An Evaluation of Courses and Fine Arts Activities Organized by the Municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, during the Lifelong Learning Process

1101 – 1110

Pesent Doğan and Nurhayat Çelebi

This paper aims to evaluate the courses and art education activities during the lifelong learning process organized by the Municipality of Istanbul for adults. Turkey's Ministry of National Education, local governances and private establishments work on and develop projects for the lifelong learning process, which was added to objectives of the Bologna Process intended to create a European Higher Education Area. The projects are generally in parallel with the needs of the society and organizations. Two million six hundred people have benefited from the Istanbul Art and Vocation Training Courses (ISMEK) provided by the Metropolitan Municipality of Istanbul between the years of 1996 and 2017. Courses were offered in 540 branches of 35 main branches in 1714 classrooms in 235 course centers of the Metropolitan Municipality of Istanbul. This paper analyzes documents in a qualitative research pattern. In conclusion, the Metropolitan Municipality of Istanbul performs an important function in adult education. Keywords: ISMEK, Lifelong Learning, Fine Arts Education, Proficiency in Art

Space Weather in the Context of Education in Cyber Security and Physical Economics

1111 – 1119

Tomáš R. Zeithamer and Jiří Pospíšil

This work examines applications of physics in economics that document the gradual rise of physical economics in the Czech Republic beginning in the early 1970s. The established facts show a direct connection between basic economic research in the Czech Republic and current research abroad in the field of physical economics. Keywords: Cyberspace, Physical economics, Space economics, Space geodesy, Space weather

The Management of Student´s Virtual Money – Sensibilisation and Learning for Life

1120 – 1127

Alexandre Castro, Claúdia MaiaLima, Angela Couto, Sara Aboim, Alexandre Pinto and António Barbot

The advanced technological age, marketing and society of the abundance in which we live, have a strong influence on the consumption and eating habits of the children. Every day in schools, these little human beings make autonomous choices and their parents, despite seeking to control and know their actions, cannot do it entirely for many reasons. The study was carried out in a group of the fifth grade and their results were subjected to a descriptive and inferential analysis, in which the purpose was to study the relation of some of the variables in question. The conclusions point for example to the parents' lack of knowledge in what concerns the type of consumption and on how their students spend their money. So it can be said that the role of the school in raising responsible citizens in managing their money is a necessary and continuous learning throughout the school life. Key words: citizenship, consumption, money, health. 

An Investigation Into Gamification as Employee Training Tool: Engagement and Game Components

1128 – 1137

Iveta Ludviga and Daiga Ergle

The use of games with a serious purpose, also called gamification, is a new approach to employee training and adult education. This paper explores gamification as a modern approach to adult education which can increase engagement in training process and thus ensure better learning. The research reveals a relationship between the usage of gamification as employee training tool and the performance results as well as employee engagement in training and organisation simultaneously looking at components of effective games. This research is based on case study strategy and is based on data from participants survey and sales results before and after the training. The results show that sales results are not related to gamified training, however, use of gamification elements significantly increase employee engagement in both - training and organisation. The most effective game components for sales training games are the exchange of experiences, possibility to earn points and feedback. Keywords: Adult education, Gamification, Employee engagement

Local and Global Career Building Challenges in Lifelong Learning: Possibilities and Risks of Youth Self-realization

1138 – 1147

Arturs Medveckis

One of the values of democratic society is free career choices for youth. Looking from economic, social and cultural perspective there are also other actors besides youth interested in youth career choices: state and community representatives, employers, family members and others. Youth self-realization possibilities are actual topic. These possibilities are determined by competitive education at corresponding educational level in order to continue the process of education and to achieve set goals of self-development. Study was carried out in 2011 and 2017, and it is focusing on career possibilities of youth, lower secondary school and secondary school students in Kurzeme region (Latvia), and it is based on a comparative analysis of the quantitative and qualitative research data of self-assessments. Aim of this article is to analyze such resources necessary for youth career building as key competences of lifelong learning, health, social tension, which are based in understanding of values related to career and reflect youth self-assessment dynamics in correlation with future plans, identifying possibilities and risks of youth self-realization. Keywords: Youth, Career, Key Competences, Self-assessment, Self-realization

Vocational Training In Spain: Le Gislative and Normative Analysis as Answers to Fail Ure and Early School Leaving

1148 – 1153

Carmen María Aránzazu Cejudo Cortés and Celia Corchuelo- Fernández

Currently, under the protection of Or ganic Law 8/2013, of 9 December for the improveme nt of educational quality (LOMCE), are being developed from the academic year 2014/2015 what has been called "Basic Professional Training" (FPB), are still having difficulties in achieving the objectives and competencies established by the compulsory secondary stage. This research intends to make a brie f normative and pedagogical revision not only of the current Basic Professional Formation, but also of the previous laws to this one, to clarify differences and similarities as well a s to evaluate the evolution of the objectives that have been marked throughout this years. Therefore, it is concluded that the ne w FPB establishes a greater catalogue of educational actions aimed at avoiding premature school leaving, among which the proximity and communication with the family or the acquisition of labor competences, giving students greater opportunities for social and labour insertion. Keywords: Basic Vocational Training ( FPI), Initial Professional Qualification Programs (PCPI), Social Guarantee Programs (PGS) 

Lifelong learning as a facet of sustainable economic development

1154 – 1160

Manuela Tvaronavičienė and Anatoly Shishkin

Our paper demonstrates how lifelong learning might increase the economic and business potential of the urban centers of both developed and less-developed countries and contributed to sustainable economic development. Rapidly growing cities (especially, but not exclusively, located in the Third World) are marked by social fragmentation and economic divisions have the potential to become learning cities tat engage urban dwellers in learning activities aimed at addressing social divisions and creating opportunities for all citizens. Nevertheless, the question is whether the cities and urban hubs offer opportunities for lifelong learning to he most marginalized city dwellers and what services these might be. Lifelong learning becomes an answer to that that offers formal and non-formal educational activities. Where communities learn to engage with the realities of social exclusion, political alienation, and economic marginalization - through both public policy and private initiatives. Educational initiatives across the cities in less-developed countries might include including public policy in the slums and developed metropoles alike aimed at stabilizing communities and establishing cooperation and integration, non-formal educational initiatives to reduce marginalization, or expansion of the formal school system aimed at raising aspirations. Keywords: lifelong learning, education, sustainable development, labour market

The Question of Guilty and Moral Responsibility in the Context of World War II Considering to Subject Didactics Aspects

1161 – 1165

Pavel Krákora and Pavel Kopeček

This text deals with the problems of morality, guilty, ethics and penalty in the context of the World War II. In given regard are following choosen events and processes which characterized this the most extensive conflict in history. At the same time are also following the consenquences, which the World War II brought with an overlap to present. In the condluding part of text is attention paid to educational aspects of given issue – namely the possibilities of application in curriculum of History and Civics (primarily on elementary and secondary schools) from the point of view subject didactics. Keywords: World War II, Guilty, Morality, Responsibility, Subject didactics, Schools, Teachers, History, Civics 

Paradigm, Key-Concept Of Educational Theory and Practice

1166 – 1170

Ionut Vladescu

Paradigm is a sign of the maturity of a scientific field. The paradigm dimensions determine the conceptual and framework of the educational process (theoretical and practical ones). The meaning of the educational paradigm has advanced depending on the context of pre-modern, modern and postmodern. Currently there is a tendency to attribute pedagogy a post-paradigmatic state, but most researchers demonstrate exchanging of the defining aspects of educational paradigm focused on: openness, flexibility, diversity of the patterns. This attempt to explain paradigm and model in post-modernism, we reach the conclusion that education science is one of the models due to the determinative role of ruling order and laws. If we treat the diversity of theoretical approaches and educational methods, the model is not deducted anymore and doesn’t express the major notes of a dominant theory. It is the situation when reasons for post-paradigm pedagogy appear. As a key concept, it gets a traditional role based on the normative model but with a different connotation. Keywords: postmodern education,curriculum, paradigm, educational methods, concept.

Methodological Aspects of Integrating Ecological Education in the Romanian Education System

1171 - 1176

Mariana Marinescu and Mihai Botea

In the Romanian education system the four pedagogical steps of integrating ecological education (component of the ”new education”) have been recognized, and they have already been institutionalized: the infusion step, which refers to infusing traditional disciplines with educational messages that include informational contents specific to ecological education; the modular/disciplinary step, which refers to developing specific educational modules, as well as special chapters within the traditional disciplines; the disciplinary step, which means that ecological education is included as a distinct discipline in the education plan, with institutionalized pedagogical objectives at the level of school curriculum; the transdisciplinary step engages ecological education within the “new education” at the level of scientific syntheses proposed by teams of teachers on a quarterly or annual basis. The paper presents the conclusions of administering a questionnaire on the place and role of ecological education in the Romanian education system to teachers from Bihor county, Romania. Keywords: ecological consciousness, ecological culture, ecological education, pedagogical step.

Aging Behind Bars in Portugal: A Case Study on Elderly Inmates

1177 -1183

Catarina Ferreira, Sandra Fernandes, Ana Teresa Ferreira, Isabel Miguel and Conceição Santos

This paper presents a study about the ageing of people under detention, based on the analysis of a prison located in the north of Portugal. Scarce studies were developed with this population and statistical data indicates the increasing number of elderly inmates in the Portuguese prison context. This paper intends to explore the perceptions of the inmates who are over 60 years old, as well as other professionals who interact daily with this population. The research is a case study with a qualitative approach. Data collection includes semi-structured interviews to prisoners, the prison director, guards, health professionals, reeducation professionals, etc. For the purpose of this paper, only results from interviews to prisoners will be analyzed (n=11). Ethical issues and procedures were carefully considered during all phases of the research plan. The results intend to contribute to a greater comprehension of the ageing phenomena behind bars and the imprisonment experiences lived by elderly prisoners, including adaptation to prison as well as resocialization issues, pointed out as of great importance by the Portuguese legal system frameworks. Results of this exploratory paper show a description of the social representations of elderly inmates, regarding perspectives of life trajectory without imprisonment, reasons for the crime practice and its interpretation, representation of prison admission, adaptation to prison, representation of the relationship with professionals, social representation of prison population and resocialization and age. Keywords: ageing, elderly inmates, social reintegration, Portuguese context. 

The Risks Created by Learning Overload for Grade 1-3 Pupils


Pāvels JURS, Agate CUKURA

Primary education is the second level of general education, which forms an essential basis for further education. In primary school, from Grade 1 to 3, a pupil obtains the foundation for further education – develops thinking, co-operation and self-management skills, acquires experience of learning and growth, becomes aware of his/her personal needs, interests and abilities. This is also a stage when the personality development process takes place, considering social, physical, emotional and psychological preconditions. In the learning process, children encounter problem situations linked to the fulfilment of learning requirements, they form attitudes towards assessment and interpersonal relations, which stimulate a stress response in the child’s body. If the problem situation is not resolved, the stress level is increasing, and it significantly affects the child's daily life, abilities and attitudes. The aim of this article is to analyse the workload of 1st – 3rd grade pupils in relation to the learning content identifying the possible risks created by learning overload, taking into account the current curriculum content changes in Latvia, the school environment and the demands placed on teachers and pupils in the process of acquiring the educational content.

Keywords: Children, Education, Educational content, Learning overload, Stress, Pupils

A Postmodern Counselling Approach: Solution-focused brief therapy



Solution-focused brief therapy is discussed as an approach of counselling which has been especially recently used commonly in the field of family counselling. It becomes a frequently-preferred counselling approach in the area of family counselling, since it derives from such cruxes as the fact that it takes a shorter amount of time compared to other counselling approaches, that it focuses not on problems, but on solutions, the fact that it takes direction to the future instead of past experiences, the fact that it grounds on the fact that families contain solutions within themselves. The approach has emerged with the development of strategic family counselling. Steve DeShazer, Ben O’Hanlon andInsoo Berg are of important representatives of the approach. The core of short-term family counselling consists of bring families in the ability of finding effective solutions by constructing families’ extant information. This research is a theoretical study which has been conducted on the approach of short-term solution-oriented family counselling. The base of the approach, role of counsellors, period of counselling and techniques, strengths and limitations of the approach are presented based on the data available in the literature.

Keywords: Solution-focused brief therapy, Counselling, Psychology

Relationship between Morphological Features and Lower Limb Explosive Strength in Boys


Marijana HRASKI, Zeljko HRASKI, Vatroslav HORVAT

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between morphological characteristics and lower limb explosive strength. The sample consisted of 100 male respondents aged 4 to 18 years. Variables was composed of 12 anthropometric characteristics, percentage of body fat and vertical jump. For establishment the relationship between morphological features and lower limb explosive power Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. The result indicated that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between the morphological characteristics that are predisposed by regular growth and development (body height, arm length, leg length, etc.) and the explosive strength. Also, it shown statistically significant negative correlation between the variables that are indicators of wellbeing (fat percentage, skin folds) and motor performance. It can be concluded that boys who are overweight and obese reported poorer results in motor skill. Therefore, it is very important for children to be physically active to maintain normal health status.

Keywords: Anthropometric characteristics, Children, Motor abilities, Physical activities

The Effect of the School Culture on Teacher’s Behaviors


Osman TİTREK, Mirzana PASIC KODRIC, Tuba AKKAŞ ERGÜN, Hatice Kübra KALINCI, Zeynep KOÇUM, Nermin AKICI

The school culture can feel as soon as you enter the school building and it is a place where you can learn more as long as you observe the students, teacher and other staff. We can get many information about the culture of the school from the physical structure of school, its orders, panels, the relationships between teachers and students and also from their face mimics. In this research, it will be answered that how the school culture affects the teacher’s behaviours. Datas were gathered from 164 teachers who worked in the schools at Başiskele district in 2017-2018 and who were chosen by volunteering basis. The survey tool composes of 2 parts; “Personal Information Form” and “Teacher Behaviors Scale”. To evaluate the datas, one way Anova and T-test had been used. In research, as the existing situation will be described, the descriptive survey model had been used. When the whole datas were considered, it was seen that the positive situations about the school culture affects the teachers’ behaviors positively in general, and the teachers are motivated or they work more actively, the negative situations decrease the motivation of many teachers. It causes to have stress or teachers try to change this situation.

Keywords: Culture, School culture, Organization, Teacher, Behavior

Social Inclusion through Youth Work and Lifelong Learning


Krasimira BENKOVA, Vesela MAREVA

Over the last decade, in practice, youth work has become more and more an innovative part of social work that has helped to achieve European goals for the sustainable development of the individual and society. Despite the lack of normative regulations, established standards in practice and state educational standards in the field, the practice of youth work is one of the mechanisms for social inclusion of this risk group from society through its means of action - training, mediation, counseling and support. Regardless of the different definitions of youth work, a unifying element is to define it as a means of personal development, social integration and active citizenship among young people. The practice of social work with young people calls for a focus on them as a potentially vulnerable group at risk of poverty, violence, discrimination and social exclusion. Young people are among the most affected by the economic and social insecurity surrounding our society, as well as by the collapse of the ethical and moral norms of modern times. Social youth work is subject to the principle of lifelong learning, as its main contingent is the people under the age of 29, those who have dropped out of the education system who have completed their formal education or are unable to study there. In the context of the present, youth work is a critical factor for personal, professional and social development. Today's challenge is to build a unity between the social sphere, formal education and lifelong learning so as to create prerequisites for building a person who is competitive on the global labor market. In this way, it responds to the expectations of society related to the establishment and consolidation of a sustainable social and educational system that responds to the diverse needs of the citizens of today's democratic society and provides access to optimal learning conditions. The purpose of this article is to draw the link between social youth work and the principles of lifelong learning - elements that promote social inclusion. In addition to the positives, problematic areas of practice have been highlighted to guide the discussion towards validating this share of social work. The present analysis has the ambition to draw conclusions to support the process of validating practice and acquiring the legitimacy of youth work.

Keywords: Social, Inclusion, Lifelong learning, Youth

Taxation Limits by the Property Protection in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union: the Portuguese Study Case



The Welfare State is increasingly concerned with providing its citizens with an improvement in their living conditions, especially in the protection of universal and free health, free education, unemployment protection and retirement, but to this end it has to obtain financial resources from these same citizens. Each of us thus supports a growing tax burden in return for our social benefits. This study analyzes the tension between the duty to pay taxes and the protection of property in Portugal, to know what is the maximum limit that each one has to pay to avoid confiscation. Methodologically, among others, we rely on the protection of property given by the Convention to the “Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms” and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, as well as, the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, in addition to statistical data of the Portuguese Tax and Customs Authority.

Keywords: Fundamental rights, Social state, Taxes; Property protection

Human and Fundamental Rights, Diversity and Integration within Education System in EU: Paradigma(s)



The education in nowadays European legal structure and strategic political context/action(s), as well as, within the UN System advocates the unquestionable respect for differences, quality education and equal opportunities for “all”. The social, economic, ethnic, cultural or religion characteristics of the educational structures, for students and teacher /professors, should be considered as a “natural wealth”. It’s important to state that education system should recognize the differences and develop a team work to promote the diversity in the pursuit of the guaranty of the equality in access, in the study stay as in the results, ensuring the teaching, the learning and the human strategies and resources conducting to the future society based on the promotion and defense of Human Rights in general, and in the European Fundamental Rights, in particularly.

Keywords: Rights, Transdisciplinary, Integration policies, Education for diversity

Informal Learning in the Educational Process of IT Professionals



One of the necessary professional competencies of IT professionals is the ability to permanent professional development that fits into the concept of lifelong learning. Informal learning becomes an important element of traning in the traditional educational process of IT professionals. According to a students’ poll, the most prefered forms of informal learning are: performance of specific activities and educational interaction in small groups. In the frameworks of the traditional educational process the students’ educational activities have elements of personalization. Educational activities are personalized in sources of educational information, in forms and methods of training and self –directed learning outside a classroom, in the use of professional knowledge, including available via Internet. Activities of teachers change due to: continuous development of the subject areas and new forms of educational activities of students, emergence of new sources of educational information, formation of electronic information-educational environment (EIEE) of educational institutions and personal EIEE of students.

Keywords: Lifelong learning, Formal learning, Informal learning, IT-professionals

Teacher Candidates' Views on Effectiveness, Managerial Effectiveness and Mobbing



This study aims to determine the opinions of the 3rd and 4thyear university students at school of education about the meaning of the concepts of effectiveness, managerial effectiveness and mobbing, and whether the students were exposed to mobbing by the instructors during their undergraduate education. Qualitative method was used in the research. The study group consists of 50 teacher candidates (37 females and 13 males) in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education in the academic year2018-2019. In the study, semi-structured interview form was used as data collection tool. The content analysis technique was applied in the analysis of the interview questions. The coding results for the definitions of effectiveness, managerial effectiveness and mobbing, their faculty members’ status of applying to mobbing and in which ways, and also the teacher candidates’ mobbing experiences were presented with frequency distribution.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Managerial effectiveness, Mobbing, Teacher candidates

The Effect of Green Value Chain Applications on the Performance of Companies in Ensuring Sustainability of Enterprises: An Application in Turkey



(1) Background: Green value chain practices mean that businesses create value in order to create sustainable competitive advantage at different stages from the design of their products to the after-sales services. At this point, while creating value is of strategic importance, the focus of all activities is to minimize environmental impacts and pollution, to protect the environment and even to make proactive arrangements if possible. In this study, the relationship between green value chain applications and business performance, which is a tool based on ensuring sustainability of enterprises, is investigated. (2) Methods: The hypothesized relationship of this model tested with data collected from 175 manufacturing firms by using SPSS and simple regression analysis. (3) Results: Green value chain applications; examined as green basic activities and green support activities, business performance is also considered as economic and socio-ecological performance in two dimensions. In the research, it has been found that green value chain applications positively affect the economic and socioecological performance of enterprises, but the power of this effect is relatively weak. (4) Conclusions: In order to provide competitive advantage, enterprises create value at the rate they create. Green value chain applications, which are a means of creating value in enterprises, have an impact on the performance of the enterprise. Many implications indicated by the study’s findings, both theorical and practical, were discussed.

Keywords: Green value chain applications, Business performance, Sustainability, Economic performance, Socio-ecological performance

The Relationship between High School Students' Identity Functions and the Sense of Belonging at School



The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between high school students' identity functions and their views on their sense of belonging at school. The study group of the research, which is a relational screening model, consists of 430 students studying at high schools in Akçakoca district of of Düzce province in 2018-2019. Identity Functions Scale and Sense of Belonging at School Scale were used as data collection tools in this study. According to the results of the study, it was found that high school students' sense of belonging to school and identity functions were above average and there was a moderate relationship between their identity functions and their views about their sense of belonging to the school. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that necessary arrangements can be made for the students to find the support they need in the process of identity acquisition in schools, and measures can be taken for better understanding of the expectations of the students in order to increase the sense of belonging to the school and to reduce the feelings of rejection.

Keywords: Identity functions, Belonging to the school, High school students

Teachers' Opinions about Management of Diversity in Schools



The aim of the study is to determine the opinions of teachers working in secondary schools and high schools in the district of Akçakoca in Düzce about the phenomenon of diverssity and management of diversity in educational environments and to make suggestions according to the results of the research by shedding light on the possible problems that will be encountered during the management of the diversities. The study group of the research, which was conducted with qualitative research design, consists of 40 teachers working in various schools in Akçakoca during the 2017-2018 academic year. According to the results of the research, it is revealed that diversity management in schools is not at the desired level, there are not appropriate approaches to the spirit of the age and it is necessary to take important steps in order to correct this situation.

Keywords: Diversity, Diversity management, Teacher

Cultural Globalization and Its Reflections in Education



Recently, the world has entered a rapid globalization process with the rapid increase of human population, the effect of modern culture on human life and the facilitating effect of technology. This process has a structure that permeates almost all areas of life. One of these areas is education. The aim of this study is to discuss the effect of cultural globalization on the education system. When the relevant literature on the effect of globalization on education is examined, it is seen that there are many studies pointing out the positive and negative aspects of this effect. The reason for the existence of both negative and positive views is the fact that the explanations are based on different globalization approaches. In this study, both positive and negative effects of globalization on education will be explored. The current study was conducted as a literature review study. In the course of the research process, all resources, especially the basic resources, were tried to be reached within the framework of the questions determined on the subject. As a result of the review, the most prominent definitions related to globalization were discussed in the current study. The evolution process of globalization was also briefly mentioned. The effects of cultural globalization were discussed in relation to the effects of globalization on education. In this context, as a result of the research, it can be said that globalization creates its effect on education through many channels such as legal arrangements, cultural transfer and interaction. When the long-term effect of globalization on education is considered, it is clear that it can give rise to both positive and negative outcomes. The overall direction of interaction occurs from strong to weak, from big to small. Accordingly, it can be stated that the cultural values of developed countries are spreading more and more with each day. On the other hand, it can be said that the cultural values of the less developed countries are under threat and affected by the developed countries.

Keywords: Globalization, Education, Reflection

Examination of Teachers' Participation in Professional Development Activities as Lifelong Education


Gökhan ILGAZ, Menekşe ESKİCİ

The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the participation of teachers in professional development activities as a dimension of lifelong learning process and gender and necessity situations. Within the scope of PISA 2015, teachers were asked their gender and whether they should participate in professional development activities (TC021Q01NADo you need to participate in professional development activities?). In the past 12 months, teachers have been involved in professional activities, were asked to participate. In the PISA 2015 report, not only data on students 'academic achievements, but also data on teachers' professional development is included. Teachers are trained before and after the profession to contribute to their development. In this study, Phi Coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between the nominal variables. According to the results of the analysis, there is a low significant relationship between the variables.

Keywords: Lifelong learning, Professional development, Teachers