Health Literacy as Component of Adult Education in Recreation Process

901 – 909

Anita Lidaka and Dita Role

The right to health and, consequently, to a higher quality of life is one of the fundamental rights of a person. Every human’s individual responsibility is application of all opportunities provided by the state for the sake of own health protection. Therefore recreation is important - a purposefully organized rehabilitation of individual’s physical, mental and emotional abilities, which promote the individual’s productivity and also serve as prophylaxis to somatic and mental illnesses, health promotion and promotion of individual’s productivity. The main functions of recreation are healing (human health rehabilitation), educational (development of spiritual potential) and sports function (development of physical abilities). In order to ensure the educational function of recreation, alongside the individual's responsibility and awareness of healthy lifestyle urgency and necessity, creation of the society’s education on a new quality of education - health literacy – has to be emphasized. Therefore, health literacy has to be perceived as one of the most important components in adult education. Key words: health literacy, recreation process, educational function of recreation, adult education. 

The Development of Teachers' Pedagogical Competence in The Process of Self-Education at The University

910 – 918

Alida Samusevica and Santa Striguna

The quality problem of teachers’ professional work is connected with the students, trainee teachers’, self-education options and motivation research during the study process. Students’ purposeful self-education and development of self-reflection skills is one of the most significant pedagogic approaches in teachers’ education that can guarantee the education transformation process of the 21st century in school practice which will be focused on creativity and innovations. In order to make it possible for the education system to provide a purposeful and productive acquisition of pupils’ self-education skills, the issue about the teacher trainees’ motivation and self-education skills during the study process has to be promoted, therefore improving formation of students’ pedagogic competences during the study process at university. Research question is to encourage a scientific discussion about the significance of university students’ independent studies, describing the individualized learning development possibilities in the pedagogic self-education competence formation process during the study time. The subject of the research: self-assessment of students’ self-education competence in the study process at a higher educational establishment. Objective of the paper: to describe the competence of students' self-education in professional socialization within the study process. Research methods: analysis of theoretical findings, questionnaires and interviews, student self-assessment and self-reflection analysis. The study of pedagogical competence is based on the selfanalysis of the student's practical performance in order to determine the motivation for professional growth. In the publication the significance of university students’ independent studies has been described, characterizing the individualized learning development possibilities in the process of pedagogic self-education competence formation during the study time. The results of the research confirm that the dominant of productive studies is “learning” process, which contains the student's purposeful and according to his/her professional development needs carried out independent work. The characterizing criterion of effective, on student’s professional growth oriented study process is the determined need and the ability of the future specialist to study independently, as the personal effort and activities of the independent work contribute to acquirement of lasting and qualitative knowledge, the motivation to continue or to enhance the obtained education, the development of purposeful pedagogical skills and competences. Key words: self-education, competence, students, study process, pedagogical competence 

Analysis of Physical Activities of 13 to 14 Years Old Primary School Pupils in Slovakia

919 – 926

Miroslav Nemec and Stefan Adamcak

The aim of the study was to find out and analyze the differences in opinions of pupils of 8th and 9th grades from 28 primary schools in Slovakia (n = 949, 8th graders = 542 and 9th graders = 407) about the content, forms, motives and possibilities to enjoy physical activities (PA) in their free time. The survey was conducted in the school year 2014/15, whereby their opinions were surveyed through inquiry (11 questions) and evaluated through the TAP 3 program of Gamo Banská Bystrica. The survey results indicate that pupils do not perform sufficient PAs in their free time. The PAs undertaken have a dominant recreational character and their main goal is the improvement and consolidation of health and physical fitness. Pupils in both groups are most significantly motivated to perform PA by their parents (more than 57%). Teachers of physical and sports education are the "smallest" motivator. The main factor preventing regular PAs for "ninth graders" are health problems and other leisure activities, and for "eighth graders" high financial costs. We observed statistically significant difference at p=0.05% in six cases of the 8th and 9th graders. Keywords: survey, opinions, physical activity, boys, free time

The Effect of Recreation-based Activities on Social Skills of Mentally Retarded Children

927 – 936

Duygu Arslan and Zekiye Basaran

The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of recreational activity-based program on the social skills of mentally retarded students. The research sample is composed of a total of 50 educable mentally retarded students – 31 males and 19 females – aged between 9 and 12 who regularly attend Private Gül Bahçesi Education and Rehabilitation Center situated in Tuzla district of İstanbul province. Preliminary test, final test and uncontrolled group experimental model were used in the research. The program containing different activities in 2017 was applied for 13 weeks. Personal information form and Social Skills Evaluation Scale were used as data collection tool. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21 package program. Frequency and percentage distributions, Cronbach’s Alpha, Shapiro Wilk-W and Wilcoxon test were applied. As a result of the research, it has been determined that recreation-based program has a positive effect on social skills of mentally retarded students. Significant differences at the level of 0.05 have been found between preliminary and final test. Considering and applying such activities for the development of retarded individuals as an alternative education can be useful. Key Words: Recreation, Retarded Child, Social Skill 

Anxiety and Stressful Situations in Elementary School Students

937 – 945

Irena Balaban Cakirpaloglu, Jana Kvintova, Simona Dobesova Cakirpaloglu and Lucie Kremenkova

The present study focuses on anxiety manifestations in students in selected Czech elementary schools. The gained emotional experiences associated with the school could negatively affect both students' performance and their attitude to school in general. Assessment of the learning outcomes through tests could become a significant trigger for anxiety that can influence the students' learning outcomes. The present study analyses the degree of anxiety in relation to a typical stress situation in the school environment, such as the level of actual anxiety prior to and after testing. An anxiety measuring questionnaire and a scale to measure actual anxiety were used. It was confirmed that the level of actual anxiety among students is considerably higher prior to testing than after testing. With regard to the results and the primarily negative impact of testing in the school environment, the paper also introduces several useful recommendations for reducing anxiety among students. Keywords: Anxiety, elementary school, stressful situations.

A Suggestion On how Edmodo can Encourage a Lifelong Learning

946 – 953

Abdullah Ragip Ersöz, Rüyam Küçüksüleymanoğlu and Zeynep Ersöz

Edmodo is basically a web application that is similar to Facebook but provides educational tools instead of a social media platform. Edmodo also reinforces classroom activities. Another benefit of Edmodo is that it allows teachers to create online classes. Teachers post assignments, lecture notes, exams, competitions, and also evaluate students and communicate with them via Edmodo. E-Learning makes it possible to learn about information and communication technologies. Applications such as Edmodo Classroom 2.0 makes it possible to learn even outside the classroom. These applications are viewed as solutions to insufficient class hours and issues that are experienced within the class. In the digital age, new generations tend to maintain different opinions and also different learning capabilities. It’s important that we care about how this generation can learn and respond to diverse teaching methods for the sake of their future. Online activities that support a learning outside classroom is similar to other learning practices. Life-long learning is important for building the future of our education. It is a process that's alternative to formal education. It has no place and no time. Life-long learning aims to ensure the community is aware of all learning opportunities, it establishes a culture of learning so that people are excited by learning and they can enhance independent learning through technology. Students who use technology as a part of their life makes life-long learning necessary. E-learning environments and mass media are needed in lifelong learning activities to provide learning outside the school. In this study, a course work is explained with using Edmodo for life-long learning. It also explains how the learning continues in online environments and the benefits of life-long learning of Edmodo. In this way, it is thought that the researchers who study same subjects can benefit in an effective way. Keywords: Life-long learning, Edmodo,

The Possibility of Predicting the Future Dominant Hand in Preschool Children

954 – 958

Marija Stanić, Vatroslav Horvat and Srna Jenko Miholić

The aim of the research was to establish the possibility of predicting the dominant hand in preschool children with the motor test Speed of performing sideways steps to the left and to the right side. Research sample consisted of 232 children, both genders, aged 66 to 84 months. Sideways steps speed laterally to the left and to the right side was measured, and then its possible interconnection with the dominant hand were tested. The result have shown no statistically significant difference in the speed of sideways steps test. However, it was established that the left-handed respondents were faster performing sideways steps to the left (M = 3.81 sec). On average, somewhat lower results were obtained for the right-handed respondents in sideways steps to the right (M = 3.89 sec). Even though there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups of respondents, the obtained data indicate a symmetric bilateral transfer. Results of this research still indicate possible connections, so it would be necessary to conduct additional testing which would include genetic predisposition of the children, as well as previously acquired motor experience, and it would also be necessary to construct a new test with a longer distance for the sideways steps test up to 15 or even 20 meters. Authors believe that longer distance would result in more statistically significant differences and thus could help in the possible prediction of the dominant hand in preschool children. Keywords: left handedness, motor sideways step test, right handedness

Changes in Morphological Characteristics of Preschool Boys During Fifteen Years Period

959 – 963

Vatroslav Horvat, Snježana Mraković and Igor Bokor

The aim of this research was to determine the trend of changes in some morphological characteristics of preschool boys aged 6,5 years, who attended kindergartens in Zagreb, Croatia. The study included 374 boys. Four measurements were carried out every five years in the time span between 1998 and 2013 (in the year 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013). The boys were measured by eleven anthropometric measurements and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. ANOVA with Bonferonni post-hoc test was used to establish the differences. The results indicate that most of the measured variables showed statistically significant differences, while significant differences were not observed only in the BMI and upper arm circumference. The cause can be found in increased body height, which could diminish the importance of increased body mass. The obtained results confirm the negative impacts of inadequate diet and sedentary lifestyle on the increase of subcutaneous adipose tissue in preschool aged boys. Keywords: anthropometric measurements, 6 year-old boys, inharmonious trend

Perceived Life Satisfaction and Burnout Syndrome Among Teachers

964 – 975

Jana Kvintova, Simona Dobesova Cakirpaloglu and Marie Chraskova

The teaching profession is one of the professions considered vulnerable to a phenomenon called the burnout syndrome. Life satisfaction, which is a part of well-being, is supposed to be associated with a degree of burnout. The aim of the present study is to investigate the current susceptibility to the burnout syndrome among elementary school teachers and secondary school teachers in relation to subjectively perceived overall life satisfaction and work satisfaction. The data were obtained by means of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results showed that one-third of teachers were significantly emotionally distressed and showed a low level of personal satisfaction. One-fifth of teachers reported a high level of depersonalization. Teachers in elementary schools are significantly more emotionally exhausted than teachers in secondary schools. The level of work satisfaction is significantly negatively associated with the level of emotional exhaustion, and positively associated with overall life satisfaction and the level of personal satisfaction. Keywords: Burnout, emotional exhaustion, life satisfaction, teachers.

Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of High School Teachers’ Work Engagement*

976 – 983

Miray Kabar and Demet Zafer Güneş

This study aims to identify emotional intelligence levels of teachers as a predictor of their work engagement and the relationship between teachers’ work engagement and emotional intelligence levels. The research was designed as a relational survey model. The research sample was composed of 353 teachers working at public high schools in Küçükçekmece district of İstanbul in the academic year of 2015-2016. The Work Engagement Scale (UWES-TR) and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) were used as data collection instruments. Correlation and linear regression analysis were utilized in the data analysis. A statistically significant and positive relationship was found between teachers’ work engagement and emotional intelligence levels in the research. It was also concluded that emotional intelligence is a significant predictor of work engagement. Keywords: Work engagement, Emotional intelligence, Teacher opinions. 

English Medium Instruction: Support For Students and Professors in Social Sciences Education

984 – 994

Mary Griffith and Clotilde Lechuga

This paper presents specific reference tools (Barrios, López-Gutiérrez & Lechuga, 2016) where we found that neither institutional language integrated support nor a specific language plan was being provided by the bilingual programme. This runs counter to experts’ opinion who claim the need of such a plan. While studies show the importance of language support in bilingual instruction, they rarely address specific content professors' needs tending to remain distant from real teaching contexts. The educational Innovation Project provides professional development for subjects taught through the medium of English. The title “Support for students and professors” means moving into the reality of the classrooms to address specific needs of this specific academic scenario. We examine how language support has a dual focus that includes both students and instructors (Griffith, 2012). The paper concludes with a reflection on interdisciplinary innovation projects that provide professors with the tools to ensure the quality of bilingual programmes. Keywords: English Medium Instruction, Higher Education, Social Sciences Education, Gender art

Social Change and the Education of Urban Sciences*

995 – 998

Azize Serap Tuncer

The field of urban science, as the newest sub branches in the field of Social Sciences, is also one of the most dynamic fields in its category. Especially the relationship between social change and urbanization has updated the urban sciences literature in an increasing rate. The most important indication of this process is seen in the variance and uniqueness of local services and projects such as urban transformation, restoration and renovation and has had a tangible and practical effect on the daily lives of city-dwellers. On the other hand it can be said that local politics as a means of participating in politics have become preferred over central politics when considering the global urban networks especially as the power of metropolitan cities increase. The principal argument of this study is that most post-secondary education faculties in Turkey, which are expanded all throughout, can be in closer communication and contact with local administration, and such a circumstance gives credence and applicability to the field of urban sciences as a means of practical and effective social change. The increasingly urban world dynamics have distances the administrative systems from centralization; and favors smaller local governance that is closer to citizens at large. This in turn causes “Public Administration” field to gravitate towards “local” elements with respect to its “Public” side and to become defined as such. Increases in the quality, diversity and efficiency of public offerings also serve to improve the technologies and models that come about from this field, feeding back and strengthening this relationship. The theoretical foundations of this study is made by literature scanning, and the aim is to demonstrate that there is a clear increase both in quantitative aspects, like attendance, number of students and related courses, as well as in quality with respect to the diversification of topics and the increase in available literature. Key Words: Urban Sciences, Social Change, Inter-disciplinary, Information Technologies.

Motive Types Relations with Emotional Valence During Physical Activities

999 – 1005

Gundega Ulme, Ivars Austers, Juris Grants and Ilze Miķelsone

Literature reviews is assume that during physical activity occurs positive emotional changes. However, statistics on population physical activity habits indicate that only a small proportion of society engage in physical activity. As the reason is mentioned a lack of motivation. The research question of the present study is whether the motivation to engage in physical activity is related with emotional changes during physical activity? 50 voluntary participants, aged 20 to 59 years, took part in the study. The data were collected by both subjective and objective research methods. Motivation was measured by Motives for Physical Activity Measure- Revised scale (MPAM-R, 1997). Vitality or subjective wellbeing was measured by the Subjective Vitality Scale (Subjective Vitality Scale, 1997). Emotional changes during physical activity were recorded using Face Reader 3.0. The results show that some aspects of motivation - competence, enjoyment and health is associated with positive emotional changes during physical activity. Vitality also is related to positive emotional changes and are able to predict a positive emotional change during physical activity. It is concluded that the motivation to engage in physical activity is related to emotional changes during physical activity. We also conclude that, in order to encourage people, engage in physical activity more regularly, it is important to develop methods for developing people's intrinsic motivation to engage in physical activity in order to gain more fun, and to develop competence. In contrast the focus on appearance will be less effective for building models of physically active behavior and developing the habits of regular physical activity. Keywords: motivation, self determination theory, emotions, physical activity.

Risk Management in Park and Recreational Activities

1006 – 1011

Eyup Uzuner and Kursad Sertbas

The aim of this study was to investigate the management process of the risk management in the park and recreational activities and evaluating them in terms of the application processes. In this study, documentary screening and archival examination method were applied. Recreational activities have many risk factors. Especially, safety and health problems are frequent in recreational activities. Planning of sports and recreational areas should include, usage of materials, ergogenic aids, medical supports, and safety management strategies. The evaluation process was done particularly in protection and usage processes, health management, location and construction of the facilities, security dimensions. As a result, in the management processes of the park and recreation activities, construction processes, business processes and educational dimensions, service management process and risk management dimensions should be analyzed by managers and educators. Also, municipalities, universities and local sport administrations must be planning recreation risk management documents to public partners and athletes. Keywords: Risk management, Park recreation, Recreational activities 

Endurance Test Sets for Individualization Training Swimmers

1012 – 1018

Jelena Solovjova, Imants Upitis, Juris Ulmanis, Janis Zidens and Aivis Talbergs

Successful training in swimming is impossible without precise and correct control of a swimmers’ training process. The coach must have as much information as possible about the athlete’s fitness to obtain a comprehensive picture of the course of training and to optimally plan future activities. The results of performing a specific exercise depend on the state of function which is most vital for ensuring performance under certain conditions. The key precondition logically underpinning the informative nature of the tests is that the results of the test. Thus exercises which provoke immediate maximum deviations from training effects can provide the most objective pedagogical evaluation of various endurance components. The use of specially designed swimming test sets allows swimmers to learn the necessary control of their training process, helps determine strengths and weaknesses of their preparation and prepares them to accept operative corrections. The aim of the work is to optimize the management of swimmers’ training processes on the basis of special testing results. In order to determine their areas of need, two of Latvia’s best swimmers were tested with 6 specifics endurance test sets. Once determined, the swimmers were given different swimming sets to develop their areas of weakness. For all swimmers we have developed 6 areas of sets to either sustain or improve a swimmer’s endurance (endurance of anaerobic and aerobic ability). Intensity for each set differs depending on whether the athlete is improving or sustaining these areas. Intensity within the sets for improvement of the areas ranges between 83-98% of maximum speed and to sustain the areas 80-96% of maximum speed depending on individual swimmer results from the test sets. Key words: sport swimming, endurance, testing, training planning 

Knowledge Transfer Through Clusters

1019 – 1029

Manuela Tvaronavičienė and Kristina Razminiene

Clusters are viewed as a subject worth attention paid by scholars and politicians for they are able to add to regional economy development through various outcomes of their performance. Valuable observations are made on how the clusters performance could be estimated. Scientific literature suggests that innovation, knowledge transfer, social networks, collaboration, regional/ national proximity, competitiveness, research and development (R&D) is an integral part of cluster studies. The aim of this study is to suggest a tool, which would allow evaluating the efficiency of clusters performance in terms of knowledge transfer, understood in the most general way. There are various aspects of cluster performance emphasized by different researchers. We offer a system of indicators, which could be used for cluster performance description where transfer of knowledge is the key phenomenon taken into account. It is offered to include 44 indicators into the system used for cluster performance evaluation. The indicators are attributed into three groups according to different facets that they represent. The groups are named as Resources, Activities and Processes. Transfer of knowledge is viewed as a very important part of cluster performance and is ascribed to activities, which are difficult to measure. For integration of the indicators included into the system we employ one of multi-criteria methods, specifically, SAW method. The results suggest that clusters, which show good results with processes, stay in high positions, while clusters, which are keeping behind with processes, show worse results in cluster performance. This system of indicators could be used in further research to detect if these three groups of indicators should be rated the same for clusters belonging to different sectors

3D Biomechanical Analysis of Targeted and Non-Targeted Drag Flick Shooting Technique in Field Hockey and Training Strategies

1030 – 1036

Canan Gülbin Eskiyecek, Bergün Meriç Bingül, Çiğdem Bulgan and Menşure Aydin

This study compared targeted and non-targeted drag flick field hockey shooting techniques in the penalty corner area, using a three-dimensional kinematic analysis. Eleven male field hockey players (mean age 19,82±1,40 years) participated voluntarily. Seven high-speed cameras (Oqus 7+) with 120Hz refresh rates were used. Field calibration was completed via the wand method. The data was evaluated in two phases: starting and finishing. Players undertook three drag flick shots to the box using targeted and non-targeted techniques. The angular kinematics and stroke force applied to the stick were analyzed using the Qualisys Track Manager Program V2.12, and ball velocity statistics were gathered with the SPSS 18.0 program. To make an accurate target shot the players attempted to maximize their targeted shooting rates, particularly by decreasing the speed of their lower extremities. Key Words: Penalty Corner, Drag Flick, Kinematic, Ball Velocity. 

Art and Creativity as a Chance in The Perspective of Developing The Principles of Education

1037 – 1042

Liutauras Degesys

The aim of this paper is to look at the problem of possibility to implement the art and creativity into the teaching curriculum as the chance to develop the principles of education. In this paper an attempt is made to work out the methodology for comparative analysis of principles of education. The basic hypothesis is that the art may be successfully implemented into the school curriculum seeking at least three base targets of education: 1.Art may foster a culture of self-education giving knowledge and understanding of diverse societies. 2.Art may develop skills of inquiry, approach and participation advancing questioning and understanding and empathy. 3.Art would help in developing and verifying attitudes. The art is the search for meaning that consists of uncovering or creating connections and relationships of various kinds. That is why the art and creativity may be concerned as a call for attention to underlying beliefs, attitudes and values enables individuals to examine the foundations upon their views rest and develop the stronger sense of themselves as the persons. The art and creativity in education may be treated as a personal inquiry that is based on permanent questioning of assumptions and self-correction. That makes an art a strategy, protecting from lapsing into the dogmatism and enabling people to respond positively to the opportunities and challenges of the rapidly changing world. And finally, the art may serve as a toolkit developing the skills of good questioning and helping to avoid the indoctrination and ideological impact. Art may help in developing skills of participation and responsible action. We have not underestimate the role of art in social changes and integration of cultures as the challenge to active and responsible participation: the art while proposing linguistic and non-linguistic activities, such as drawing, drama, happenings, games, simulations and so on, may help students to learn from the very beginning selfconfidence and socially and morally responsible behavior. As far as the art provokes questions, these questions may lead to inquiry and gives us the possibility to communicate, to discuss, to meditate, to think, to reflect upon what we do and who we are and where are we going. That is why the art may enable us to elaborate questioning, analyze and criticize the concepts that are taken for granted. Keywords: Art, creativity, development, principles of education. 

Importance of Local Governments' Contributions to Providing Women With Life-Long Education

1043 – 1052

Zerrin Firat

Globalization process, effects of demographic changes and changes in workforce markets have caused compulsory education and formal education to fall short of meeting the need for training qualified workforce required by the economy in recent years. This situation has brought about the need for diversifying post-compulsory educational policies and services and lifelong education has started to become widespread via being supported as a social policy tool. While, on the one hand, thanks to life-long education, alternative works are carried out for those who have a disadvantageous position in the involvement in the compulsory education process or those who have a negative educational background, on the other hand, works are done to have people acquire professional qualities and skills. To achieve social integration and economic growth, the coverage of life-long education programs can be versatile ranging from basic education based on read-and-write, professional education, general education, general culture education to trainings developed with the aim of evaluating free times. Women's low education levels and low participation rates in the workforce as an employee and employer have led to an increase in the number of programs aiming at women in these trainings. In the education process, various programs have been developed especially for women who could not complete their educations for various reasons or for those whose educations do not fit the requirements of the day. The purpose of this study is to examine the role and importance of local governments by examining non-formal education programs for women in the case of Bursa. Keywords: Woman Education, Life-Long Education

Socıal Media In Higher Education For Marketing

1053 – 1057

Sabahattin Çelik

Internet marketing is to reach the existing and potential customers, to sell and advertise the products and services via the internet networks. Social media which has emerged along with the development of the internet technologies and effective social communication methods on the internet is a new way of marketing activities. Marketing activities which are committed via the internet networks can also be called social media marketing. In Turkey, as well as in the world, colleges and universities are beginning to embrace the social media, to realize the potential power of it and to use it as a component of their overall marketing mix. This paper will review the existing literature available in this subject area by introducing some popular social media tools such as Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Flickr, Twitter and Instagram, express what the advantages and disadvantages of using social media in advertising and promotion activities of universities and colleges and suggest some ideas about these implements by giving advice for the marketers. Keywords: Internet, Education, Social Media Marketing Keywords: Internet, Education, Social Media Marketing

Factors in Building Adolescent Self-Esteem at School

1058 – 1065

Asta Meskauskiene

For teacher who is seeking to implement modern education goals, it is important to create prosperit y educational and learning environments, which were not relevant to the traditional paradigm The learning environment is o ne of the most important factors influencing the successful form ation of adolescent self-esteem, their self-expression an d creative autonomy The concept of learning environment includ es – the schools tradition, domestic regulations, pupil an d teacher relationship, the psychological climate, school manage ment and teacher’s work style It is typical for the autocr atic teacher work style to stereotype and depersonalise the pupils, this weakens the adolescent self-esteem. Meanwhile, democratic procedure, learner’s participation in decision making, respectful relationship, honesty and self-discipline promotes lea rners self-confidence and enhances self-esteem. Well organized le arning environment is a good atmosphere to motivate pupils and encourages them to become a proactive, independent and re sponsible persons. Keywords: Adolescent, Self-esteem, Educational process

Cluster performance: evaluation attempts

1066 – 1075

Salvatore Monni, Francesco Palumbo and Manuela Tvaronavičienė

Authors raise a question about possibility to measure of clusters’ performance. The research is performed within a framework of EU project ‘Cluster Development Med’ (Horizon 2020). Authors suggest a model, which allows to make comparisons of clusters and to identify the better performing ones. The model embraces three dimensions of cluster activity, i.e, “Resources, Activities, and Processes”. The dimensions are suggested by the Lithuanian association “Knowledge Economy Forum”, in their work “Cluster Analysis”. Authors in their turn collect data and employ one of multi-criteria method to integrate indicators employed into one composite indicator for each cluster. Data for practical evaluation purposes were obtained, an interview on site with the coordinators of the Lithuanian clusters. Then Simple Additive Weighting method was used to estimate the efficiency of the clusters’ performance. The results were compared through suggested benchmarking. Suggested model can be used for evaluation of vide range aspects of cluster performance. 

Understanding Electricity in Daily-life Objects: An Approach to Empower Lifelong Problem Solving

1076 – 1084

Diana Alves, Sara Aboim, Alexandre Pinto and António Barbot

The aim of this study was to understand how practical activities combined with exploration of digital simulators would allow the construction of basic concepts of electricity. By developing these concepts with children, we also wanted to potentiate the problem solving on this matter and contribute to lifelong learning. The qualitative research was developed in a fourth year class, with the participation of 16 students, aged between 9 and 10 years. Was organized in the following stages: initial assessment of knowledge, application of the teaching sequence and final evaluation. The data analysis revealed a significant improvement in students' understanding of the concepts. The use of the simulator allowed the students to test their ideas, and the actual assembly of the circuit with laboratory material allowed real verification of the hypotheses, creating new problematic situations. Besides, developing problem solving skills in learning, related to real contexts, enhances predisposition to lifelong learning. Keywords: electricity, education, lifelong learning, technology

Teachers’ Value Perception of the Formal Education*

1085 – 1091

Jiří Kropáč and İva Koribská

This study is focused on the analysis of the subjective and objective values of the teachers who extend their formal education in the process of lifelong learning in the Czech Republic. Formal education of the teachers is mostly organized by the Lifelong Learning Centers as parts of the Universities, that react on the current norms and laws issued by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. Objective values of the teachers who attempt to extend their formal education in the Lifelong Learning Centers are actually discussed in the form of the norms, laws and other legislative documents. The educational system of the Czech Republic opens an issue of a new career system and a standard of a teacher, that would in a close future legalize the universal (objective) perception of the teacher’s role and status. The new career system is expected to support the teachers’ motivation, which would increase the quality of the educational process of the whole society. Moreover, we cannot miss the fact, that the new career system pushes the teachers to continue in their own formal education, which might cause the devaluation of the values that are natural to the teachers work. The vision of the financial stability seems to motivate the individual in the short-term, but at the expense of this value the implemented change in the expected career system loses its added value, i.e. historically embedded concept of teaching as a mission, not only an exhaustible resource based on the short-term financial motivation of an individual at the expense of the society. Subjective value orientation refers to the intrapersonal value system of the teachers extending their formal education and to their perception of values in connection to their future career. Sub aim analyses the teachers‘ specific limitations, which they usually have during the process of their formal education and preparation for their future career of the teachers. The most common limitations of the teachers are reflected by the qualitative research results of the students in the formal educational process and describe the typical obstacles which are connected with their study. The methodological part is focused on the presentation of the research results and the obtained data. The questionnaire includes the questions regarding the perception of the general values in the society, the values closely related to the teacher’s profession and the factors influencing the perception of the individual. The results of the research reflect the current personal (subjective) values of the teachers in the process of formal education in comparison with the legislation of the new Education Act as the objective value system regulated by the state. The recommendations reflect the ways how to solve the implementation of these attitudes into the Czech school system with its close connection to the teachers’ comments on the career system as the main methodological support of the novelization of the future formal educational system. Keywords: Formal education, Attitudes, Values, Career system, Limitations 

Possibilities of Leadership and Tactical Training Evaluation

1092 – 1100

Jaroslav Kozůbek

The article is focused on description of outputs of experimental exercise utilizing the tactical virtual simulator Virtual Battle Space (VBS) as the suitable tool for evaluation of cades´ (military students) leadership skills, which were divided into three areas. This experimental exercise was organized as the part of Visegrad Fund research project “Better cooperation for better operation of the future Visegrad EU Battle Group“. Furthermore the article is focused on possible proposals to use virtual simulation technology as experimental tools for evaluation of cadets´ leadership and tactical training including part of theory, indoor (lab) exercise; computer aided (assisted) exercise and finished by field exercise and the seminar at the end of training cycles. Keywords: Leadership, Skills, Simulation, Evaluation, Experiment