E-material Formatting App Improves Screen-Reading Process and Learning Abilities

386-393

Kristine MACKARE, Anita JANSONE

Technologies use increase access to both knowledge and resources, provide flexibility to access it whenever and wherever possible. All types of distance, online and e-education give a wide range of benefits to reach a goal of providing equal education opportunities for everybody in all age groups, gender, and race. To make education equal and qualitative for persons with and without disabilities and special limitations it should be made on learner-centred design base. E-learning environment evolves, and it should become more personal design approach as it is realised that everyone needs a different education solution to meet satisfaction and high results. It is important on all levels. Contemporary e-learning environment and materials consist of several dimensions. One of them is content such as vocabulary and syntax and content presentation such as typographic aspects. Part of them are font, font size, spacing and colours that are regulated by formatting parameters. E-material formatting app by personalised text formatting has been developed. It consists of tree level formatting approach: 1st level ± general formatting, based on general parameters for e-materials, as general recommendations for everyone; 2nd level ± first grade personalised formatting, based on users’ three question -answer analysis as age-group, gender and existence of complains, simple personalisation; 3rd layer ± second grade personalised formatting, request more detailed user information and analysis, gives deeper personalisation. App improves screen-reading abilities and comfort and learning processes. It is accomplished by more appropriate and personalized text formatting. That create and provide more effective ematerials as it increases visual perception, legibility, readability, reading comprehension, memorability of content. Learners can use e-materials longer time as screen-reading comfort is increased by adapted formatting. It is followed by improvement of individual educational results. Without comfort improvement, it is expected that near-work load and effect on vision will be reduced. As app have learning possibilities it supposes to reach great results, especially in the long term. Also, current app is designed as an adaptable app for different solutions and can be used in a wide range.

Keywords: App, Contemporary e-learning environment, E-material formatting, Equality of educational opportunity, Personalised approach

Some Aspects of the Czech Republic Security Policy and Proliferation of Nuclear and Chemical Weapons

394-402

Pavel OTRISAL, Antonin NOVOTNY

The Czech Republic has a long tradition of protecting against weapons of mass destruction. It still works for the deepening and greater efficiency of processes and mechanisms of disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. It develops capabilities for its defence against the threat of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons of mass destruction. As part of the sharing of common risks and responsibilities within NATO, it continues to develop its armed forces specialization against weapons of mass destruction. Attention is also paid to the development of capabilities necessary for the effective protection of civilians, critical infrastructure and consequence management in humanitarian crisis and natural disasters. The article deals with selected international treaties, current agreements and international cooperation initiatives in the field of non-proliferation of nuclear and chemical weapons, in which the Czech Republic is represented through specific bodies or ministries. There is also a general description of the view and the specific military approach. The involvement of the Czech Ministry of Defence and the Czech Armed Forces in NATO structures enables to influence the strategic decision-making in the area of CBRN and thus support the current trends concerning forensic analysis, sampling of CBRN samples and response to new trends in the field of WMD elimination. For this purpose, they serve as a guarantor of maintaining the ability of conceptual, normative and educational activities for capabilities of the Czech Armed Forces, the NBC Defence Institute, University of Defence, and the JCBRN Defence COE.

Keywords: Non-proliferation of WMD, International cooperation, Disarmament, Disablement, Control mechanism

Private Pension Funds in Albania, Their Development and Challenges

403-409

Klaudeta MEROLLARI, Klaudia LİPİ

The problem of pensions, related in particular to the shortcomings of state scheme, are a real concern due to the increase of third age population and population's longevity, as well as the fall of birth rates. The development of private pension funds, initially as voluntary additional amounts, and then as compulsory, appears at a very signicative moment for the pension system in Albania, by providing a more secure and safe alternative for the third age. Recently, there has been a growing trend on the part of individuals, but also financial institutions for new investment and saving alternatives, particularly voluntary pension market has been increasing over the last few years, both in assets and members. Based on this fact, the purpose of this article is to analyse the private pensions development in Albania, their influence on national economy, as well as challenges and problems that private pension funds face in our country. The paper methodology is based on theoretical framework, by analysing the legislation, different articles, and by using information from the Albanian Financial Supervisory Authority.

Keywords: Private pension funds, Public pension scheme, Voluntary Pension Fund, Professional Pension Fund, Social security

Education, Employment and Poverty: Interdependence

410-416

Nazim MAMMADOV

The strategic goal of the economy development of each country is to ensure the required quality of life of the population. As in other countries, the ultimate objective of socio-economic development of Azerbaijan is to improve the well-being of the population and its quality of life. As one of the most important means of increasing the income of the population and reducing poverty in Azerbaijan, it is possible to increase the education of the population, because better education means an increase in the level of human capital, which should normally lead to an increase in incomes. At the same time, in the absence of good education of the society with poor social and income mobility (including intergenerational), low income or poverty may be intensified. If the increase in education of the population does not concern to the poor groups, then the increase in education does not lead to a decrease in poverty. This raises the issue of access to education for low-income groups of the population. At the same time, it is necessary to have a normal advantage of education, that is, to increase the income according to the level of education. The paper examines the issues of interdependence of education, poverty and employment from different views. The current state of the quality of education is analyzed. The paper focuses on the education and employment policy of the population, including the financing of education. Research methods such as systematic scientific analysis, logical generalization and statistical analysis are used during the study. The paper can be useful for the social policy of the Azerbaijani government and be considered important for local and foreign researchers.

Keywords: Education, Poverty, Employment, Financing of education

The Expectations of International Students of Leadership on International Campuses

417-424

Ayşegül TAKKAÇ TULGAR

As a growing phenomenon, internationalization has reflected its expanding effects on many university campuses which are increasingly becoming social and cultural places hosting students from different parts of the world. On such campuses, international students are offered numerous chances to actively participate in social events besides receiving undergraduate or graduate education. This qualitative case study examined the expectations of 12 international students of leadership from the academic and managerial staff. The data were collected through open-ended questions. Content analysis revealed that the participants approached leadership from three perspectives: expectations from academic leaders, from managerial leaders and from local and international friends. They expected academic leaders to offer high-quality education and they expected managerial leaders of the campus to create chances of interaction through extra-curricular activities and to provide peaceful educational and social atmospheres in which they can healthily interact with local and international students as well as local citizens.

Keywords: Leadership, International campus, International student, Internationalization

The Effect of Coping Strategies on Workplace Bullying in High School Teachers

425-434

Simona DOBESOVA CAKIRPALOGLU

The research objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and the victims of bullying at the workplace in the Czech Republic. A questionnaire battery was used consisting of questionnaires NAQ-R (Negative Acts Questionnaire- Revised), evaluating the prevalence and the forms of workplace bullying and standardized questionnaire OSIR (Inventory of occupational stress) which evaluates the emotional, cognitive stress management and the coping strategy (personal resources for coping with stress). The research sample consisted of 253 secondary school teachers from the Olomouc Region, of whom 76 were men and 177 were women. The age range of the entire sample was from 22 to 68 years (mean age 47.94 years; SD 9.58). The existence of a negative relationship was confirmed between the victims of workplace bullying and all coping strategies monitored - social support, relaxation, self-care, and rational / cognitive coping.

Keywords: Workplace bullying, High school teachers, Stress, Coping strategies

Lifelong Learning for Teachers with High and Low Agreeableness

435-445

Svetlana LUKASHOVA, Saule TULEPOVA, Yerzhan CHONGAROV, Gulnara KASSYMOVA

It is a lifelong goal for teachers to learn to successfully exploit their strengths and weaknesses to complete their personal and professional development. The study presents a comparative analysis of the personality structure of high and low agreeable teachers and illustrates certain benefits and drawbacks of both target groups, which definitely impacts their well-being, teacher efficacy and relationship with students. The paper examines the links between teacher agreeableness and their personality type, self-esteem and anxiety rates in a sample of 182 teacher candidates from Suleyman Demirel University, Kazakhstan. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that higher levels of Agreeableness correlate with higher anxiety and lower self-esteem rates, which predicts paying a certain cost for being very agreeable. Moreover, close bonds were observed between high agreeableness and more feeling type ± warm and kind; low agreeableness and more thinking type-cold-minded and fair. The study highlights the lifelong learning opportunities: it is recommended finding out the ways to enhance teacher self-awareness and develop an optimal level of agreeableness.

Keywords: Teacher agreeableness, Personality type, Self-esteem, Anxiety, Professional productivity

Computational Thinking and Teachers: What is the Real Level of Experience in Teaching Algorithms and Programming for IT Teachers?

447-455

Milan KLEMENT, Tomas DRAGON

The presented paper deals with the frequently discussed issues of the development of pupils' computational thinking. The ability to think as an IT engineer is one of the important competences that enable pupils to develop and apply themselves not only in the informatics fields, but also in everyday life. The need for this development is becoming increasingly acute and follows the already established concept of information literacy development, which is still important but has already been overcome in certain areas. The development and promotion of the concept of computational thinking is based on several fundamental pillars, one of the most important being algorithmization and programming. However, the question arises as to whether IT subjects who were more focused on developing digital literacy with respect to valid curricula are ready to implement this systemic change. We were looking for an answer to this question within the framework of our research.

Keywords: Computational thinking, Algorithmization and programming, Teachers of IT subjects

Linguistic, Social and Cultural Factors Influencing Foreign Language Learning in the Context of Higher Education

456-465

Gulnara KASSYMOVA, Saule TULEPOVA, Kuralay MUKHAMADI, Kumis ZHAIYKBAY, Svetlana LUKASHOVA

This research aims to reveal main linguistic and socio-cultural factors influencing foreign language learning from students’ perspectives at non-linguistic (engineering) department in Kazakhstani context, as well as to analyze the relationship between these factors and English language proficiency as a result of foreign language learning process. The results of this study are presented in three stages using the following data collection instruments: observation, questionnaire and interview. The first analysis focuses attention on observation of the factors that might influence engineering students’ language proficiency. The second analysis  considers the influences of linguistic, cultural and social factors on development of learner’s foreign language proficiency. The last set of analyses considers the students’ perceptions of the most important linguistic, cultural and social factors influencing their foreign language learning. It can be concluded that the most influential factors from the students’ perspectives are the social factors but not linguistic, cultural peculiarities of the foreign language.

Keywords: Linguistic factors, Socio-cultural factors, Foreign language learning, Proficiency

Correlation Between Parents’ Attitudes Towards Physical Exercise and Anthropological Dimensions of Preschool Children

466-473

Vatroslav HORVAT, Branimir Luka CORAK, Nevenka MARAS

The paper titled “The Correlation Between Parents’ Attitudes Towards Physical Exercise and the Anthropological Dimensions of Preschool Children” is based on research data collected at the Grigor Vitez Kindergarten in Zaprude (Zagreb, Croatia). The research was conducted on two preschool groups of children (six year of age and older), Ivancice (Daisies, 26 children) and Ljubicice (Violets, 27 children) and on their parents. The goal of this paper was to establish the strength and the impact of parents’ attitudes towards physical exercise and anthropological dimensions (physical abilities ± repetitive = MST and explosive strength = MSDM, balance = MRSJN, coordination = MKPN, speed = MBTR, flexibility = MFSR and morphologic characteristics ± height = ATV and weight = ATM) of preschool children. The survey was conducted (using the Likert scale approach) among parents, after which a measurement of the children’s motor skills and morphological characteristics was carried out. The results showed an insufficient/weak link between parents’ attitudes and the childrens’ measured motor skills. A possible explanation of such an outcome could have its roots in the relatively small sample, as that of measured variables as the limited number of participants. In order to obtain more reliable results, it could be beneficial to conduct further research on a bigger sample of participants.

Keywords: Physical exercise, Child, Morphological characteristics

Relationship between Morphological Features and Lower Limb Explosive Strength in Boys

474-479

Marijana HRASKI, Zeljko HRASKI, Vatroslav HORVAT

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between morphological characteristics and lower limb explosive strength. The sample consisted of 100 male respondents aged 4 to 18 years. Variables was composed of 12 anthropometric characteristics, percentage of body fat and vertical jump. For establishment the relationship between morphological features and lower limb explosive power Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. The result indicated that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between the morphological characteristics that are predisposed by regular growth and development (body height, arm length, leg length, etc.) and the explosive strength. Also, it shown statistically significant negative correlation between the variables that are indicators of wellbeing (fat percentage, skin folds) and motor performance. It can be concluded that boys who are overweight and obese reported poorer results in motor skill. Therefore, it is very important for children to be physically active to maintain normal health status.

Keywords: Anthropometric characteristics, Children, Motor abilities, Physical activities

The Case Study of the University Student Who Stutters

480-487

Renata MLCAKOVA

The aim of the paper is to introduce Filip, 24-years-old, male, with chronic stuttering. Filip has been suffering from stutter since the age of 4, i.e. for 20 years. He is a student of Digital and Device Optics at Faculty of Science, Palacky University in Olomouc, Czech Republic. Filip is a client of The Support Centre for Students with Special Needs at Palacky University due to stuttering. We have been realizing speech and language therapy (SLT) since November 2016. At the beginning of our SLT we diagnosed prolongations of vowels and consonants, repetitions of vowels, consonants and syllables, disturbed co-verbal behavior, i.e. missing visual contact, fear of communication, avoiding difficult words and situations, changing the word order in the sentence. During every SLT we discuss situations that are challenging for the client (for example expressing an idea to a teacher, raising the hand and giving the answer during lectures, giving a presentation, a situation where an immediate answer is required, buying a train/bus ticket etc.), we assess them and we rate their difficulty on a scale from 1 to 5 points (1 meaning the easiest and 5 meaning the most challenging). The author of the paper used a holistic therapy approach, Fluency Shaping Techniques as well as Stuttering Modification Therapy. The author also created numerous possibilities for Filip to speak about his stuttering before an audience made of students, speech and language therapists or university teachers and counsellors. The author suggested and assisted Filip with various street contacts that included primarily initiating a conversation with strangers. These situations used to be challenging for Filip to the point where he deliberately avoided them due to the fear of failure. Nowadays, Filip perceives his communication difficulties as less severe, he enjoys speaking, he does not avoid words, he does not change the word order in the sentence, he speaks a lot and he has been tutoring mathematics and English language to three pupils from primary school. Filip seeks opportunities to speak and does not avoid challenging situations.

Keywords: Stuttering, Fluency shaping therapy, Stuttering modification therapy

Teachers Intercultural Sensitivity Towards Different Ethnic and Religious groups

488-495

Madona MIKELADZE

Intercultural education is especially important for Georgia. One of the big problems that the Soviet Heritage left is a civil integration of various religious or ethnic groups living in Georgia. One of the hindering factors of civil integration is the lack of communication and knowledge about Georgian cultural features. Stereotypical attitude towards each other’s heritage and national traditions is another reason that interferes to strengthen intercultural relationships. In the reports of various international organizations and Georgian Public Defender, we often encounter the problems of citizens with different ethnocultural identity. Our article aims at measuring only one aspect of intercultural education- primary teachers’ intercultural sensitivity. The geographical area of our research is also limited- The target schools involved in the research are public and private schools of Adjara region only. The goal of the research is to create new knowledge in the field of education. This will enable the educators, schools, self-governments, non-government organizations, parents and others, to consider the best practices of the developed country, as well as assessment based on the local empirical evidences.

Keywords: Teacher, Differences, Intercultural sensitivity

Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire Adaptation

496-503

Katrina VOLGEMUTE, Zermena VAZNE, Daina KRAUKSTA, Renars LICIS

The aim of the study is to adapt the Sports Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ) in the Latvian sports environment. SIAQ was completed by 220 Latvian athletes. It is designed to measure and assess the athletes’ ability to imagine a variety of different circumstances. The following research methods were used: research and analysis of literature sources, SIAQ, mathematical statistical methods. Internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha (CR). 7KURXJKDVVHVVPHQWRIWKH five subscales of SIAQ adaption to the Latvian language (skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery), the results demonstrated adequate CR. To determine the validity factor analysis was performed. SIQA Latvian adaption has five factors. Test-retest was carried out with interval of two weeks in between, in order to determent temporal reliability of questionnaire. The Latvian version has an acceptable temporal reliability (p<0.05). The results indicate that the SIAQ Latvian adaption measures imagery ability with respect to five types of imagery content. Reliability and validity of the Latvian version of SIAQ is adequate with the psychometric structure of the original version. Therefore, the SIAQ Latvian adaptation can be used for intercultural research of athletes’ imagery abilities in sport science as well as for practical use in sports environment.

Keywords: Sport imagery abilities, Adaptation, Reliability and validity

The Role of Education on Sustainability of Economic Growth: Evidence from Countries Participated in PISA

504-511

Ömer YALÇINKAYA, Şekip YAZGAN

This study aims to analyze the relations between education and economic growth by using quantitative and qualitative education indicators in the countries participating in PISA tests, which are accepted as an international reference in the field of education. For this purpose, the effects of quantitative and qualitative education indicators on economic growth in the participating countries of PISA tests are analyzed econometrically within the framework of panel data analysis methodology considering the cross-sectional dependence for the 1995-2017 period. As a result of the study, it was determined that the long-term effects of quantitative and qualitative education indicators on economic growth were positive and statistically significant in the participating countries of PISA tests during the period that was analyzed. However, it was found out in the study that the magnitude of long-term and positive effects of quantitative and qualitative education indicators on economic growth increased in parallel with the success levels of participating countries of PISA.

Keywords: Sustainable growth, Education, PISA, Panel data analysis

New Pedagogies for Lifelong Learning: An Insight of Urdu Literature in Pakistan

512-523

Almas KHANUM, Faiza BASHIR

Literature has foremost impact on the maturity and development of any society. It produced civilizations, Impact on political systems and exposed injustice. It gives us a detailed preview of human experiences, allowing us to connect on basic levels of desire and emotion. Literature is thought provoking; it allows us to raise questions and gives us a deeper understanding of issues and situations. The aim of this study is to make an appraisal of the impact of the reading of literature on increasingly diverse societies like Pakistan. The objective of the study is to explore how Urdu literature changes the way of thinking, to indicate the new pedagogies of lifelong learning and to highlight the current culture of reading in Pakistan. To achieve these objectives survey method of research will be use. In order to collect data self structured questionnaire based on the open and close ended questions will be use. The collected data will be analyzed in statistical software available for social sciences (SPSS). Results will be presented and recommendations will be given on the basis of these results. There had been no previous study done on this particular topic of Urdu literature, so there is need to explore the impact of reading culture of Urdu literature in a multicultural society of Pakistan. Being the first study of its kind in Pakistan it is anticipated that the research will provide a baseline for further research in this area and will contribute to the literature.

Keywords: Lifelong learning, Urdu literature, Pakistan

Teacher Leaders can Use Digital Tools to Improve Student Learning Experiences

524-532

Ann HILLIARD

Today, most students are motivated by the use of various technology tools. Since students are so savvy when it comes to using technology tools, teacher leaders and other educators must continue to find ways to incorporate the use of technology devices across the curriculum in a relevant manner to expand students’ learning experiences in solving problems and gaining new and improved experiences in course work in school. When teachers integrate technology across the curriculum, students will have access, consistency and clarity to what is expected of them and what students can do to have real-world experiences. More teachers today as leaders in schools are infusing the use of technology tools to support course content and working collaboratively with their peers to engage in relevant professional faculty development. Teachers can use technology to broaden students’ choices as they learn information in various classes and differentiate the instructional process based, again on th needs and interests of individual students. Even novice teachers should not fear learning new and improved technology and different types of digital tools in the workplace, because in most settings there are individuals who are willing to show one how to use different types of digital tools. This study will focus on types and benefits of digital tools, collaborative leadership, professional development, strategies for instruction and assessment tools, learning generation preparation is urgent, and workplace expectations in the marketplace.

Keywords: Teacher leaders, Instruction, Management tool, Marketplace readiness

Ambassador of Sustainability in Education & Leadership: A case of Public Libraries in Multicultural Society

533-542

Faiza BASHIR, Almas KHANUM

Sustainability is a fast evolving movement in education and leadership, viewed as vital to the mission of public libraries as well, creating a paradigm shift that librarians can help advance with their collective interdisciplinary expertise. Cultural diversity has a sustainable increase in recent days. User-friendly Libraries is the major source of that contributes to improving the knowledge of both faculties and students through active search. Public libraries promote cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue. The purpose of the study was to investigate the practices regarding sustainable development among public libraries of multicultural society. Lahore is a multicultural city, where people come all around the country as well as world. To highlight the core elements required for the implementation of public library services for sustainable development of education and leadership with special reference to multicultural society was another objective of the present study. This study is exploratory in nature. Keeping in view the objectives of the study, research design chosen for this study is largely qualitative. To explore the current scenario of sustainability through public libraries in multicultural city of Lahore, local and international literature review & public library staff’s interviews from the city of Lahore with the help of observation technique used as data gathering method. Results reveal that public libraries can play dynamic roles for sustainability of education and leadership. The government should play their role and contribute towards the public library standards to re-assess and enhanced quality of these libraries in Pakistan. Public libraries in a culturally diverse society work as mediators between society, culture and users. Pakistani community is a mixture of different languages and cultures which have different dimensions’ and local cultural roots. There is a dire need for library cooperation among educational institutes and public libraries for sustainable society.

Keywords: Sustainability education, Sustainability public library, Sustainability cultural diversity, Education and leadership, Pakistan

Vicious Circle of Reproduction of Stereotypical Thinking in Czech Schools

543-551

Andrea PREISSOVA KREJCİ

Contemporary society is living in an age of globalization, and with it also an age of plurality of ethical and political values. This study is based on a comparison of research studies concerning the media images of people who are viewed as “different” by means of a quantitative content analysis of the Czech media together with an examination of values and attitudes towards those viewed as “different” among high school students. The aim is to Show the vicious circle of reproduction of stereotypical thinking without critical reflection in school and in the media, which confirms our subjective, stereotyped reality. In today’s globalized world this is perceived as a problem that multicultural education could deal with. However, in the Czech Republic, the multicultural approach in the educational process, due to its reduction to “Roma problem”, does not meet our expectations or is in fact failing, since to date this approach leads to a superficial acceptance of postmodern values, which includes for example toleration of differences among pupils (and often also among teachers).

Keywords: Educational process, Media image, Multicultural education, Social constructivism

Perception of Health within the Context of Value Orientation among Czech Youth

552-561

Andrea PREISSOVA KREJCİ, Martina CICHA

The aim of our research was to clarify the relationship of Czech adolescents to the value of health and identify the main determinants of its formation and changes, specifically focused on the impact of family structure and educational environment. The research was carried out via the technique of a survey amongst students of selected secondary schools and high-schools in the regions of Zlin and Olomouc. The investigation was attended by a total of 855 respondents. Age rank of  respondents was 15-20 years. The data was obtained by questionnaire included closed and semi-opened questions structured into three thematic areas. The research pointed out the great importance of health within the value orientation of Czech youth. The value of health was of most importance to circa 83% of high-school attendees. The results show the considerable impact of social background, especially family's attitudes toward health to the individual perception of health and disease held by adolescents in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: Czech Republic, Health, Schools, Value orientation

Czech District Schools in Croatia - Sources of Resistance to Croatization

562-567

Jana KOCİ, Andrea PREISSOVA KREJCİ

One of the factors that has a major impact on maintaining Czech national identity beyond the borders of the Czech state is the existence of Czech schools and teaching in the Czech language. Minority schools began to form in Croatia after the First World War and experienced further development especially after 1945, at that time hundreds of children in Croatia were taught in Czech language. Our aim is to build on the description of the current state of minority education in Croatia, which we described earlier (ICLEL 2018) and to focus in more detail on the so-called district schools with teaching in the Czech language, and these schools show primarily how targeted effort against assimilation brings its fruit. Currently two kindergartens, two elementary schools and six district schools in Croatia teach most of their subjects in Czech language. District schools are irreplaceable for the compatriotic community because, with the help of the Croatian government, they enable minority language lessons in small classes in settlements where the Czech ethnic group has survived to this day, even for two or three pupils.

Keywords: Czech minority in Croatia, District schools, Czech language, National identity, Croatization

The Beginning of Czech Education in Croatia (1921-1941)

568-572

Jana KOCİ, Andrea PREISSOVA KREJCİ

Czech schools in Croatia have existed for almost a hundred years and still belong to the main pillars of Czech national identity in Croatia. The important element of the development of Czech schools in former Yugoslavia and subsequently in Croatia is its role in the process of resisting of the assimilation of the Czech minority in Daruvar region, which is the requirement to maintain the existence of the Czech compatriotic identity. The paper discusses the socio-political circumstances of beginning of the Czech education in Croatia. The authors will reflect both the problems the compatriots have faced when founding schools, including the reluctance of Yugoslav authorities, and the support activities from the side of the Czechoslovak Republic, which sent Czech teachers to Slavonia, all based in historical research of archival sources. Thanks to the effort of compatriots, the foundations of the institution of Czech education were laid at the beginning of the 1920s, while it now has a good reputation not only among the members of the Czech minority, but also in the major population of Croatia.

Keywords: Czech minority, Croatia, Minority school, National identity

Self-Learning of Academic Staff as an Element of Lifelong Education: the Role of Assessment Competence

573-582

Murad BAGIRZADEH

The purpose of the study is to substantiate the idea on enhancing the role of assessment competence of academic staff in the context of new tasks of universities in light of knowledge economy requirements. Significant country differences and universities' own approaches to the professional growth of academic staff dictate the need to find ways to stimulate sustainable self-development of competencies, including assessment, reflection, motivation and mutual assessment in the student-teacher system. This study is an attempt to identify the role of assessment competence in the steady growth of teachers' professionalism, taking into account these aspects. The analysis of the survey result allowed us to outline the suitable forms of systematic retraining and sustainable self-education of academic personnel for the development of professional, including appraisal, competence in a rapidly changing competitive educational environment.

Keywords: Academic staff, Assessment competence, Sustainable self-development, Combined data

A few Aspects about the Scientific and Academic Research Ethics Legislation in Romania

583-589

Nicolae TARFULEA, Flaviu Mihai FRIGURA-ILIASA, Petru ANDEA, Sorin MUSUROI, Doru VATAU

Good conduct in research - development - innovation is ensured in accordance with relevant international and EU laws and the rules of ethics for research programs - development ± innovation thereof. The application of the measures referred to above is the responsibility of the ethics committee belonging to the structures that run research, development and innovation, such as universities, research institutes etc. This paper presents the current provisions of the Romanian legislation on research ethics, formulating a set of proposals in order to improve the conduct in scientific research, technological development and innovation. It concerns, in particular, a better formulation of the definitions on deviations from the rules of ethics in scientific research, prevention and resolution of plagiarism facts, tasks of the bodies empowered by law to decide on ethical violations. Differences are noticed between deviations considered under the criminal law as crimes and those representing misbehaviors, formulating proposals on limitation periods for these facts, namely the lifting and removal of the sanctions. Also, provisions that are specified in law enforcement must be used of good conduct in research - development ± innovation, too, the application of other laws, such as those relating to copyright, patents, industrial designs protection have to be made. Through concrete application of such provisions, there are some issues, like the lack of correlation with other regulations, insufficient definitions etc. This paper presents, also, some of the weaknesses of this legislation, formulating a set of proposals to improve conduct in scientific research, development and innovation.

Keywords: Scientific research, Ethics, Legislation

EEA Mobilities - an Important Factor in the Process of Internationalization of Higher Education: Case Study for Romania

590-595

Bogdan FILIP, Flaviu Mihai FRIGURA-ILIASA, Madlena NEN, Hannelore FILIPESCU, Lia DOLGA

Improving transnational student and staff mobility is one of the key objectives of the Bologna process and a core principle of European integration in general. The objective of these mobilities is to strengthen the cooperation between European universities and EEA institutions mainly through the promotion of academic excellence and institutional improvement, reduction of mobility obstacles, and internationalization at home. This paper presents a case study about the first stage of the EEA Program. According to the Romanian applications, the estimated number of students (both incoming and outgoing) who will go in mobility during the academic year 2014-2015 was of 292 (out of a target of 365 until Sept 2016). The number of staff (both incoming and outgoing) estimated to go in mobility in the academic year 2014-2015 was of 219 (more than the target established which is of 140). We consider that the results have meet the objectives set in the Call for this Measure. The main outcome for the beneficiaries was the exchange of knowledge that will positively impact the academic staff of both donor and partner institutions, the possibility to compare the curricula in the host university while staff training beneficiaries experienced new working methods, contribute to the development of new practices that allow internationalization at home to the benefit of the academic staff as well as of the students. The projects outputs are reflected by the specific achievements of mobility beneficiaries.

Keywords: Mobilities, EEA Grants, Internationalization