Science Education and Computational Thinking - Adapting Two Projects from Classroom Learning to Emergency Distance Learning

230-236

Ana SILVA, João SILVA, Catarina GOUVEIA, Eduarda SILVA, Ana QUINTAS, Daniela COELHO, Pedro RODRIGUES, António BARBOT

The sudden need for an adaptation of two science projects based on the changes that the COVID-19 pandemic brought to the education system in Portugal, transitioning from classroom learning to distance learning, led to a reorganization within the structure of these projects in order to implement them, maintaining the same objectives. Both projects have the main goal to develop computational thinking, with the first project having simultaneously the aim to also develop an environmental awareness through an initiation to programming by way of implementing challenges regarding the same topic, within 1st grade pupils, namely recycling and reducing single use waste. The second project constitutes the assembly and implementation of a weather station, based on the microprocessor Micro:bit, at the service of the science curricula contents within 5th grade students, with regard to abiotic factors and its influence on animals and plants.

Keywords: Computational thinking, distance learning, programming, science education, sensors

The Effect of Using Blog in English Course on Academic Success

237-246

İsmail ŞAN, Tuba AYKAÇ

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using blogs on academic success in English lesson. Today, with the acceleration of contemporary learning and teaching theories, blogs, increasingly popular, have taken a place in the field of education. The activities carried out in the English lesson in this study were published through blogs. The sample of the study consists of 55 students (27: experiment group, 28: control group) in Sadreddin Konevi Anadolu Imam Hatip High School that is located in Yeşilyurt, Malatya, Turkey. As a quantitative one, semi-experimental method with control group of pre-test and post-test was used. In this study, the data were collected by means of the academic achievement test on World Heritage Unit. During the experimental process, activities in the experimental group were published on blogs by the students, whereas the same activities were carried out with the existing methods in the control group. To investigate the effect of using blog on the academic succes, World Heritage Achievement Test developed by researchers was applied to both groups as pre-test and posttest. The data obtained from the research were analyzed by Jamovi statistical software. According to data, the difference between blog assisted learning and the effect of teaching suitable for existing programs on academic achievement is not statistically significant.

Keywords: English lesson, activities, blogs, academic success

Possibilities of Graphic Representations in the Education of People with Visual Impairment - Theory and Practice

247-255

Veronika RUZICKOVA, Lucie PAZOURKOVA

Graphic representations accompany us at every step, supplementing written and verbal modes of information transfer, and at the same time broadening our overview of the world around us, and helping us to create ideas and utilise our imagination. This article deals with graphic representations for the needs of blind people and people with severe visual impairments. For these groups, graphic representations fulfil the same task as for people without visual impairment, but it is more difficult to create these representations. However, we will show in the article that although the work is more complex, it is also more varied, and can additionally be utilised for the needs of people without visual impairments as well. This probe into graphic representations for the visually impaired will be followed by a presentation of a survey in the given area. Thanks to new technologies, graphic representations have become not only financially but also physically accessible. Our probe will focus on the perception of tactile graphics in both the narrower and broader meanings, as well as on the most common imaging techniques in the creation of maps (in the Czech Republic). In the first part of the article, we would like to take an excursion into the field of graphic representations for people with severe visual impairments - from the simpler ones (thermo-vacuum printing) to the more complex ones (3D printing in various materials). Our article will highlight individual representatives of each of the interesting and current graphic representations, as well as point out possible shortcomings of the representations of others. The creation of the article was supported by the projects - / TL01000507 - Development of independent movement through tactile-auditory means / TL03000679 - Information deficit reduction and the development of imagination of persons with visual impairments through 3D models with auditory elements, IGA_PdF_2020_007

Keywords: People with visual impairment, tactile graphics, tactile maps 

Tactile Graphics in the Tertiary Education of Students with Visual Impairment

256-265

Katerina KROUPOVA, Gabriela SPINAROVA

Tactile graphics intended for people with visual impairment are an important supporting element in reducing the information deficit caused by impaired visual perception. Due to the fact that we visually obtain the maximum amount of information in a minimum period of time, it is necessary to replace this missing information in various ways. One of these ways may be via tactile images, more precisely, tactile graphics. Not only the informational contribution of tactile graphics, but also their important role in the development of the imagination of visually impaired people has been confirmed by the results of our research. Particularly in the area of spatial orientation and independent movement, tactile graphics have a significant potential for application. We will follow up on this information with a study with a mixed design, the aim of which is to identify specific possibilities and possible limits to the use of relief graphics in tertiary education. Based on the implemented qualitatively oriented research with quantitative elements, we will attempt to comprehensively evaluate the contribution of relief graphics in the education of visually impaired students at universities in the Czech Republic. We will focus on issues of information usefulness, equalization of study opportunities, technical and imaging opportunities and other aspects. This contribution was created with funding from projects IGA_PdF_2020_007 Adaptation of the environment for people with disabilities; TL01000507 Development of spatial orientation and independent movement through auditory-tactile means; TL03000679 Information deficit reduction and the development of imagination of persons with visual impairment through 3D models with auditory elements.

Keywords: Visual impairment, tactile graphics, tertiary education 

The Research and Study of the International Financial Reporting Standards Implementations in Educational Institutions

266-274

Aynura HAJİYEVA, Nazaket MUSAYEVA, Amaliya HAJİYEVA, Firuza MİRZAYEVA

The main purpose of this publication is the research and study of the international financial reporting standards implementations, as this point remains the important issue of integration into the global financial markets. The place and role of the country in the global economic space, the process of joining the World Trade Organization, and interaction with international financial institutions remain relevant. According to some political analysts, countries urgently needs to diversify its markets and strengthen relations with partner countries. The actual task of researching the universal tools for assessing economic indicators around the world is the reporting, prepared in accordance with international financial reporting standards. The article considers the analysis of the prerequisites and stages of the transition to IFRS, characterizes the results of applying IFRS generally in the world and Azerbaijan in particular. The advantages and disadvantages of applying IFRS are formulated further in the article. Particular attention is paid to the need to monitor the effectiveness of the implementation of IFRS in Azerbaijan. Scientific articles, monographs and other information of domestic and foreign economists on the problems of accounting, economic analysis and fundamentals of the theory and methodology of auditing, normative, methodological and methodical materials were used like the theoretical basis of the study. The practical significance of the study for the purpose of effective global cooperation remains the transition to IFRS, by which, according to established practice, it is customary to understand the unified accounting standards recognized around the world. The practical significance of the study can play a positive role in enriching the scientific and practical knowledge of experts involved in accounting and reporting. Based on the analysis, it can be argued that, in general, the international experience in using IFRS is positive, in countries which use IFRS, there is an influx of foreign investment, but it is impossible to say that the reason for this inflow is the only application of IFRS. It should be noted that it is important to organize constant monitoring of the effect of the implementation of IFRS for certain sectors of the economy.

Keywords: International financial reporting standards, IFRS implementation, financial performance, financial statements. 

The Role of Higher Education in Innovation: The Case of Azerbaijan

275-282

Fargana GAZANFAR MUSAYEVA, Gunay OKTAY ALIYEVA

The technical and technological progress has become a decisieve term for the development of the national economy and increases the importance of higher education institutions in the modern period of intensification of globalization process. The higher education sector has a large-scale impact on the economy. Its connection with the economy provides commercial value for innovation, and academic instructions and skills help the educated persons and organizations inorder to gain the means of achievements in a knowledge-based economy. The restructuring of the educational institutions of the 21st century and the application of resource-saving technologies are accompanied by a comprehensive economic, social and environmental approach. All this proves the objective necessity of innovative development in educational institutions, which prevails in the knowledge-based activity of educational institutions. At present universities are recognized as a research and training centers, supporting entrepreneurship and innovation. Unfortunately, many universities in our country do not have the capacity to serve as an effective dynamic center for such initiatives, and this shortage limits the ability of our local universities to compete with universities of other countries. The role of higher education in the formation of innovations, the experience of research universities with advanced technology-based infrastructure and the best world practices have been studied in the article. The strengthening of the integration of science and education with industry, fomation of incentive mechanisms for better research and invention, better utilization of available opportunities in higher education have been suggested. The authors analyzed the current state of the research and innovation environment in the higher education sector, identified the major barriers of research and their application to production, and evaluated global trends in research funding, as well as the impact on the expences of scientific and technical work.

Keywords: Innovation, the innovation index, education, research and development expenditure 

The Mediating Role of Organizational Innovation in the Implementation of Intellectual Capital and Blue Ocean Strategy for Higher Education Sustainability

283-295

Selma KOCA

Nowadays, Intellectual Capital (IC) has a pioneering role in providing university sustainability. The organizational innovation (OI) has a significant impact on the process of implementing blue ocean strategy (BOS) and achieving the expected productivity. The paper analyzes the possible positive impact of OI on IC and BOS relationship in sustainable higher education. The study was carried out by emailing questionnaires to 76.616 academicians working in universities throughout Turkey and analyzing data collected from 497 samples. SPSS 24.0 and AMOS 24.0 software and quantitative analysis were used for statistical analysis of the data. We applied the Pearson test to determine the correlation between the points obtained from IC, OI and BOS scales and structural equation modeling in mediation analysis. The results obtained from the above-mentioned methods verify the full mediation impact of OI in the relationship between IC and BOS.

Keywords: Sustainability in higher education, leadership, intellectual capital, blue ocean strategy, organizational innovation

Examining the Wellness Perception of Sports High School Students Trained in Football Branch

296-302

Elif KARAGÜN, Onur KAVİ, Zekiye Dilay EKİZ

The aim is to determine the wellness perceptions of high school students who study in football. The perception of wellness determined; mother education, father education status, income level, football league type, position played, licensed working time, such as changing according to the variables to examine. After the research permits were obtained, the students of the Sports High School who study in the football branch were informed about the research. A perceived wellness Scale was applied to 170 students who wished to participate voluntarily. T test and variance analysis were used because the data showed normal distribution. As a result, significant differences were found in the sub dimensions of physical, psychological and emotional wellness according to maternal education, psychological wellness according to paternal education level, and physical wellness sub dimensions according to the position they played.

Keywords: Perception of wellness, sports, high school, football branch, student

The Covid 19 Pandemic and Challenges Faced When Implementing Online Learning by Lecturers at the Faculty of Islamic Studies in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

303-308

Muhammad ARIF YAHYA, Suhaila ZAILANI AHMAD

The Covid 19 Pandemic that is currently ravaging the world also affects the teaching and learning process implemented in institutions of higher learning (IPT) in Malaysia. Online teaching, made mandatory by the government in all IPTs, is a new approach introduced by lecturers, which previously only made up 40% of online teaching sessions. Lecturers in the Faculty of Islamic Studies in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) have faced challenges in implementing online teaching and evaluation because some subjects, specifically those that are Turath in nature, are not suitable to be taught online as the lessons require face-to-face sessions. However, impact of the Covid 19 Pandemic requires lecturers to think of a new strategy for delivering teaching sessions so that the TnL process is carried out properly and not disrupted due to the Covid-19 Pandemic. This study intended to examine the challenges faced by lecturers, especially in the field of Islamic studies in UKM, when implementing fully online teaching sessions. The study used a qualitative design involving interviews with lecturers at the Faculty of Islamic Studies in UKM. Findings revealed several challenges when facing the new norm of online teaching, such as time constraints, acquiring new knowledge and maintaining the quality of teaching. Lecturers faced each of these challenges with support and assistance from the university through online guidance besides weekly monitoring of online teaching by lecturers.

Keywords: Covid 19, pandemic, online teaching, Islamic studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 

Evaluation of The Effect of COVID 19 Pandemic on Theater Culture

309-318

Birce Birsel ÇAĞLAR ÇİÇEKLİ

In the last months of 2019, the Covid 19 virus declared it as pandemic by World Health Organisation and in almost all countries of World have been declared quarantine in March 2020. As a result of this situation, of course, the cancellation of activities that were carried out in a crowded manner was realized, therefore, theaters took break from the events in the world. In this contexts, the future of the theater and how Covid 19 pandemic affects theater culture has been identified as a problem. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Covid 19 Pandemic on Theater Culture. Qualitative research method and interview technique was used in this study. As a result of the research, it was concluded that the theater culture and thus actors and audiences were negatively affected from the pandemic, but after the pandemic, the theater will adapt itself to new conditions and meet the audience again.

Keywords: Theater, theaterculture, online theater, pandemicperiodtheater

Consumers Perception of the Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Transmission on Businesses in Malaysia

319-328

Khairunesa ISA, Nor Asiah RAZAK*

Consumers’ perception can be a benchmark to businesses that occurs in the situated consumers live in or can be as a general overview to measure the current situation. Likewise, the impact on business that sparked from the Coronavirus (COVID-19) has no exception from consumers’ perception in all over the world. However, this paper focuses on the positive and negative impact of the spread of COVID-19 on business from consumers’ point of view. As the phenomena are new, there are no studies on the impact of COVID-19 on consumers, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, the study aims to identify the impact of COVID19 transmission on businesses in Malaysia. For data collection, this study employed an online survey system with a selfadministered questionnaire that has been distributed all over the country via social media with a return sample is 400 respondents. The findings reveal that six positive and four negative impact of COVID-19 transmission on business in Malaysia. The study also reveals the most place the respondents spending their money on food, which is the supermarket. The findings also revealed five reasons the selection of the place that the consumers spending are : (1) easy to find almost every type of products for daily needs; (2) the price is cheap; (3) one-stop-centre; (4) less crowded; (5) wide area and easy to practice ‘social distancing’. The study aims to enrich the discourse on businesses by assisting business owners to reflect on their business plan and strategies.

Keywords: Malaysia, coronavirus, lockdown, COVID-19 outbreak affecting consumers, consumers perception

An Examination of The Studies That Measure the Effects of the Use of Learning Management Systems on Learners

329-335

Yunus KÖSE, Mustafa BAYRAKCI, Merve KÖSE, Osman TITREK

For nearly fifty years now, the link between computers and learning methods has reached a point that cannot be considered separately from each other. It can be said that this connection made a very important breakthrough with the increasing technological change and development. The fact that learning environments reach every part of the world in an economical, quality and sustainable manner thanks to the internet is a clear sign of a new break in education methods and access to information. While Learning Management Systems emerge at this point, they aim to ensure that learning environments are implemented in a better quality, planned and organized manner. Many scientific studies have been conducted on these elearning environments, which are supported and developed by content management systems. Especially studies investigating the various effects of the use of these systems on the learner are important for educational sciences. This research is a theoretical study conducted to examine the studies that measure the various effects of Learning Management Systems on the learner. Studies that measure the essence, basic principles, basic concepts and various effects of Learning Management Systems on the learner are presented based on the information in the literature.

Keywords: Learning management systems, e-learning, lifelong learning

Assessment of the Impact of Education on the Use of Labor Resources as a Tool Instrument of State Social Policy

336-350

Saadat Asgar HUMBATALIYEVA

It is known that the main productive force of society is the labor force. Quantitative and qualitative level of labor resources and their use is a key component of sustainable economic development of the country. Maintaining a high economic growth rate is closely linked to the constant innovative improvement of the quality of labor resources and increased labor productivity. However, in the context of globalization of social, economic and financial relations, the rate of economic growth depends on the level of use of labor resources. The solution of the existing demographic and socio-economic problems depends on a significant improvement in the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the labor force. The role of the state in this area is especially important. Improving the use of labor resources depends on the social policy pursued by the state. The active role of the state in the implementation of the social structural policy is also needed to improve the development trends in the use of labor resources. Effective social policy gradually changes the social structure of society, improves the active characteristics of a certain social class, manifests itself in the process of relations with other people in connection with the creation of spiritual and material wealth. The development of strategic management and the implementation of new social policies, in turn, is the result of the development of human capital in society. These social processes are interconnected and interactive. The development of social needs is the most important mechanism for the accumulation of labor resources. The needs and interests of social groups in the accumulation and successful circulation of labor resources are grouped according to consumption patterns and directly depend on the level of income. In general, the complexity and diversity of the problems of efficient use of labor resources make it necessary to study them comprehensively. Ensuring the efficient use of the country's labor resources is one of the most important tasks in the development of the socio-economic complex. In order to solve these tasks requires an objective assessment of the most efficient and complete use of labor resources based on the interests of the whole society. All these aspects show the relevance of the topic of the article. The article assesses the need for the implementation of state social policy and its impact on the country's labor force. The current situation with the use of labor resources in Azerbaijan was analyzed, and the state policy in this area was considered. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of labor resources have been explored, ways of their effective use have been investigated. The suggestions of a recommendatory nature have also been made to improve the use of labor resources. The results obtained can play an important role in assessing the efficient use of labor resources, both at the state level and in various enterprises and organizations. The development of the article is based on the methods of comparison, development dynamics, factor analysis.

Keywords: social policy, labor resources, training, education, population

Axiological Aspects in Higher Education Environment in Latvia: Comparison of Students and Academics’ Values

351-360

Arturs MEDVECKIS, Tamara PIGOZNE, Svetlana USCA

Values are essential prerequisite for society’s, including education and science, development, thus in 21st century philosophy emphases shifted from knowledge to values clarification and values promotion (Oleś, 2020). Quantitative research is implemented within international project “Gender Aspects of Digital Readiness and Development of Human Capital in Region” to analyse students and academics’ values in Latvia, applying cultural dimensions model (Hofstede, 2011). In research 26-item five-dimensional scale of individual cultural values - CVSCALE (Yoo, Donthu, & Lenartowicz, 2011) is used assessing such cultural values as Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Collectivism, Long-Term Orientation and Masculinity at individual level. Results of Mann-Whitney Test for quantitative data processing in SPSS environment confirm existence of statistically significant differences in Uncertainty Avoidance (p≤0.05) and Collectivism (p≤0.001) assessment – students, comparing with academics, pay more attention to them, which confirms students’ desire to live in predictable environment with clearly defined regulations and apply collective cooperation synergy for long-term goal achievement.

Keywords: Values, culture, students, academic staff

Corruption in Business Interactions in Retail Enterprises in Latvia and Sustainability Education

361-367

Iveta LININA, Velga VEVERE, Rosita ZVIRGZDINA

Private consumption is a cornerstone of the growth of any country economics. Since a retailer is an intermediary in a distribution channel that purchases goods from both manufacturers and wholesalers, it provides a large number of transactions with suppliers. It is precisely the size of retail businesses that creates a possibility of corruption in these business relations, which reduces the fair competition. In order to identify the factors of corruption in retail transactions with suppliers, the authors of the study have set out to investigate the factors that characterize and influence the relationship between suppliers and retailers. To reach this goal the authors of the current report will apply the monographic method to analyse the theoretical background of the corruption risks in business transactions, and the tendencies of the retail sector development in Latvia. This study will provide companies with an understanding of the business relationship between suppliers and retailers. As a result of the research, the authors conclude that companies can find solutions to mitigate and prevent the main factors of corruption risk formation. The results obtained could be used in the process of sustainability education.

Keywords: Sustainability education, retail trade, corruption, business transactions

Do Parents Support Teachers?

368-378

Türkan ARGON, Işıl TABAK

The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of preschool, primary, secondary and high school teachers about parent support. The study group of the research conducted in the central district of Bolu in the 2019-2020 academic year consists of 100 teachers. In the research conducted with qualitative research method, the data were collected through a semi-structured interview form and analyzed by descriptive and content analysis. According to the research, parent support decreases gradually from preschool to high school. Parents mostly support teachers for academic achievement such as the supply of course materials, follow-up and repetition of assignments. Teachers expect support from parents in terms of getting to know the student, following his development, developing self-care skills and correcting negative behaviors. The support to be got makes a positive contribution to teachers, students and education. The main reasons for not getting enough support from parents are negative attitude, socio-cultural-economic situation, education level, and parents' working or being separated.

Keywords: Teacher, parent support, student, effects on teachers

Examination of Studies in Sustainable Leadership by Bibliometric Analysis Technique

379-384

Sadiye OKTAY, Serdar BOZKURT, Kübra YAZICI

When the literature is examined, it is seen that different leadership models have been developed according to the economic, social, cultural and environmental conditions of the period experienced from the past to the present. The problems faced by the world such as seasonal changes in the world, natural disasters, rapid depletion of resources, economic problems, inequality and discrimination are increasing day by day. It is possible to prevent all these negative problems with global actions only. For this reason, one of the leadership approaches put forward at the organizational level is sustainable leadership. Sustainable leadership can be expressed in the shortest definition as people who take actions that support their economic, social, cultural and environmental systems and ensure their activities to continue in a healthy manner (Ferdig, 2007: 32). In other words, sustainable leaders are not only dealing with environmental and green issues, but also are working on reformative activities in all areas of life. In this context, the notion of sustainable leadership, which is considered to be a considerable current subject, was investigated. The object of the study is to analyze the studies published in the title of sustainable leadership from a bibliometric point of view and to reveal the development in the related subject. Within this scope, 48 studies were examined under the title of sustainable leadership in the Web of Science Core Collection database and bibliometric data of the studies were obtained. In the study, VOSviewer program, which is a Java based working program produced for use in the analysis of bibliometric networks, was used. In addition, Web of Knowledge data was also used in the study. As a consequence of the research; it has been identified that the distribution of the studies carried out under the title of sustainable leadership varies according to the years, the authors, WOS categories of the journals where the studies are published and the countries.

Keywords: Sustainable leadership, sustainability, leadership, bibliometric analysis, VOSviewer

Health Education - A Global Challenge on the Agenda of Teachers and Students in the Knowledge Society

385-391

Mariana MARINESCU, Mihai BOTEA, Dragoș BOTEA, Mircea SANDOR

The Health Education Curriculum was developed in a modular version, which aims to provide the user with a flexible basis for the application of the national Health Education program in the Romanian school, within the Curriculum Hours at the School Decision (CDS). In this paper I have tried to make a pleading in the favor of health education - one of the global challenges on the agenda of teachers and students. The paper presents the results of an opinion poll, on a sample of students from the University of Oradea, on the global challenges that concern them today, in particular. The problems related to health education are very high. The degree of culture of the population is also measured according to the state of public health of a country, according to the awareness regarding the health education (Marinescu et al., 2019). The quality of life of a people is also determined by its general health.

Keywords: Knowledge society, global challenges, education, health education

How Health and Hygiene Go Hand in Hand with Education

392-398

MihaiBOTEA, Felix Angel POPESCU, Dragoș BOTEA, Andrei ȚENȚ, Erika BIMBO, Raluca BOTEA, Anca HUNIADI

The wide spread of hygiene promotion and education methods should determine people to think about how serious damage a bad hygiene and poor sanitation can bring (Euronews, 2014), such as serious infections (Tent et al., 2019). School is considered to be an important environment for our children as it's the place that much of our learnt behavior takes root (Vlădescu, 2012). School hygiene education is becoming more and more recognized as a healthcare science, as it has erupted as a smaller form of the wider school health education. (Botea M. et al. 2019) In this direction, it can be regarded as a study of school environment influence upon mental and physical health of students (Meckel, 2013). Hygiene is important for parents too, with the quality of hygiene care in schools gaining a wider audience. The paper is providing a literature review about the hygiene behaviors throughout the world and particularities of school curriculum.

Keywords: Hygiene, school, education, worldwide, practices

Innovation of the Teaching of Modern Interactive and Multimedia Tools in Teaching

399-407

Cestmir SERAFIN

The paper deals with the issue of innovation in teaching associated with the application of modern interactive and multimedia aids to teaching due to the need to implement a remote form of education, either via the Internet or other interactive form. Today, the computer is a common tool for entertainment, communication, job performance, and, of course, education. The ability to work with information, control of information and communication technologies, and orientation in information sources is becoming a key competence for human employment in the labor market. Unlike literally exponential developments in the world of media and technology, a person's preparation for his active life in society is changing much more slowly. Pupils now expect a wide school and seamless access to information by analogy with everyday life, and our education is not always able to meet this expectation. There are barriers not only on the part of teachers, but also the specifics that the integration of digital technologies into the cognitive process brings with it. The complexity of teaching associated with changing methods and forms of work of teachers and students, the existence of open learning resources, collaborative learning, and mobile learning bring with them the need not only for an adequate approach by teachers, but also a technical, technological approach by the school as an institution.

Keywords: Innovation, teaching, interactivity, multimedia, distance education 

Pandemic and Me: College Students’ Interpretations of Pandemic

408-416

Esra MACAROĞLU AKGÜL, Hatice MERTOĞLU, Hamiyet SAYAN

Pandemic is a global issue effecting community in different ways. This research is about College students’ meaning making of “pandemic”. One of the major fields of life effected negatively from pandemic is the field of education. For students and instructors who has no experience with distant learning, compulsory distant education and online exams period came very suddenly. Based on this sudden change, the purpose of this research is to understand “how College students are making sense of pandemic”. It is a Phenomenological mixed method study. Participants were 534 students form 19 universities. A survey, arts-based inquiry and journal entries were used to collect data. Analysis with MaxQDa 2020 and researchers’ interpretations presented in the paper.

Keywords: Pandemic, college students’, mixed method study

Pedagogical Strategy for Teachers to Promote Students' Civic Competence: The Analysis of Theoretical Aspects and Development of Pedagogical Concept

417-423

Pāvels JURS, Alīda SAMUSEVIČA

Awareness of the importance of civic competence through professional and systematic approach implementing civic education at all levels of education, can provide development of civic competence of young people, which in turn would contribute to the development of civil society in various aspects. To realize productive, targeted and successful implementation of civic education, promotes the civic position of students and the necessary skills to make students civically active and responsible. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a pedagogical strategy and clarify the theory, to promote the civic competence of young people. The aim of the article is: using theoretical cognitive methods and analysing the theoretical framework of civic competence, develop pedagogical strategy for teachers to promote the civic competence of students. In the publication authors analyse the theoretical framework for civic competence, providing a description of civic competence, as well as highlighting the most effective pedagogical approaches to promote civic competence of students in the pedagogical process.

Keywords: Civic competence, civic education, pedagogical process, pedagogical strategy, students

Problems by Level of Difficulty in Testing Pupils in Mathematics

424-429

Jitka LAITOCHOVÁ, Martina UHLÍŘOVÁ

In this article we will deal with the possibility of using problems by level of difficulty in testing pupils in mathematics. We created a non-standardized test of problems by difficulty level, which we assigned to pupils of the ninth grade of an elementary school (pupils at the age of about 15 years). We wanted to find out whether such tests are suitable for verifying knowledge and skills to solve mathematical tasks, how pupils work with a set of difficulty level problems, which levels of difficulty they will choose and also how they mastered the mathematics curriculum of elementary schools at the end of their elementary school attendance.

Keywords: Problems by level of difficulty, school mathematics, individual approach, testing

Provision of Interprofessional Collaboration Quality within the Framework of Social Services Working with Families of Children with Special Needs

430-438

Svetlana LANKA, Ilze DURŅEVA, Dace ERKENA

The research describes the team building process in the context of interprofessional cooperation, focusing on ensuring the effectiveness of the team work. In accordance with the research objective, the study explains the concept of quality, highlighting the role of motivation in ensuring the quality of social services considering the most important motivators. Part of the research is based on the experience of the Association "Dižvanagi" dealing with the development of social services for families of children with special needs. Based on this, the tools for assessing the quality of social services are further explored, summarizing the most important criteria for quality of communication. At the end of the study, the authors offer a tool that allows assessing the cross-sectoral collaboration and identify the problem areas in order to make the necessary improvements.

Keywords: Social services, collaboration, teamwork, assessment, efficiency

Redefining Postmodern Role and Mission of the University

439-443

Ionut VLADESCU

Nowadays globalization and crisis threatened society has put the knowledge at the heart of the efforts for achieving sustainable and smart growth. That is why, in supporting this strategy, a crucial role was assigned to education and, in particular, to higher education. In view to achieve such crucial role, University faced demands for urgent and deep modernization. So, the University had to rethink its purposes, that is, definitions of what University is, can be and should be, criteria for quality and success, the kinds of research, education and services to be produced, and for whom (Masten Olsen). At stake was the higher education's capacity to compete in the global knowledge society, to adapt and adjust to a series of profound changes: globalization of education and research, increased demand for higher education, increasing need to develop a close cooperation between universities and industry; reorganization of knowledge (need to adapt to the interdisciplinary character of the fields opened by society's major problems such as sustainable development).

Keywords: Higher education, reform, paradigm of academic, technological competitiveness, become permanent