for an MOOC system which will be accessed by thousands. Rapid developments in information technology have decreased hardware costs significantly. By decreasing the costs, developed software and hardware platforms are formed and brought into mutual use of people. Bringing the hardware and software components (storage, data base, mail services and some private software) into people’s mutual use form the basis of cloud computing. Cloud computing systems provide great advantages in terms of cost and workforce. Also, through cloud, many subunits can be managed at one origin. In this study, processes of forming a cloud computing based MOOC platform where basic computer technology subjects are included are given place. Through the formed platform, individuals learn new information in the information technology field or keep their knowledge up to date. This will ease people’s learning interest and provide lifelong learning opportunity.   
Keywords: Lifelong Learning, Mass Online Open Course, Cloud Computing, Distance Education 

Influential factors in political and civic participation of university students

187-202

O. Nejat Akfırat

In this study, a scale was developed according to the scale of Flanagan et al. (2007) and data were obtained from university students (n= 330). The empirical evidences on the identification of the youth participation were analyzed through Path Analysis in the Structural Equation Modeling and a model was suggested. This study suggests a model based on determination of factors influencing civic and political participation of university students. General findings pointed out that individuals’ participation to family decisions during their earlier, life, parents’ civic and political participation, participation experiences at school, political communication with teachers and friends, participation sensitive class activities, the perceived level of critics of political knowledge, levels of civic responsibility, sensitivity to own civic society and perceived understanding of civic and political issues, interest for politics and civic issues, level of general self efficacy. Individuals interest for politics and civic issues, general self efficacy, sensitivity for social problems and perceived political efficacy, influence their participation ideas and behaviors. In this content, opportunities and resources presented for youth are necessary for individual as well as societal development.  
Keywords: Political participation, civic participation, predictors of participation 

Disaster preparation: participant opinions for management of potential post-earthquake industrial emergency

181-186

Serpil Gerdan, Esma Buluş Kırıkkaya, Dündar Şahin, Utkucan Saygılı

It is inevitable to experience disasters by the region we live in. However, it is quite important to foresee and manage the following chaos to occur. As in all over the world, scenarios which might occur after disasters are also planned in our country and various drills are carried out in this regard. In this study, a drill activity was organized for the management of potential post-earthquake industrial emergencies by the researchers within the scope of the 5th International Earthquake Symposium. A total of 18 people including engineers/technical staff employed in various industrial institutions in Kocaeli region, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) Kocaeli Provincial Directorate and Kocaeli University participated in the activity voluntarily. After the drill, the participants were asked some questions by the researchers to get their opinions. Evaluating the responses to the questions, it was determined that each individual participating in the activity had participated at least one disaster drill activity and all of them believed that the drills were useful and necessary. It was found out that the participants had the opinion that this study, carried out for the building of a drill scenario, met their expectations or partly satisfied their expectations. In disaster and emergency drill scenario building, the participants specified the benefit of collaborative teamwork and knowledge sharing with people from different public and private institutions and organizations and brainstorming in positive aspects and the time being limited, corporate identities coming to the fore and there being few different institutions participating in the drill in negative aspects. In this study, it was observed that although both public and private sectors had trainings, plannings and drill studies carried out for disaster and emergency management, they had difficulty in forming a common language. It is recommended that private sector and public institutions cooperate for disaster and emergency management. 

Keywords: Disaster, emergency management, industrial emergency, drill.

Methodology of theoretical physics in economics: non-relativistic physics as rediscovered approach to economics

160-167

Tomáš R. Zeithamer

One of the necessary outcomes of the application of physical-mathematical methods in economics has been the gradual creation of conditions in basic and applied economic research during the course of the twentieth century, which at the turn of the millennium gave rise to physical economics. In economic systems, one of the main reasons that the signal to noise ratio is close to one is the high degree of self-organization and selfimprovement. This article is motivated by research on the consilient use of the methodologies of theoretical physics in economics and social physics. The article examines one possible area of consilience in theoretical physics by deriving Reilly’s law of retail gravitation in a direct manner from Newton’s law of gravitation. This relationship is also the basic relationship for deriving the law of demographic gravitation directly from Newton’s law of gravitation and Newton’s laws of motion (law of inertia, law of force, law of action and reaction). Contributions of the Czech School of Economics to the field of physical economics are also documented.  
Key Words: Consilience, differential equation, law of retail gravitation, Newton´s law of gravitation, Newton´s laws of motion 

The Role of the School Principal in an Angolan School Organization

38-47

Marta ABELHA, Idalina MARTINS, Ana Silvia ALBUQUERQUE, Sofia MOTA, Joaquim CHIHOCO

This paper results of an empirical study carried out in 2015, in a private school in Benguela. The purpose and objectives of the research were to analyze which competencies teachers considered essential to the position of a school principal, to identify essential competencies and inherent aspects to exercise this position and the development of knowledge about the competency profile of a school principal. The research methodology was predominantly qualitative, a questionnaire survey was applied to 42 teachers, and the simple statistical analysis was the data treatment technique. The main results showed that for the teachers who participated in the study: i) the school principal should be a teacher with School Management and Administration training; ii) the appointment of a school principal should result from peer election; iii) the ability to manage human resources, leadership, communication, teamwork and management knowledge are essential competencies of a school principal.

Keywords: School organization, Competencies, School principal

Mentoring Support System to Foster Novice Teachers’ Well-Being and Integration in the Education Institution

14-24

Dina MOLDOVANA, Indra ODINA, Ligita GRIGULE, Anna STAVICKA

Support provision during the induction period can be viewed as one of the most effective strategies to ensure successful transition from pre-service teacher stage towards independent professional teacher career. The induction period lasting up to five years is frequently challenging for novice teachers, which leads to the necessity to provide additional support during this career stage. The present situation at schools in Latvia experiencing shortage of novice teachers is daunting. Furthermore, there is a tendency for newly qualified specialists to leave the profession due to such reasons as stress, excessive workload, lack of support which result in novice teachers’ low well-being. The aim of the research was to explore mentoring as a means of fostering novice teachers’ well-being during their first years of professional practice at school. Three research questions were formulated to provide specific information about mentors’ assistance, namely, what mentors should do to meet these needs, what problems novice teachers experienced that could be resolved through mentor’s support and if mentoring could relate to novice teachers’well-being. The research sample comprised 70 novice teachers from different schools of Latvia chosen by purposeful sampling (62 local teachers and 8 international teachers working in Latvia). The research was conducted applying phenomenology as the research method. The findings of the research proved mentoring to be beneficial for keeping novice teachers’ well-being and based on the data obtained in the research framework, the recommendations for mentors and novice teachers were elaborated. . The research was conducted in the framework of the Nordplus Horizontal Project “Reducing Teacher Drop-Out Rate” (Project number NPHZ-2017/10067) and the Project “Multilingual and Multicultural University: Preparation Platform for Prospective International Students” (No. 1.1.1.2/VIAA/1/16/019) co-funded by ERDF.

Keywords: Mentor, Novice teachers, Well-being, Lack of support

The determination of lifelong learning competence levels in social studies lesson

168-175

Ensar Aydın, Betül Yar Sevmiş, Mehmet Akif Hayal

Our changing and evolving world requires us to be individuals who are lifelong learners. Therefore, lifelong learning competencies have taken its place in the literature. The most influential institutions in the gaining of these qualifications are primary school, undoubtedly. Social Studies lesson which is basic course in primary school played an important role in gaining of these qualifications. The purpose of this study is to explain the level of lifelong learning competence in Social Studies Lesson Book taught in schools by the Ministry of Education in primary 1, 2 and 3 classes in the school year 20152016. Document review which is a qualitative research method was used in the research. According to study results, it was seen that while competence of "communication in the mother tongue" is given in textbooks mostly, the competence of “communication in foreign languages” is not specified in the textbooks. It was observed that the competence of “Learning to learn", "cultural awareness and expression "," personal initiative and entrepreneurship” are stated in all class levels. It was observed that “digital competence” which is one of the most important requirements of our age is given in the textbook, limitedly. In addition, "mathematical competence, basic competence in science and technology" and and "social and civic competences" has increased since the second class.   
Keywords:  Lifelong Learning, Social Studies, Textbook, Competence. 

Effect of gender, school type, school achievement level and grade level on learning styles of students1

176-181

Esma Buluş Kırıkkaya, Gamze Hafızoğlu

Learning style is one of the individual differences. In this study, after determining the learning styles of the students; their school type, school achievement level, gender and grade level were investigated to see whether these factors affected their learning styles. The research was carried out with a total of 472 secondary school students (231 female, 241 male students) from the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades of 6 state and 2 private schools in İzmit. The data were collected within the spring semester of 2013-2014 using the Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory, which identifies four different learning styles including accommodator, diverger, converger and assimilator. According to the results of this study, the types of learning styles of 472 students were found as follows: the assimilator (27,8%), the converger (24.6%), the diverger (26.9%), and the accommodator (%20.8). Students’ learning styles did not display difference according to gender, school achievement level and school type but students in different grade levels have different learning styles. As the grade level increases, in other words as the students get older, they leave the accommodator learning style and adopt assimilator learning style.

Keywords: Secondary school students, learning style inventory, grade level.  

The educational functions imposed to folk tales in schoolbooks for children’s literature course

399-402

HülyaÇEVİRME, Bilge Ece AYAN

The aim of this study is to investigate the educational functions which imposed to folk tales in school and reference books for Children’s Literature Course in Turkish Universities. The document review, one of the qualitative data collection methods, is conducted in the study. Document scanning method was used to collect data. According to the investigation of thirteen children books, it is said that folk narratives, in the context of mother tongue acquiring process, contribute to get opportunities of cultural continuity, common transfers in mother tongue from past to future and intergenerational language unity, developments in cognitive and social fields, self-expression skills and creativity. In those thirteen books examined in this study, positive attitudes about contributions of using folk narrative genres in education are exhibited and the use of folk narratives in the education of native language and literature is recommended.

Keywords: folk tales, children’s literature, native language, culture, education 

Male Teachers’ Well-Being in the Context of Professional Identity

19-27

Ilze Mikelsone, Indra Odina

The outgoing point of the study is the findings of previously carried out research on future teachers’ reflection to understand their professional identity. One of master students evaluating his professional identity described uneasiness in finding identity in feminine teachers’ community and mentioned it as one of the causes the men were looking for another professional affiliation. The phenomenological research was carried out to explore the male teachers’ well-being in the context of teacher’s professional identity. The data were collected by in-depth interviews and narratives. Stratified random sampling – homogenous group: males and teachers – had been used. The probability sample according to convenience included eight male teachers. All of them had obtained a master’s degree in education and teacher’s qualification, they all were teaching at school, two of them were studying in doctoral programmes of pedagogy. The data of 38 pages of narrative essays and 55 pages of in-depth interview transcripts had been categorized according to 6 positive psychological well-being factors: self-acceptance, positive relations, environmental mastery, personal growth, autonomy, purpose in life (Ryff and Keyes, 1995). It had been concluded that male teachers’ positive psychological well-being correlated with positive attitude towards themselves and their past, the sense that life was purposeful and meaningful and the sense of personal growth and self-realization, but they struggled with organizing their everyday life. The data revealed a weak ability to follow their inner voice and form quality relationships with others. The following characteristic features of male teachers-respondents’ well-being were outlined: directness, subjective challenges, discipline and order, authority, sense of belonging and sensitiveness towards the expectations of the society. The research helped to get a deeper understanding of the concept of well-being, collect unique data that would possibly encourage other individuals to realize their well-being potential, as well as future studies in this field.

Keywords: male teachers’ well-being, professional identity.

School principals’ transformational leadership behaviours and their effects on teacher commitment

203-211

Aydın Balyer, Hakan Karatas, Bulent Alci

Transformational leadership has drawn much attention in the educational administration field. It has four basic areas in educational settings such as idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation. Research indicates that school principals’ transformational leadership behaviours have positive and direct effects on teachers’ performance and feeling commitment. Therefore, this qualitative study purposes to determine the teachers’ views of their principals’ transformational leadership behaviors and their influences on their feeling of commitment. The research employed a qualitative research design. The participants of the study were 40 teachers from 10 selected successful schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Results indicate that, in general, school principals’ transformational leadership behaviors are positively related to teachers’ commitment. It was also determined that while principals’ inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration behaviors are positively related to teachers’ commitment, idealized influence is not related to it. In can be recommended that school principals should perform transformational leadership behaviors to increase teachers’ commitment.  
Keywords: transformational leadership, school principals, teacher commitment 

Giving Voice to the Outcomes of Our Research

28-35

Linda Pavitola, Dina Bethere, Lasma Latsone

The authors of the article share the belief that research is an important, valuable and virtuous activity, needed both for researchers themselves and for larger communities, since the outcomes of the research can contribute to extending the theoretical and practical knowledge for improving the process of teaching and learning and the development of teacher education programmes, as well as perfect researchers` own professional competence. In this article, the authors will communicate their understanding about the research process itself and its outcomes, in order to evaluate their significance at both personal and professional levels, as well as gather the reflections and perspectives of early career researchers - Master’s level students - about how to reach the outcomes of research and implement them into educational practice. The goal of the study is to explore the aspects of new researchers’ professional competence and its significance in the existing practice of educational research, thus promoting a research culture that values good research principles and discovers new perspectives for the implementation of research outcomes. The following research question has been put forward: what kind of support is needed to the new researchers to face the challenges of research processes and implement the outcomes in educational practice. A qualitative case research methodology, based on a social constructivist paradigm and hermeneutic interpretive phenomenology approach, is used to address the topic. The research sample represents 45 new researchers from Liepaja University - selected by using purposeful random sampling strategy, and a survey data collection technique with open-ended questions is used. An interpretive and critical approach to the data analysis has been applied and good practice examples derived from the analysis of the survey, thus encouraging researchers to reflect on the features of their professional competence and existing experience and consider how it can be relevant to others. The findings have helped the authors of this study to identify the possible profile of new researchers pointing to the main challenges that teacher educators face, and enhance appropriate support to new researchers, in order to help them to be successful on a personal and institutional level, as well as to move towards the national and global level. These issues reflect on existing situation in the field of education and present the authors` vision of potential meaningful strategies in this context.

Keywords: Educational research, New researchers` profile, Research competence, Research outcomes

Investigating The Attitudes And Opinions Of Pupils About Effective Leadership Characteristics And School Climate

36-48

Ayşegül Kadı

The purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes and opinions of pupils about effective leadership characteristics and school climate. The sample of the study is determined by convenience sampling method and quantitative part of the research was conducted with 363 pupils and qualitative part of the research was conducted with 34 pupils. Research design is determined as mixed method. Semi-structured interviews and “Scale Of Effective Leadership Characteristics and School Climate Scale” were used to collect data. According to the findings: attitudes of pupils about effective leadership and school climate differ according to gender and class but they don't differ according to education level of mother and father. There is not a significant relationship between attitudes of pupils about effective leadership and school climate. 13 categories were found for opinions of pupils about effective leadership behaviors of their teachers in content analysis. Most repetitive category is being tolerant. The least repetitive categories were being excited, being friendly, being calm and being sincere. 8 categories were found for opinions of pupils about elements that effective leadership characteristics of their teachers affect in content analysis. Most repetitive category is success. The least repetitive categories were gaining control in the classroom, process of course and participation in course. 9 categories were found for opinions of pupils about school climate in content analysis. Most repetitive category is school atmosphere. The least repetitive category was success. 8 categories were found for opinions of pupils about elements that affect school climate in content analysis. Most repetitive category is behaviors. The least repetitive categories were parents, family atmosphere and expressions of teachers. Pupils opinions differ according to gender, class, education level of mother and father.

Keywords: pupil, leadership, climate

Investigating Individual Innovativeness Levels And Lifelong Learning Tendencies Of Students In TMSC

49-58

Alper Akdeniz,Ayşegül Kadı

The aim of this research is to investigate the attitudes and opinions of students in Turkish Music State Conservatories about their individual innovativeness levels and lifelong learning tendencies. Research was conducted with 110 students in Turkish Music State Conservatory. Research design is mixed method. According to the findings; attitudes of students about individual innovativeness levels and lifelong learning tendencies differ according to gender, but they don't differ according to class and age. There is not a significant relationship between attitudes of students about individual innovativeness levels and lifelong learning tendencies. 18 categories were found for opinions of students about characteristics of individual innovative people. Most repetitive category was "open to develop, open to change and innovation". Other categories were repeated once or twice. Students’ opinions differ according to gender, class and age. 9 categories were found for opinions of students about characteristics that affect individual innovativeness. Most repetitive category was "curiosity". Other categories were repeated once or twice. 16 categories were found for opinions of students about lifelong learning tendencies. All categories were repeated once. 17 categories were found in content analysis for opinions of students about characteristics that affect lifelong learning tendencies. Most repetitive category was "being curious". Second most repetitive category was “willingness to learn”. Other categories were repeated once. 2 categories were found for opinions of students about the relationship between individual innovativeness levels and lifelong learning tendencies. They were positive and negative relationship. Students’ opinions differ according to gender, class and age.

Keywords: conservatory, individual innovativeness, lifelong learning

Comparison of Teacher Candidates’ Metaphorical Perceptions towards Lifelong Learning

59-65

Gülenaz Selçuk, Altan Çakmak, Ayşe Okur Özdemir, Nurhayat Çelebi

The aim of this study is to examine and compare metaphorical perceptions of teacher candidates. The sample of the study consists of teacher candidates studying at science and Turkish language teaching departments in the Faculty of Education, Celal Bayar University in 2014-2015 academic year. While 206 teacher candidates study at Turkish Language Teaching Department, there are 323 teacher candidates in Science Teaching Department. The study has been based on qualitative research approach. Research design has been determined as phenomenological research. In order to investigate teacher candidates’ metaphorical perceptions towards lifelong learning, semi-structured interviews have been used. They have been asked to complete the statement that “The Lifelong Learning is like.................. . Because……………. .” Data obtained from perceptions of teacher candidates in the analysis has been used for content analysis. The data gathered by interview forms has been listed and the related categories have been determined. The answers of the teacher candidates have been interpreted firstly in their own groups. Then, the data of Turkish Language Teacher candidates and the data of Science Teacher candidates have been compared. The similarities and difference between their perceptions have been revealed. Results about each problem have been supported with the interpretations and literature. Conclusions and recommendations have been stated according to the findings.

Keywords: Lifelong education, metaphorical perception, pre-service teachers, skills

The Relationship between Teachers’ Cultural Values and Their Discipline Model Preferences

66-72

Soner Polat, Yaser Arslan, Ufuk Sarıdede

Culture is a very inclusive concept that affects individuals’ behaviours. The individuals who have different cultural values have different actions and discourse, and also it is asserted that teachers who have different cultural values may prefer different classroom discipline models. The attitudes of individuals towards uncertainty and power are also related with their cultural values. For instance, it is expected that teachers who have high levels of power distance prefer classroom discipline models that attach importance to power and control; on the other hand teachers who have low levels of power distance prefer classroom discipline models that attach importance to self-control. Thus, it is asserted that teachers’ perceptions about power and other cultural values may affect their classroom discipline model preferences. Hence, this study aims to investigate the relationship between teachers’ cultural values and their discipline model preferences. The participants of this study consisted of 222 teachers who work in the schools of Kocaeli/Turkey. Uncertainty Avoidance and Power Distance subscales of National Cultural Values Scale which was developed by Hofstede (1980) and soon adapted for individuals by Dorfman and Howell (1988), and beliefs about discipline inventory which was developed by Glickman and Tamashiro (cited by Wolfgang and Glickman, 1986) were used as data collection tools. According to the results, there was a low, negative relationship between teachers’ perceptions of power distance and their scores of relationship-listening model; there was a low, positive relationship between teachers’ perceptions of power distance and their scores of rules and consequences model; and there was a low, negative relationship between teachers’ perceptions of uncertainty avoidance and their scores of relationship-listening model.

Keywords: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, classroom management, discipline model.

Lifelong Learning And Continuing Education Centres In Turkey

73-78

Gülenaz Selçuk, Altan Çakmak,Ayşe Okur Özdemir

With the rapid progress of information technologies, access to information has brought new techniques.Accordingly, concepts like “Lifelong Education (LLE)”, “Continuing Education (CE)” and “Lifelong Learning (LLL)” have started to be shaped in universities and transformed institutional constructs involving local authorities. The aim of this study is to reveal the present situation of continuing education centres (CEC) in Turkey and their educational categories as parts of LLL. All of the higher education institutions in the title of “Universities” in Council of Higher Education (CoHE)’s official website form the theoretical sample of the study. In the study, “The Continuing Education Centre Research Form” has been developed by the researchers. The form includes the types of names CEC’s have and the contents of educational categories applied. The data gathered has been analysed with content analysis method from qualitative analysis methods. As a consequence of document analyses, it has been found that 99 of 109 state universities, 64 of 74 public foundation universities, 6 of 8 higher public foundation and 7 of other 19 higher school have a CEC. In the study, it has been also attempted to determine the variety of CEC names and categorizations of their educational programs.

Keywords: continuing education, education, higher education, lifelong learning

Relationship with Perception of, Effects of, and Coping Strategies for Organizational Toxicity in Higher Education

79-88

Gamze Kasalak, Mualla Aksu

The purpose of this study is to determine the relations between the organizational toxicity perceptions of the faculty members, the perceived effects of organizational toxicity, and coping strategies for organizational toxicity. The sample of the study comprised 707 faculty members working in various academic units at three state universities in Turkey. Data were collected through percived organizational toxicity scale, perceived effects of organizational toxicity scale, and coping strategies for organizational toxicity scale developed by the researchers. In the findings, toxicity based on unethical behaviours predicted the dimensions of draining, psychologically recurring, and disconnecting significantly; and toxicity based on rigid behaviours predicted the draining significantly as well. What is more, resistance strategy was predicted by disconnecting and toxicity based on narcissistic, unethical, and rigid behaviours; avoidance strategy was predicted by draining and toxicity based on unethical behaviours; conflict strategy was predicted by toxicity based on rigid behaviours, and social support strategy was predicted by toxicity based on narcissistic, unethical, and rigid behaviours and the all dimensions of the perceived effects toxicity.

Keywords: Toxic workplace, Perceived organizational toxicity, Perceived effects of organizational toxicity, Coping strategies for organizational toxicity, Faculty members

The Assessment of The Effect Of Culinary Students’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs On The Academic Motivation

89-96

Beysun Güneri, Gamze Kasalak

The purpose of this study is to determine correlations between culinary students’ general self-efficacy beliefs and academic motivation. Relational survey method was used for the study. The sample of the study was identified through the simple random sampling method. The data were collected from 206 culinary students in the food and beverage department of a vocational high school in Antalya, Turkey. The data for the study was collected through the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSES), and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). For data analyses, descriptive analysis, the Pearson Correlation Coefficient, t-test, Anova test, and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis methods were used. The study results indicated that there is a relation between culinary students’ self efficacy beliefs and academic motivation. Culinary students marked high points on the GSES and on its sub-scales. In addition, culinary students scored moderate points on the AMS and its sub-scales. It is found that, there is no significant difference in gender between the self-efficacy of culinary students and their academic motivation.

Keywords: General Self Efficacy Beliefs. Academic Motivation. Culinary Students

Dance improvisation method for professional development perfection of emerging sports and dance teachers in Liepaja University

97-107

Zita Valka, Inga Papirte, Daiga Čabovska

Elaboration of professional development methods for sports and dance teachers is a topical issue in contemporary education. Dance improvisation method has a special role not only in training process of professional dancers and dance teachers, but also in training of future sports teachers. Dance improvisation can be recognized as a method that develops students’ motor, cognitive and emotional abilities (Biasutti, 2013). It is a method which a creative pedagogue can apply not only when teaching dance and its aspects, but also in various other activities related to movement and sports. In Liepaja University, dance improvisation as a professional development method has been successfully practiced already for 6 years within the study programme “Sports and Dance Teacher”, where students are professionally trained simultaneously in both areas of movement – sports and dance. The aim of the study course “Dance improvisation” is a creative coordination of motor and mental processes, excluding unnecessary negative mental activities that create undesirable negative emotional reactions. In the context of professional development, the aim of the movement improvisation method is to prepare theoretically and practically educated and independently and creatively thinking and acting sports and dance teachers. The data obtained from semi-structured interviews indicate, summarize and conceptually formulate as content units the attitudes and changes that have occurred as the result of emerging sports and dance teachers’ professional development process within the study course “Dance improvisation”, revealing also the physical and socio- psychological aspects that influence the students. The empirical research study was conducted with 46 third year students at the end of the study course “Dance improvisation” (volume of the course – 32 contact hours) during four different academic years – 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015. Most of the students who enter the “Sports and Dance Teacher” programme do not have sufficient body experience and prior training in dance and its teaching methods. In sports and dance teachers’ profession it is necessary to maintain a good general health condition, and the physical and mental factors are very important. The research shows that almost all future sports and dance teachers are influenced by negative socio-psychological aspects, less by physical ones. After using the improvisation method for professional development of sports and dance teachers, students apply the acquired skills both to professional and everyday life activities, but for acquisition and retention of these skills as well as for harmonization of motor and mental processes a longer period of time is needed, which for everybody is different. The concept ‘creativity’ is often mentioned in the students’ responses to the interview questions. The concept of creativity is in line with the main principle of dance improvisation technique where emphasis is more on the creative process than the result, and also it is the most essential structural element of the emerging teacher’s personality. In authors’ view, using dance improvisation method in the professional development process and for creative coordination of motor and mental processes, the experience of feeling a creative impulse, which students mention during the interviews, becomes the most important. The empirical results of this study allow making conclusions about the results and effectiveness of professional development process of emerging sports and dancing teachers using dance improvisation method.

Keywords: dance improvisation method, emerging sports and dance teachers, professional development, Liepaja University

Continuing Medical Education (CME) and Lifelong Learning (LLL): a Semantic Ontology for Two Learning Modalities

108-115

Alan S. Weber

The objective of this paper is to distinguish and clarify the concepts and terminology of the terms Lifelong Learning (LLL) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) in the context of U.S. and European medical schools. Science, medicine and technology are advancing rapidly as a result of genomics, Personalized Medicine, human stem cell research (HSCR), robotics, and Big Data; healthcare workers must be prepared for a rapidly changing workplace necessitating ongoing and continual updating of information, knowledge, and praxis, as well as cognitive and manual skills. In light of the rapid expansion of knowledge of the biomedical sciences requiring continuous learning, one might logically ask the fundamental questions: “Do LLL and CME represent the same conceptual domain, or do practical distinctions exist between these educational philosophies and practices? Do these distinctions impact the kinds of learning strategies for future knowledge acquisition – such as information retrieval, information literacy, evidence-based medicine, etc. – that should be integrated into medical education curricula?” To answer the research questions, theoretical literature, primarily reviews and systematic reviews on CME and LLL published from 1970 – 2016, was retrieved from Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar and analyzed to create an ontology for post-graduate learning philosophies and strategies in medical education and LLL. Although the concept of CME was found to possess some overlap with related educational philosophies such as ‘lifelong education’, ‘continuing education’, ‘adult education’, ‘further education’, and ‘lifelong learning’, CME is very strictly defined within the Anglo-American professional context of medicine as focused on improving patient care, satisfaction, and outcomes. LLL on the other hand, encompasses a much broader set of learning modalities and embraces many of the traditional liberal arts justifications for education – good citizenship, informed electorates, social harmony, inclusion, sustainability and future stewardship. CME and LLL are distinct pedagogical approaches to education, learning and knowledge, with CME more profession- and skills-based and limited to the medical domain while LLL represents a more diffuse and broad-ranging set of concepts encompassing curiosity, exploration, learning as discovery, self-development, etc.

Keywords: Lifelong Learning (LLL); Continuing Medical Education (CME)

The Effects of Songs on Foreign Language Vocabulary Acquisition

116-126

Orhan Kocaman

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of songs on vocabulary learning. The study was conducted on 60 students of different grades in the department of English Language Teaching at Faculty of Education, Sakarya University. The participants consisted of both male and female students between the ages of 19 and 29. A questionnaire with 23 items developed by Xiaowei was administered as the data collection instrument. As clearly known, language learners with musical intelligence make use of songs and lyrics in the process of learning a foreign language. Learners who are keen on learning a foreign language can practice informal language incidentally by means of repeating the words of various songs. Language of music is also a clear representative of culture and undeniable transmitter of cultures across continents. Learning by means of songs establishes a stress-free atmosphere and eliminates the affective filter which minimizes learning when it is high. Furthermore, listening to songs can help English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners overcome psychological barriers such as; anxiety and lack of confidence since learners actively get involved in self-learning. Thus, songs are entertaining, motivating and easily accessible materials. The findings of the study revealed that learning vocabulary from songs is an effective way and songs assist learners in learning pronunciation, spelling, meaning and usage in varying degrees as they arouse learners’ interest and curiosity. It can easily be assumed that curiosity is the key point which leads language learners to acquiring new vocabulary through getting exposed to songs.

Keywords: Vocabulary Learning, Songs, Lyrics, Pronunciation, Memorization