Educators, Covid-19 and Online Interaction: A Qualitative Research



The Covid-19 pandemic has completely changed the conventional interaction among people. The face to face interactions are very restricted due to confinement measures of Covid-19. Inhabitants, public people and institutions have undertaken a lot of initiatives for promoting online interaction and improving life quality. People read online newspaper to avoid buying the newspaper at the newsstand. Schools activate the distance learning. People use online platforms to interact with parents, friends, colleagues, etc. People are quickly adapting their daily routine to the complete changes in social habits. The whole population is learning and improving skills in the use of technological tools. The Italian school was ready to start the distance teaching thanks to the 13 years of digitalization plans for school: PON, Programmazione Operativa Nazionale 2007-2013, the digital agenda, the 107 Law, the Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale. These plans are focused on the specialization of schools in the use of technology. During this sanitary emergency the school provided support for the students and their family, reduced the digital divide, and allowed the continuation of teaching. School designed the weak student’s life projects in collaboration with educators provided by the local administrations. In this way the improvement of life quality of children with special needs, elderly people, and their families was largely granted, even if at distance. Based on this situation, the research team wanted to explore how do the educators realize their work since the quarantine of Covid-19 started, and the modality of offering their support turned from “in presence” to “at distance”. To answer this question, the researchers chose to carry out a qualitative research, 30 Italian educators being involved through a semi-structured interview. The interview questions were divided into four topics to be explored: profession, profession and Covid-19, the use of technologies, and training thought as useful during the emergency. The research is still in progress, due to the Covid19 emergency prolongation, and the data collected represent at the moment a starting point. In this paper the results of the respondents’ answers will be presented. The results reveal practical lines of action that educators have consciously chosen to respond to the lack of contact in presence. The lack of in presence interaction is connected to the failure of online interaction. The role of the mediator played by the family results as necessary and fundamental in the success of online activities with weak students. The outcomes are useful to design educators’ training and for the evolution of policies that improve the modus operandi of this category of workers, especially during a health emergency.

Keywords: Educator, Covid-19 pandemic, distance teaching, educators’ training

University Students Perceptions on Distance Education Courses


İsmail ŞAN

Distance education is a kind of instructional approach that held both synchronously and asynchronously. People and the learning contents are come together thanks to learning management softwares and tools. In these days, COVID-19 forced educators to distance education. In the past, while distance education was labeled as "strange", in this process, "close education" began to be accepted as the new "strange". In 4 months, new models were started to be searched for education in schools. The solution of possible problems brought by intimacy is sought in remote options. However, it is seen that possible suggestions are still sought in "minimum distant" options. This can be attributed to the difficulty of overcoming habits. The purpose of this research is to determine the perception levels of students from different departments studying at İnönü University towards distance education. The research was carried out in accordance with the screening models, which is one of the quantitative research methods. The universe of the research is İnönü University undergraduate students, and the scale was applied to 586 students who volunteered to access and participate. The data of the research were collected in the spring semester of 2019- 2020. The data of the researcher was collected using the Distance Education Satisfaction Survey (Balıkçıoğlu, Çınar-Öz & Işın, 2019). According to the results of the research, it was observed that the satisfaction level of the students participating in the research on distance education satisfaction was 47.8% positive over the total score. It can be argued that students are dissatisfied with distance education, prefer face-to-face education and do not favor distance education except for some courses.

Keywords: Distance education, undergraduate students, perceptions

Education of Leading Pedagogical Staff with a Focus on their Educational Needs



The paper focuses on the area of further education of pedagogical staff. Specifically, it deals with leading pedagogical staff, i.e. leaders in schools and educational institutions. Currently, courses and other educational activities are offered as further education, but they often do not reflect the current trends in the area of managing kindergartens, small schools, elementary schools, secondary schools, children’s homes, child protective services, and institutions offering leisure activities. The aim of the paper is to provide a theoretical definition of the issue of further education for leading pedagogical staff in the Czech Republic and providing an analysis of this group’s educational needs with a focus on increasing managerial competencies for leading pedagogical staff in kindergartens, small schools, elementary and secondary schools, children’s homes, child protective services, and institutions offering leisure activities. Data with be obtained through a questionnaire survey and implemented brainstorming, and will be further evaluated in the form of specific educational proposals. The output will be the presentation of specific topics in order to construct a modular education system focused on gaining and expanding competencies within pedagogical leadership and management, getting acquainted with the principles and current trends in human resource management, deepening knowledge in relevant legislation, sharing experiences and self-reflection.

Keywords: Education, further education, leading pedagogical staff, educational needs

Distance Education in COVID-19 Process: Investigating the Opinions in Terms of Different Variables



Distance education which has being used for a long time get more and more important today. Distance education is a facilitator for sustaining education under different circumstances. For example, distance education can be preferred because of economic reasons, personal learning styles or self-development. However, COVID-19 process has occurred that distance education is not a facilitator for education but also an inevitable system for the world of the future. Since the pandemic process has affected all the systems, it has been seen that many countries have preferred to use distance education to sustain their education systems. Based on this situation, this study aimed to investigate the opinions of the university students who attended distance education at Sakarya University during the COVID-19 pandemic process in terms of the variables of gender, attending distance education previously, owning personal computer, age, grade, place of residence and income. In this context, the study was designed with descriptive scanning model which is one of the quantitative research models. The study group was selected by the criterion sampling method. So, attending distance education during COVID-19 process was stated as the criteria. As data collection tool, Opinion for Distance Education Scale developed by Yıldırım and his colleagues (2014) was used. The data analysis was made with SPSS packet program and Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis tests since the data collected did not show normal distributions. In this context, it was found that the opinions of the university students on overall distance education and personal suitability sub-dimension differed significantly according to gender, attending distance education previously, owning personal computer, age, grade and income; on effectiveness sub- dimension differed significantly according to gender, age, grade and income; on instructiveness and familiarity sub- dimensions differed significantly according to age and grade. Within the lights of the findings, the results were discussed and some recommendations were given.

Keywords: COVID-19, distance education, education system, pandemic process 

Using a Creativity-based Learning Approach to Enhancing Product Creative Skill of Undergraduate Students in Communication Arts under COVID 19: The Case Study of Sripatum University, Thailand


Rattasapa KANKAEW

The aim of this studied was; 1) to study strategies of lecturers who using a creativity-based learning approach to enhance the product creative skill of undergraduate students in communication arts under COVID 19 situation and 2) to studied tools and techniques for fully online creativity-based learning approach. At that period, any instructor could not arrange their class as face-to-face as the traditional way. The fully online teaching was replaced every course differently but lead the students to create a new idea of presentation and products as the learning outcome. The methodology of this studied was an in-depth interview with the dean, faculty members, and students and present the results with descriptive analysis. The results found that lecturers used a flipped- classroom model by using a creativity-based learning approach with the “fully online” by using Zoom meeting for synchronous learning and Learning Management System : LMS (Moodle) which contain content and scaffolding will be help student to create a creative product as asynchronous learning. Line group, Facebook messenger and Facebook close group as communication tools could help students to share an idea and collaborate with their team on a fully online course. The student used any kind of online presentation technique like making a video clip presentation and used "The Sims™ 4" (for PC/Mac) to simulate their product idea. The creative product of communication arts undergraduate students is a novelty, a resolution and elaboration, and synthesis of new things. The effects of the COVID 19 process changed educational systems of Institution and this result would be adapted into the lifelong learning for the alumni and anybody who need to enhance product creative skill.

Keywords: Creativity-based learning, creative product, communication arts, COVID 19

Well-being and Health During COVID-19 Pandemic



The fast spreading of the COVID-19 virus led WHO to consider it as a pandemic. All over the world the entire population of different nations was lockdown. From the Psychological and Psychopedagogical Counseling Service (SAP) at the University of Cádiz, a health promotion program called “Well-being and Health” was designed and implemented. Participants belonged to two different groups considered as “at risk” in the context of health alert: students from the Elderly University Program of University of Cádiz and women with a breast cancer diagnosis. The program aimed to promote the well-being of participants during lockdown due to the pandemic; and to evaluate the effectiveness of an online health promotion program based in relaxation and meditation techniques, the principles of positive psychology and the promotion of a healthy lifestyle. It is possible to conclude that participating in an on line group health promotion program, with an emphasis on a healthy lifestyle, training in relaxation and meditation techniques, and based in the positive Psychology perspective, protected people from the impact of stress associated with lockdown.

Keywords: Online education, lockdown, well-being, online treatment, COVID-19 

What is the Secret to the Success of the Singapore Education System?



Apart from being "the process of creating the desired behaviour change through the individual's own life", education is also the process that prepares the individual for life and leads him/her to a life in harmony with the society. Education enables the individual to connect with life. The general purpose of education is to help growing children and young people to adapt to society in a healthy and productive way. Singapore has accomplished to such an educational goal having attracted attention of the world following her success in international student assessment exams such as PISA, TIMMS and PIRLS in recent years. Singapore's success in international exams that provide information about the results of countries' policies and practices in the field of education aroused curiosity giving rise to a plethora of researches on its education system. In addition to its success in education in recent years, its socio-economic and technological achievements are also at a level that is highly appreciated. The purpose of this study is to examine the Singapore Education System (SES) as well as its features. For this purpose, the main features that stand out in the success of the Singapore Education System were determined through a literature review and a document analysis. Considering these features, the country has a stable and consistent education policies since the very first day it was founded, distinguished teachers created by the policy of teacher selection and training, qualified school leaders with the selection and training policies of school leaders, and information and communication technologies at every stage of the lessons along with effective use, determination on equal opportunities in education, and attaches importance to teaching mathematics, science and technical skills. In addition, the SES reveals that learning environments with a structure in which knowledge and skills are supported by values at every level of education, with the awareness of the importance of values in character formation of the individual as well as the political stability and viewing differences such as religion, race, gender and ethnicity as richness are crucial factors of this success.

Keywords: Education system, Singapore, information technology, leader teacher, leader administrator

Challenging Issues in Teaching English as a Foreign Language



This study aims to determine the problems faced by English teachers, who teach English as a foreign language, and to provide alternative recommendations to these problems. The importance of the utilisation of the English, being an international language, is very high in Northern Cyprus, which is an island country and has a vital position in the tourism industry. Also, the utilisation of the English language will play a crucial role during a possible reunification of Cyprus, to enable communication between Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots, by using a common language else than their languages. The sample group of the study is formed by the English teachers who teach at secondary schools in Northern Cyprus. The study is a qualitative study, based on the interview method conducted to participants chosen from secondary school teachers. The questions used for data collection are based on a structured interview form, developed under the supervision of three experts. Due to COVID - 19, some of the interviews were conducted face to face while others were conducted online. The recommendations below can be stated according to the findings. English teaching methods can be altered to more speaking and listening-based methods rather than grammar-based teaching and examination methods can be re-arranged according to these changes. Seating formation in schools can be changed into a less crowded and language learning- compatible way to improve the ability to learn. The class distribution of foreign language students can be changed into a level-based system, as the current class distributions lack categorisation of students in different levels, which causes difficulty of learning for the student who has a lower level. One of the most significant findings of the study is that the effects of the British Culture during the pre-1974 period which has been highly effective, is not seen anymore; therefore the cultural migration of different cultures into Northern Cyprus causes significant alterations in the cultural formation of Northern Cyprus, which cause adverse effects on the English Language education. Reconstruction of the curriculum based on subjects focusing on authentic and cultural subjects and adding cultural elements of the language that is being taught can be considered as a must for improvement.

Keywords: Teaching English, English language, foreign language, secondary education 

Irrationality vs Rationality? Irrationality as a Door to the Rational Greek Thought



The article introduces the subject of early Greek thought, showing its connections with the Dionysian religion. The intention of article’s author is to analyze the concept of rationality, including logos, in order to reveal contradictions, but also relationships between rationality and irrationality. Contrasting both of these phenomena takes place in the Greek Enlightenment, where rationality stands in opposition to violent feelings and passions. Rationality must be combined with harmony that reveals the arche of reality. According to philosophers, the world is a cosmos, and only as cosmos can be explained in terms of causes. Irrationality as a moment of religious experience does not have to stand in opposition to thinking according to the principles of logos. It turns out that at the root of rationality we find an irrational sphere of deep feelings, that are present in the religion of Dionysus. Therefore, we can say that rational philosophical reflection travels from ecstasy to contemplation.

Keywords: Rationality, irrationality, logos, god, harmony, orphism 

Emotions in e-Learning: The Review Promotes Advanced Curriculum by Studying Social Interaction



This study presents, for the first time, (a) the analysis of the modern literature on the reciprocal impact of emotional arousal and interactional synchrony that creates the synergy of this tandem increasing group productivity; (b) the empirical results of 10 online experiments with 41 dyads. These online experiments in different languages found a 54% increase in group productivity (41% above chance, the p-value < 0.001). The research question of the study is to understand why individuals look for synchrony. A highlight of the article is the hypothesis about the emergence of coherence of emotional arousal and interactional synchrony, the outcome of which enhances group performance. This Model of Coherent Intelligence is supported by laws of Physics and arguments of Social Sciences which are strictly based on experimental data in the modern literature. The study proposes directions for improving e-learning, using Coherent Intelligence.

Keywords: E-learning, arousal, coherent intelligence, interactional synchrony, social cognition

Insert Module of Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics in Business Studies Curriculum



The purpose of the current research is to investigate Latvian business school professors’ attitude to teaching business ethics and work out proposals for development of the Business Ethics insert module for the Latvian business schools. The research employs a quantitative research design – a survey of, applying 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. The research sample consists of 174 higher education institution professors (purposive non-probability sampling). Two research questions are put forward. Q1: Do lecturers see that knowledge of Ethics can foster their students prospective careers? Q2: Should Ethics be taught as an independent course or as an insert module? Although there is no unanimous agreement among lecturers regarding the role Ethics play in students’ professional lives, the research shows that majority of respondents think that this type of knowledge is necessary. The respondents admit that a productive form of Ethics instruction is an multi-valent insert module that can be adapted to tasks of their respective courses.

Keywords: Business ethics, business environment, competitiveness, ethics education, insert module 

Exploration of Language Skills of Monolingual and Bilingual Pre-school Children


Dace MARKUS, Dina BETHERE, Svetlana USCA

Provision of a high-achievement oriented language acquisition for both monolingual and bilingual children is always a challenge for the public education system. Currently, the Latvian education system is undergoing significant changes, part of which affects the acquisition of national language, strengthening the place and the role of Latvian as the state language in the learning process. This publication describes a study, which involves children who attend monolingual and bilingual pre-school education programmes. The research objective framework includes analysis of regulatory requirements of children's language skills and their mutual correlations. For this research the observation method is employed, which allows assessing the children in the fields of expressive speech and literacy. For statistical analysis of the research data the method of descriptive statistics was used. The research results generally confirm a relatively balanced development of native language skills for potential graduates of the monolingual pre-school education programme. While in the group of bilingually educated children, a general lack of using Latvian vocabulary and spoken language is detected. The study results identify relatively limed reading skills in both groups of children involved in the study.

Keywords: Language skills, pre-school education, monolingualism, bilingualism

Pedagogical Aspects of Awareness Formation of Visual Art Language



The education topicalities determine the need for comprehensively educated people who are able to work within a wide range of activities, accepting new spheres through learning and development (Fadels, Bialika, Trilings, 2017). Art pedagogy is interdisciplinary, and it fully reveals the mutual integration tendency of various disciplines, which is characteristic to contemporary education in general (Cohen, 2020). Raising awareness about the artists' creative pursuits, application of various materials and techniques in the process of artistic activity – these are the issues that have always been in the centre of attention of art educators. The research object: artistic activity. The research subject: awareness formation of artistic activity. The research methodology is developed referring to the topicalities of current transformations in education, the findings of scientists, the opinion of professional artists about the artwork creation process, and research studies on the practice of art pedagogy from the perspective of emerging teachers. Considering the above mentioned, the following research question has been put forward: What pedagogical aspects can be influenced by drawing students' attention to the issues of comprehending the visual art language. In turn, the inclusion of artworks in the pedagogical process facilitates the transition from monologue to collaboration helping students to understand the diverse perspectives of human existence. Works of art give the teacher the opportunity to present the events that happened in the past and develop an understanding of personalities and a particular era. The obtained research results can become a basis for further research.

Keywords: Visual art language, art perception, artistic activity, visual art in education

The Development of Social Workers’ Professional Competence in the Study Process



Social work is a profession that is constantly changing and looking for new approaches and methods in order to implement the basic principle of work - to help clients overcome problems by diagnosing and solving them themselves. The aim of the article: to answer the research questions: (1) what are the dominant contradictions in the education of future social workers? (2) how to reduce the contradictions existing in the study process (3) in what way to promote the development of professional competence of students, future social workers in social work in the study process in the context of functional sustainability? The publication analyses the content of the study programme, describes the process of formation of professional competence of future social workers at Liepaja University (Latvia), and analyses the potential of students' professional identity and reflection in the context of study quality improvement. Research results: conclusions that reveal the contradictions established in the study process have been developed, characterize the regularities of the formation of professional competence of future social workers, actualize the factors influencing professional identity and the developing potential of reflection of practical activity in the study process.

Keywords: Student, social work, competence 

Future Challenges in Social Work Education and Practice



The specifics of social work are changing due to social and global trends. The development of education influences future professionals and the contribution of social work to Latvian society. Social work in all institutions is not performed according to the same criteria and methods. The aim of the research is: To explore the importance of a social worker 's professional conversation with clients in the context of a systemic approach. To study alternatives and develop theoretically and empirically grounded recommendations for the implementation of a systemic approach in psychosocial work. In the practical part, an empirical method is used - questionnaires, structured interviews. Data processing was performed in a computer program. The calculation of the Friedman test in the computer program SPSS was used for the expert evaluation. Factors influencing professionally managed conversation with the client in the context of the systemic approach have been identified and researched. Working with the client in the psychosocial field helps to solve the problem purposefully. Methods have been studied to improve social work with clients in municipal social services. A systemic approach has a real opportunity to be integrated into psychosocial work with families with children. The research proves that by using different methods, approaches to working with clients, solving their problems can contribute to improving the client's quality of life. The study reveals new opportunities and challenges in social work and education.

Keywords: Social workers, systemic approach, psychosocial work, burnout, methods

Increase in the Implementation of Digital Technologies in Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Selected Czech Schools



Over the last five years, the possibilities and implementation of digital technologies in teaching have been strengthened in the Czech Republic. As part of the support of digital literacy, Czech education is undergoing a process of increasing the digital competencies of teachers and pupils in primary and secondary schools. The term "digital literacy" means a set of digital competencies (knowledge, skills, attitudes, values) that an individual needs to safely, confidently, critically and creatively use digital technologies at work, learning, leisure activities and participation in society. Their basic characteristic is the application/use of digital technologies in various activities, in solving various problems. This results in their variability over time, depending on changes of the way and extent of the use of digital technologies in society and in human life. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of teachers decided to conduct their teaching online. Among other things, the tasks and their fulfillment and control were given to the pupils electronically. The goals of the expected results of digital literacy were met very quickly and more than before. Particularly interaction through digital technologies, sharing and collaborating through digital technologies, acquisition of data, information and content from digital sources, creation of new digital content, appropriately chosen message format. Our contribution in the form of a research probe among elementary school teachers in two regions verified their rapid development, thanks to the closure of schools and the interruption of regular teaching.

Keywords: Digital literacy, teaching online, COVID-19 pandemic, Czech Republic

Changes Based Learning by Members of the Structure (Organization)



The research is dedicated to new building and maintaining facilities as well as complicated open management systems' maintenance. The goal of the study is to develop a procedure to measure a loyalty program before and after the implementation thereof. This goal is substantiated by the need to prepare an expert in the domain of loyal organisation guidance. Setting of the study’s goal is formulated in a context that allows developing a procedure for the assessment of readiness of an expert. Aside from providing an effective expert training program, such procedure also gives experts an efficient tool for instant current assessment of predisposition of an organisation to loyalty or the lack thereof. These are conceptual provisions and methodological foundations that allow to eliminate conflicts arising in the process of solving the tasks and to provide a link between the monitoring of prospective circumstances and the analysis of the current organization’s position.

Keywords: Methodology, monitoring, instability, programme

Assessment of Physical Fitness of Students at the Faculty of Teacher Education in Rijeka



Students’ good physical condition is crucial for continuous health maintenance their youth, which enables them to preserve good fitness even in adulthood. This study aimed to explore the current state of students' anthropological status at the Faculty of Teacher Education in Rijeka and determine whether there is a correlation between the morphological characteristics and success in motor and functional abilities. Obesity is a grave public health concern, and a low level of motor and functional abilities can have consequences on the longevity and quality of life. The sample consisted of 134 first and second-year female students from the Faculty of Teacher Education in Rijeka. Anthropological characteristics were assessed with 15 variables (seven morphological variables: body height, body weight, body mass index – BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio – WHR, waist-to-height ratio – WHtR; eight motor variables: easier and more difficult push-ups, sit-ups, plank hold, squat hold, standing on one leg with eyes open and closed; and one functional variable: stair test). Basic descriptive parameters were calculated in all variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient with a significance level of p = 0.05 was used to determine the relationship between morphological characteristics and physical fitness. The obtained results show that students achieve below-average results in the muscular endurance of the torso and lower extremities and have poor functional abilities. The results of the association between the tests of morphological characteristics and tests for the assessment of motor abilities show significant positive correlations between body weight and the balance test (UB_r_c; r = 0.50). A positive correlation was found between BMI and balance tests (UB_r_c; r = 0.54, UB_r_o; r = 0.49). Negative correlations were obtained between the balance test UB_l_o and morphological variables AR (r = -0.67) and HR (r = -0.77), and between the balance test UB_r_o and morphological variables WR (r = -0.59) and HR (r = -0.74). A moderately positive correlation was found between the morphological variable WHR and the functional test STEP 15" (r = 0.52). It is recommended that future research verifies the anthropological status on a larger student population and that the measurements are conducted on multiple occassions to monitor students' status and thus control the impacts of the implemented program.

Keywords: Teacher education, physical fitness, students, anthropological characteristics, correlations 

The Innovative Approaches and Methods of Specialists Training in Higher Education in Azerbaijan



The training of top-level specialists should be clearly and flexibly linked to technological and innovative changes in the national economy. The structure of professional training should correspond to the structure of demand for them from the public sector and large and medium-sized entrepreneurs. This means that the educational system should be closely integrated into the national economy of Azerbaijan, sensitively catch the ongoing innovation changes in higher universities of Azerbaijan. This paper considers some of the problems of higher education and directions to solve them in Azerbaijan, as well as the issues of implementation and improving new teaching methods in universities, in particular at Azerbaijan State Economic University (UNEC). The authors systematized having experience in the following disciplines: Organizational Culture, Behavioral Sciences, Business Ethics, Negotiation Techniques, Business Organization and Management, Technology Management, Innovation Management, Strategic Management in various universities of Azerbaijan (Western University, Baku University of Business, Azerbaijan’s Private University, Azerbaijan Institute of National Economy under the Cabinet of Ministers of Azerbaijan, SPAA, Azerbaijan State Economic University, etc.) also offered a number of recommendations: the guidelines for improving the process of innovative transformations in the educational process.

Keywords: State support, innovative changes in higher education, innovative teaching methods, development of higher education in Azerbaijan 

English Vocabulary Enrichment in Non-formal Adult Education during International Non-language Training Courses


Inese Ozola, Anna Vintere

In recent years, various international mobility projects involving training sessions for adults apply learner-centred group work or workshop format instead of the traditional teacher-centred lecturing style. Group work is the form of organization of the study process that requires communication, cooperation and interaction to fulfil tasks therefore communication is an important aspect used by project participants from different countries to organize their work and cooperate with one another. Spoken language is used to express ideas and thoughts therefore listening to peers and the perception of speech in English become an integral component of the learning process. Thus one of the benefits of the training is the improvement of the English language proficiency and enrichment of English vocabulary of participants during the training sessions. The vocabulary in such non-formal education is acquired incidentally which involves learning English words and phrases by engaging in various communicative activities, pair work and group work in order to learn the content of various subject fields. Learning happens through active participation in such activities as questioning, clarifying opinions, sharing ideas, making handouts and posters, giving a presentation of the group work that corresponds to the main features of non-formal education: learn by doing, which means acquiring different skills and abilities in the practical action, learning from experience and learning within a specific process. Participants are involved in three stages that account for a word in a foreign language being remembered: noticing, retrieval and generative use in the context of the given topic. The present paper analyses the results of the survey of the participants of various international projects regarding their experience of the enrichment of the English vocabulary during training seminars. The conclusion gives a summary of the research findings focusing on the respondents’ personal experience, specific activities, the acquired general vocabulary and specific terms in the subject field.

Keywords: Learner-centred approach, English vocabulary, incidental vocabulary learning, non-formal adult education 

Challenges of Transforming Higher Mathematics to Remote Teaching and Learning due to Covid-19 Lockdown



Due to Covid-19, studies are provided remotely in all higher education institutions in Latvia. Despite the fact that e-learning has long been introduced as part of the mathematics study process, a number of challenges have emerged that limit full-fledged distance learning, as mathematics is one of the most complex academic disciplines, the study of which in digital form is a timeconsuming and methodically complex process, the expansion of which is relevant. For this reason, the aim of the article (1) is to evaluate the learning experience in the COVID-19 lockdown situation, (2) to identify the problems encountered, (3) to highlight the most important didactic aspects of digital learning and the use of ICT. The empirical study includes an analysis of the results of interviews with university academic staff and student surveys on the experience of teaching and learning mathematics during the COVID-19 lockdown situation.

Keywords: Digital learning, e-learning, ICT, competence, learning outcomes, mathematics

The Effect of Perceived Academic Stress on Academic Self-efficacy in University Students



The aim of the study is to analyse the correlations between academic self-efficacy and academic stress. Self-efficacy is the key construct in various domains of human activity and represents the individuals’ beliefs about their abilities to cope with difficult life demands and to attain the intended results. Conversely, academic stress acts on the other side of the spectrum, and mostly has a negative effect on students’ academic achievement. The sample consisted of 206 university students including. The data were collected using the Academic Self-efficacy Scale (ASE) and the Academic Stress Inventory (ASI). The results showed a number of significant relationships of strong effect (r = -0.572). According to the subsequent linear regression models, academic self-efficacy affected the following stress domains: study demands (32.4-33.6% of explained variance), followed by organizational-social aspects of study (11.9%), and work-life balance stress (9.2%).Besides the ASE total score, the effect of other subscales was particularly evident.

Keywords: Academic stress, academic self-efficacy, student 

The Impact of Perceived Academic Stress on University Students’ Academic Achievement



The aim of the study is to analyse the correlations between academic achievement and academic stress. Academic achievement is one of the key factors used in the assessment of students´. Therefore, it is desirable to search for correlations with other factors. In this context, it appears that the crucial aspect influencing the success of students is the level of stress. The sample consisted of 539 students. The data were collected using the Academic Achievement Questionnaire and Academic Stress Inventory. The results showed significant relationships of small to medium effect (r-values ranging from -0.109 to -0.351) between academic stress and non-performance aspects of academic achievement, including handling of study demands and social adaptation. The strengths of the associations differed between genders with male students showing fewer but stronger associations (r ranging from -0.281 to -0.443), and female students showing more but slightly weaker associations (r ranging from -0.143 to - 0.392).

Keywords: Academic achievement, academic stress, university students

Surveillance in Visual Culture



With the technology reaching even higher points in recent days, the way of seeing in the use of cinema, film, TV, printed media and social media tools has reached even deeper points. For this reason, people are constantly exposed to surveillance in their lives as social beings. The need of people to communicate as social beings sometimes caused them to be watched and sometimes to be observed, and this situation created different ways of seeing. For this reason, this study examines surveillance in visual culture based on the literature. In this context, the definition of surveillance, its conceptual area, its reasons, its historical background, its types as seeing, being seen, watching, its relationship with media were defined. Accordingly, it was suggested that next studies should examine the surveillance concepts in order to shape seeing positively in today's world where the ways of seeing are getting deeper, the places of seeing, being seen and observing have changed, the mediatic display has come to the fore and the vision culture has been destroyed.

Keywords: Omnipticon, panopticon, surveillance, synopticon, visual culture 

Primary School Teachers and their Life Satisfaction in Relation to Burnout



The aim of the present research was to determine the level of life satisfaction and the prevalence of burnout in teachers. A partial goal was to find out the relation between life satisfaction and burnout in terms of various aspects such as gender, age, and length of teaching experience. The research sample consisted of 136 teachers of elementary schools in the Olomouc Region, of whom 29 were men and 109 were women. The average age of the respondents was 45.12 years, SD 11.44. The data were obtained through the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and MBI Burnout Inventory. The results showed that one third of teachers were significantly emotionally distressed and showed a low level of personal satisfaction. One fifth of teachers showed a high level of depersonalization. As far as the level of work satisfaction is concerned, a significant negative correlation was observed with the level of emotional exhaustion, while a positive correlation was found with overall life satisfaction and personal satisfaction.

Keywords: Burnout syndrome, life satisfaction, stress, teacher