Foreign Students Growth Trends in Georgia



"Educational Migration" is quite common in Georgia, as it is one of the fastest growing migration. Therefore, studyng this type of migration, making relevant conclusions and developing recommendations is more important in the modern stage. Therefore, quantitative analysis of educational migration is the main goal of the article. Hence, quantitative analysis of educational migration is the main goal of the article. The average cost of a foreign student is 7,733 dollars (the cost of living, leisure, travel and other expenses), or 195 million GEL per year (USD -2.7 GEL), which is 0.6% of GDP and 6% of service exports. By According to the forecast, the number of students in 2020 will be 20 thousand and the income will be 0.5 million GEL. Economic benefits will be further increased by improving teaching quality and service.2020 the number of students will be 20 thousand and the revenues will be 0,5 million GEL. Economic benefits will be further increased by improving teaching quality and service.

Keywords: Migration, Students, Education, International mobile, Statistics

Social Development and Education Interaction



Education is one of the most important development criteria of countries. In the evaluation of development, it is not wrong to say that the place of education comes first, besides social, economic and political parameters. There are many reasons for this. Development and social development cannot be unilateral, that is to say, only economically. Today we can understand more. It is observed that all development parameters pass through the education chain and the related quality evaluations, considering the current conditions more clearly. Considering the development principles and expenditures on education, or rather the investments of all the countries of the world, it will be better understood what the development values of highly developed, intermediate developed and underdeveloped countries are. Because education expenditures mean more investments for the future for countries and countries can transfer their investments to other living sectors through education.

Keywords: Education, Social development, Economy

Peculiarities of State Funding Priority Educational Programs and Expense Efficiency



Education is an important priority for the country, that should be given special importance and attention. It defines country’s progress and economic advancement. High quality education is a guarantee of social consolidation that promotes welfare and personal, social and professional development. All this can be achieved by rational use of state financial resources. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the expenditures incurred by the state, it is necessary to examine the segment of the funding. The objective of the topic is to identify the major shortcomings in the existing higher education funding system and to provide ways and directions to solve problem. All of this is discussed by the analysis of international practice, which is based on experienced and established approaches in time, because higher education financing is not limited to the extent of financing, but also the social environment, which is historically established in a particular state or region, so this research should be carried out by considering the profound and compelling factors. Analysis of international practice illustrates the deficiencies in Georgia in this regard. Higher education and financing in Georgia are very small and far behind the international standard. The increase in financing can not itself be considered as a step forward if we can not determine the acceptable results, which should be based on systematic monitoring of the labor market.

Keywords: Higher education, Funding models, Human capital, EU, Georgia

Cognitive Competences of Preschool Children in Relation to their Gross Motor Skills



Children need a wide range of skills to transition successfully to formal schooling. Promoting children’s readiness for school  is an important societal and it should be also governmental priority. There are known strategies such as grants or projects aimed on this problematics in the world, but not in the Czech Republic. However, the evolvement of motor skills (independent locomotion) enables the child to explore the environment, that leads to new and differentiated cognitive concepts, this problematics is still not in the center of interest in the Czech professional society. Researchers worldwide have not explained adequately how motor skills are connected with cognitive competences. Therefore, the aim of the project is to assess the relationship between the level of gross motor skills of pre-primary aged children and their cognitive competences. The research group consisted of 100 children from Czech kindergartens at the age 5,74 + 0,71 years. For the assessment of gross motor skills was used standardized TGMD-2 test battery. The cognitive competences of a child were assessed by the standardized test, which is mapping child’s readiness for school attendance (MaTeRS). The Ethnics Committee approval of the author's department was obtained for the research. The participation of the child in the research was voluntary, anonymous, free of charge and with the possibility to withdraw from the research anytime. The data was obtained within the project IGA_PdF_2019_015. The findings could have implications for government and teachers to focus more on development of cognitive and motor skills in preschool children.

Keywords: Cognitive ability, Motor skills, Children, Preschool

Education and Development: Efforts to Measure Human Well-being



It is evident from research on economic and social progress that economic growth does not always lead to social progress but, in some cases, leads to increased socio-political tension, social inequality and poverty. Even having increased production of aggregate product on background, the state of the population is deteriorating and economic growth does not provide for a fair distribution of income. A new approach to the concept of economic development began in the global economy in the late XX century. According to these approaches, economic growth cannot be considered as the main purpose and the indicator of development. In addition to economic growth, there are a number of indicators and their mutual relationship promote human development and well-being. This article examines the correlation between indicators characterizing the welfare of the population and economic growth, comparing the position of Azerbaijan in the accounts of international economic organizations on the relevant indicators. The authors did a comparative analysis with other countries, the impact of human development on people's incomes and the role of education in the wellbeing of the population.

Keywords: Human Development, Wellbeing, GDP growth, Education, Income

Relationship between Motor Skills and Academic Performance in Preschool Children



Current educational strategies prefer a close link between movement and academic skills. Education in the youngest age categories of human life enhances the effects of the educational process in older age categories. Retention increases and stability of acquired skills becomes permanent. Current research deals with the relationship between motor skills, physical activity or fitness and the academic skills of children. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between Motor Skills and Academic Performance in pre-school children. In this period, in some cases, it is still possible to eliminate some problems in the area of motor skills by appropriately selected educational methods and procedures. The level of motor skills was determined by TGMD-2 test. To determine the level of academic skills, a subtest for the evaluation of graphomotorics and visual-motor abilities called MaTeRs was used, which is used to assess the school readiness of a pre-school child in the area of fine motor skills. In the research participated 100 children aged 5.26+ 0.45 years. The relationship between graphomotorics and child’s motor skills was correlated. Data was obtained within the project IGA_PdF_2019_015. Exploring the importance of preschool child motor skills for its future success in the educational process is still in its beginnings. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this issue in a given age category to a much greater extent and to examine it from various points of view.

Keywords: Preschool age, Graphomotor skills, Vizuo-motor skills, Cognitive premise, Motorics

Mobility of Elderly People in Super-aging Society: A Survey in Japan


Ryosuke ANDO, Keiichi HIGUCHI

In order to understand mobility of elderly people in Japanese super-aging society, a survey was conducted by targeting three super-aging districts in Toyota City where the aging rates are higher than 30%. Totally, 889 samples were obtained from all 2,292 households with elderly people. As the people mainly drive cars as their travel tools, analysis is also focused on the driving in the future. In terms of comparison among districts, some differences are understood. Most differences reasoned in different locations of hospitals and shopping facilities. Except effects of the facilities locating, all elderly people behave and think very similarly. These kinds of results can make people have a common understanding for the mobility of elderly people in a super-aging society and further call the attentions to make a future plan so as to approaching to a sustainable mobility society.

Keywords: Elderly people, Sustainable mobility, Super-aging society, Toyota city

Teaching Situations that Support Functional Thinking



Functional thinking is a cognitive process specific to man. It enables analysis and synthesis of relations between objects and phenomena and facilitates the solution of theoretical and practical problems. Important for functional thinking are a sense of causality and dependence. In the field of education, mathematics and its applications are mainly devoted to the development of functional thinking, specifically in the topics of relationships and data processing. Recent research conducted in our Department of Mathematics focused on the use of knowledge and skills of first year mathematics student teachers in solving problems with functional content at all Czech Republic educational faculties using a non-standardized didactic test. In this article, we will discuss learning situations that support functional thinking using tasks selected from the above mentioned test. We consider the results of a qualitative piloting of mathematics teachers. It consisted of a non-standardized didactic test, non-standardized questionnaire and a space for a written evaluation of graph reading tasks and a discussion. It identifies a practice teachers reflection of the topic.

Keywords: Functional thinking, Teaching situations, Teacher, Mathematics, Graphs

The Problem of Forecasting in a Communicative Society



This article focuses on a topical issue in contemporary social research-forecasting. We examine in detail the specific features of the social projections (probabilistic, multivariate, different from the results of human activities, social programs, other social decisions), which update the problem of forecasting and modelling possible areas of societal development. We argue that the diversity of ways to develop the future requires the development of several possible options for the transition to a future state.

Keywords: Social forecasting, Communicative society, Risk society, Multivariate, Randomness

The Relationship of Cognitive Functions and Ability of Cooperation and Social Maturity



The presented paper aims to present the results of the pilot study of the issue and preparedness for the school of children in the Czech Republic. When starting compulsory schooling, the child's cognitive competence is usually assessed to predict the child's success in the teaching process. However, the child's ability to integrate into a group of classmates, to carry out common activities with them and to contribute to the creation of positive school class relationships also plays an important role. The research was carried out in order to map the level of preparedness for school for pre-school children in the kindergarten. The MaTeRS method used (Vlckova, Polakova, 2013) makes it possible to asses the developmental level of the child. In the partial research is assessed relationship of the level of cognitive competences and social adaptability skills of the child. Social adaptability is characterized by emotional maturity, social maturity and the ability to cooperate with other children. The research group consisted of 100 children of pre-school age in average age 5,74 + 0,71 years. Fort he given research, the ethnics committee obtained approval from tje author’s department. The research was realized by those kindergartens where their management agreed to cooperate within the research. Furthermore, the agreement of the legal representatives of each child was obtained. The purpose of the communication is to compare and update the survey of children's readiness for the school with other studies focused on the monitored area. The research was supported from grant IGA_PdF_2019_015. Mentioned problematics in this age category has not been studied further. At the same time, not only cognitive, but also social competences also contribute to the success of a person in different levels of education and last but not least in professional life.

Keywords: Pre-school, Maturity, Cognitive competence, Society

Comparison of Organizational Commitment Levels of Teachers Working in Formal and Informal Religious Education Institutions


Ahmet KOÇ, Mert BASTAS, Sümeyye KOÇ

Formal religious education is the name given to religious education and training in schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education. Informal religious education in comparison covers religious education activities carried out by the Presidency of Religious Affairs in Turkey. In this study, the organizational commitment levels of teachers who have equal professional qualifications and personal rights are compared. The population of the study consists of 328 Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge, Imam Hatip High Schools Vocational and Qur’an Course teachers working in Istanbul in 2019. “Organizational Commitment Scale” developed by Ustuner was used as data collection tool. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the commitment of the teachers in both groups was found either higher or the same. However it was found that teachers working in two different institutions had different perceptions about participation in management.

Keywords: Lifelong education, Informal education, Organizational commitment, Religious education

Ethical Aspects of the Teacher-Student Relationship



The personality of a teacher and his or her relationship to students has been a much-debated issue. The influence of a quality relationship between the teacher and the student during the complete educational process is beyond question. The presented article reflects on the ethical aspects of the teacher-student relationship. The study group included 127 students (practising or future teachers) of the Department of Education. Using the reminiscence method, the participants were asked to describe a situation when they felt somewhat harmed by a teacher. The research was designed as a concurrent immersed (grounded) strategy. The data was collected concurrently in terms of the qualitative and quantitative approach, however, the data acquired by one method are dominant in the research analysis (Cresswell, 2003). In our case, the qualitative data were the dominant data (acquired by in-depth analysis of the students’ statements); the quantitative data (frequency) had more of an additional and enriching character. Our qualitative analytical work with data was based on procedures analogous to open axial coding with the Grounded Theory (Strauss, Corbin, 1999; Henl, 2016). The students’ ruminations pointed out examples of a pathogenic teacher-student relation, contradictory to ethical principles. Some reminiscences even related to the period of preschool development.

Enhancing Education for Smart Cities: Evidence from Omani Higher Education Institutions


Hussein-Elhakim AL ISSA, Abdulah AL SHUKAILI, Fadi ABDEL FATTAH

The focus of this paper is to examine the interrelated influences of service delivery in institutions of higher education (HEIs) in Oman to advance sustainable education for smart cities. An important objective of this study is the evaluation of the pertinent educational curriculums and programs used by HEIs in Oman to stimulate and develop the sustainability of the smart city approach. Researchers intend to adopt aspects of the triple helix model, which have been used as an analytical framework to analyse the knowledge-based innovation systems in HEIs. Data is collected from stakeholders in HEIs through structured and semi-structured interviews, and questionnaires combined with statistical trends from officially published reports. Data analysis will keep with Lombardi et al., (2012) methodology and the employment of Stata software will help in the examination of correlation between variables. The study contributes to the debate on HEI’s role in smart city initiatives in the region, and has implications to their part in advancing higher education for the development of smart city initiatives in the region, which is an evolving concept that requiring ample investigation to further our understanding of it especially in developing countries.

Keywords: Sustainable education, Smart city, Institutions of higher education, Technology, Innovation

Teachers' Views on the Reality Shock



This research was carried out in order to reveal the stages of the reality shock experienced by teachers who started to work in different branches and what effects they created. The research was conducted in phenomenological research design, one of the qualitative research methods. The participants consisted of sixteen different branch teachers who were selected with the criterion sampling technique, which is one of the purposive sampling techniques. In the study, the phenomenological research design was used and attention was paid to ensure that the participants were teachers with 0 to 2 years of experience. Data were obtained by semi-structured interview form and analyzed by content analysis technique. The reality shock of the teachers was discussed in five stages: expectation, frustration/shock, survival, recovery and reflection. The data obtained from the research show that the reasons for the reality shock experienced by the teachers include lack of support from colleagues and administration, coping with student problems, and cooperation with other teachers. It is stated that the reality shock causes situations such as loss of motivation, isolation and losing enthusiasm for work.

Keywords: Teacher, Reality shock, Disappointment

Engagement of Latvian Local Municipalities in Social Enterpreneurship: Problems and Opportunities



Social entrepreneurship is a process of production of goods/offering services with an aim to solve social problems, rather than gain profit. It plays ever growing role in the contemporary society torn up by inequality, discrimination, social estrangement, etc. The purpose of the current investigation is to research the attitude of the Latvian local municipalities to the social entrepreneurship, to determine main problems and to work out the transformation scheme of the local municipalities, as well as specific proposals in the field. In order to attain these goals the authors have employed both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) methods. The results suggest that 59% of municipalities are ready to support social enterprises, rather than found such themselves, thus opportunities are to be found in the sphere of transformation that includes the decentralization of management functions in relation to the social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Social entrepreneurship, Local municipalities, Management functions, Social engagement

Learning Approaches in University Students in the Context of Certain Demographic Characteristics



The objective of the present paper is to analyse the factor of learning approaches in the context of selected demographic characteristics in university students. The research sample consisted of 710 students (mean age = 22.61, SD = 4.173, range 19-55 years) of whom 116 were male and 594 were female. Data collection was performed by means of the Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F). In the context of gender, the results suggested that men and women differed in the choice of surface approach (p = .005, men have a higher score), in the context of the form of study (full-time vs. parttime) where significant differences were observed in the deep approach learning style (p = .021, part-time students have a higher score); in the context of the type of study (teaching vs. non-teaching courses) where students of non-teaching courses had a higher score in deep motive (p = .017).

Keywords: University student, Learning approaches, Learning, Teacher

Academic motivation in the Context of Demographic and Study Characteristics



The present paper focuses on an analysis of academic motivation among university students in the context of demographic and study variables (type of study, form of study). The research sample consisted of 710 university students (mean age = 22.61, SD = 4.173, range 19-55 years) of whom 116 were male and 594 were female. The data were obtained by means of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMSC-28, Vallerand, et al., 1992). The results of the survey suggest statistically significant differences in the context of gender and age. There are significant differences between men and women in the following dimensions Intrinsic motivation ± to know (women have a higher score), Extrinsic motivation ± identified (women have a higher score), and amotivation (men have a higher score). In relation to age, the results of the Pearson correlation analysis confirmed a significant correlation between extrinsic motivation ± identified and extrinsic motivation ± external regulation, which decrease with age.

Keywords: Motivation, Academic motivation, Students

The Correlation between Learning Approaches and Academic Achievement in University Students



The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between learning approaches and academic achievement. The data were obtained by means of two questionnaires: the Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) and the Academic Achievement Questionnaire (AAQ). The research sample consisted of 710 university students (mean age = 22.61, SD = 4.173, range 19-55 years) of whom 116 were male (mean age = 23.34, SD = 3.578, range = 19-42) and 594 were female (mean age = 22.47, SD = 4.268, range = 19-55). The results suggested that the total score of academic achievement and subscale scores were positively correlated with the deep approach and its subcomponents, and negatively correlated with the surface approach and its subcomponents. The demographic and study characteristics of the participants (gender, study year, type and form of study, and special educational needs) do not affect the relationship between learning approaches and academic achievement.

Keywords: Learning approaches, Academic achievement, University students, Learning, Teaching

The Role of Translation Studies and Translation Theory in the Far East



The translation activity, which began to transform into a discipline with James Holmes’s, seminal paper entitled “The Name and Nature of Translation Studies" in 1972 has increasingly established relationship with such disciplines as linguistics, literature, sociology, philosophy, anthropology, archeology, and so on. In terms of this relationship between Translation Studies and these disciplines, this academic field of study has also evolved into an inter-disciplinary branch of science over time. As a result, scholars have introduced many different theories and approaches under linguistic, cultural, sociological and technological revolutions and turns within TS. The foundations of translation studies have begun to be established in this way. Upon considering overall TS literature, one can see that most of the translation theories and approaches are actually western-centered. In fact, it may be because the West is in a sense more advanced than the East in terms of scientific developments. But did only the Western approaches have an impact on the translation in terms of its gaining a scientific status? What is the position of far eastern countries like China on translation and translation studies? What is the contribution of both west and far eastern scholars to the far east in the advancement of translation studies? Have the far eastern scholars ever put forward any theories or approaches to contribute to the translation process, its function, and production, like their counterparts in the west or have they at least conducted studies in this respect? In this geography, what kind of translation problems do scholars deal with and what are the similarities and differences between East and West? Based on these questions, the study questions the place of translation studies and translation theories in the far eastern countries such as China and makes a scrutinization on how they are received in these geographies. It is hoped that this study will contribute to the emergence of new paradigms in order to support the progressive structure of translation studies in parallel with the translation needs in the far east.

Keywords: Translation studies, Translation theories, Translation approaches, Far East, China

Recommendations for Translation Students on Subject-Matter Specialization in Translation Based on Views of Experts


Fadime ÇOBAN

During the translator education, students are expected to have a bilingual and cultural competence, as well as gain a subject-matter specialization in their fields of interest. However, the concept of specialization is often used in a wide sense within translation studies. As a result, there are many areas that can be classified as a field of specialization among thousands of specialized areas. Thus, it is necessary to redefine the concept of subject-matter specialization in translation, to describe the path to specialization in any field in translation and to make students of translation studies well aware of the course of the specialization process. At this point, such questions arise: should the courses on subject matter specialization be offered by the professors of the field, or by translation academics who have translation competence and theoretical knowledge of the field but do not have any experience in the market on these fields of specialization or do not graduate from related departments to gain specialization on these fields? Or should professional translators who work in the field offer these courses? Thus, the aim of this study is to address the topic of subject-matter specialization in translation under the light of above-mentioned questions and to make recommendations particularly to the translation students for their courses on specialization. In this respect, the views of professional translators in the market as well as the academicians and experts working in the fields of Translation Studies, Philosophy, Archeology and so on were taken in the study and the obtained data were subjected to qualitative analysis.

Keywords: Translation, Subject-matter specialization, Expert views, Qualitative analysis, Recommendations

Effect of Teachers' Argumentativeness Perceptions on Their Organizational Dissent Perceptions


Ramazan ERTÜRK, Türkan ARGON

The study which aimed to identify whether teacher perceptions on argumentativeness affected their organizational dissent perceptions was conducted by using the relational screening model. The study group was composed of 148 teachers employed at primary, secondary and high schools in Yeniçağa District of Bolu during 2018-2019 academic year. Argumentativeness Scale and Organizational Dissent Scale were used to collect data. Teachers were found to display high level perceptions about argumentative approach while they had moderate level perceptions about argumentative avoidance and they displayed high level perceptions for organizational dissent in general and in all its subscales such as vertical, horizontal and displaced dissent. It was found that argumentative avoidance affected displaced dissent but had no effect on organizational dissent and vertical dissent. Argumentative avoidance and argumentative approach were found not to affect horizontal dissent.

Keywords: Teacher, Argumentativeness, Dissent, Organizational dissent

Development of a Smart Environment as Support for Smart Education in the Future



Mobile technology in education is becoming an increasingly interesting option for the future. Smart and personal access to interactive multimedia content (IMC) requires a developed infrastructure for present and future Smart Cities. The arrival of 5G technology will significantly improve the existing smart learning models and enable significant involvement of IoT technology. Connecting IoT within 5G mobile networks will enhance Smart Learning Environments (SLE) for each user. SLE is physical and virtual environment that provides faster access to IMC, enriching the environment with contextual and adaptive digital devices that provide situations, events, interventions and perceptions needed to encourage users to learn, know, and resolve situations (identification), actively and virtually interact with the group, exercise and think. All these elements will not be able to provide adequate quality through existing models without an active student model supported by IoT technology. This paper discusses the possibilities and future implications of the new 5G technology, ubiquitous computing and IoT as components of Smart learning environments.

Keywords: Mobile technology, Personal smart learning environments, 5G, Student models, Contextual model

The Effect of Terror on Education in Turkey



The question of providing national and international security is a problem of high importance for nation-states. As terror sourced threats cross national borders and target a larger geography of countries or even the entire world in the sequel of globalization, governments are inclined to make a greater effort to provide both national and global stability. Within this scope, the costs that are being faced with to reimburse the economic and social destruction caused by terror and to prevent further terrorist incidents significantly disrupt the economic development processes of countries. As a country with high risks of internal and external threats to security in consequence of its geographical position, Turkey is enduring considerable economic and social costs as well as making significant efforts in fight against terror. One important factor separating developed countries from developing countries is the human capital. Human capital is the knowledge, abilities and skills of a person that helps increase productivity in economic activities. Education is one of the most important elements of human capital. Terrorist incidents cause the implementation of economic development projects to remain inconclusive by posing an obstacle to education, which is a significant element of overall economic development. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly important to investigate the effects of terror on education to be able to maintain economic growth and development. For this purpose, the effects of terror on education were investigated with the help of a time series analysis and the annual data from 1978-2017 of Turkey’s economy. The findings obtained from the study suggested that a rise in terror led to a decline in expenditure on education. In this context, the reduction of terror in a country can help the realization of economic growth and development by having a positive effect on many important factors, especially education.

Keywords: Education, Terror, Time series analysis, FMOLS

Evaluation of Quality of Educational Activity of the Higher Education of Ukraine and Azerbaijan on the Competence Approach and BSC-systems



The development of the higher education is one of the most important tasks of Economics. Modern tendencies of development put forward new demands, namely on the quality of education. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic study of higher education development priorities, directions and models of Ukraine and Azerbaijan. Among the issues discussed in this article is the renovation of the sphere of higher education in these countries, the transfer of attention from the learning process to the result, focus on a competent approach and the search for effective mechanisms for its implementation. The purpose of the article is the results of approbation of methods and models for assessing the quality of educational activities on the basis of a competent approach, which allow taking into account the mutual influence of the directions of activity of universities, as well as their influence on the results of studying students. The article presents the template of the model of competences taking into account the modular two-level organization of the higher education system. The methodology for evaluating the quality of educational activities is based on the competence approach. Among the methods that have been used are: system and competence approaches, BSC analysis and comparison, generalization, etc. The application of these methods of analysis enabled us to trace how the entire chain of causation in the form of a vertical vector is gradually reflected in all components of the BSC. The main results of this study indicate that the quality of the organization of the university affects the level of competence of students. A BSC-analysis was conducted in eight directions of the university's activity, which allowed to reflect its strengths and weaknesses. At the same time one can consider different variants of the change of activity and choose the one which will allow to form the highest level of competencies for students. Using a model to assess the quality of learning activities can predict the level of competence of students depending on the quality of the organization of the educational process, as well as identify areas of activity that need improvement and which can affect the formation. a certain level of competence.

Keywords: Education, System, Models, Evaluation

Effects of Globalization on Economic Development: Evidence from the G-20 Countries (1990-2017)



In this study, the effects of globalization on economic development in the G-20 countries, which are grouped as developed G9 and developing G-10 according to their economic development levels, were econometrically analyzed for the period 1990- 2017, by using panel data analysis methodology which pays regard to the extended Cobb-Douglas production function and cross-sectional dependence. In this respect, it is aimed to evaluate empirically the effect of the globalization process on the differentiation of long-term economic growth performance and development levels of countries in G-9 and G-10 groups, in the present study. As a result of the study, it was determined that globalization process had a significant effect on economic growth in G-9 group countries by the examination period while globalization process had no effect on economic growth in G10 group countries. These results show that globalization level as well as physical-human capital accumulation and technological development have a significant effect on the differentiation of the long-term economic growth performances and development levels of developed G-9 and developing G-10 countries during the examination period.

Keywords: Economic growth, Globalization process, Cobb-Douglas production function, Cross-sectional dependence, Panel data analysis