Utilization of modern management methods in Moravian companies – Advanced stage research results

336-343

Adam Pawliczek, Daniela Navratilova

Presented paper discusses the issues of attitude of contemporary Moravian companies operating in the Olomouc region to modern management methods. For a purpose of the study there were selected and considered 28 broadly recognized management methods, tools, systems, techniques or indicators (BCG, BSC, HAZOP, EFQM, ERP, EVA, FMEA, Ishikawa diagram, ISO 9000, ISO 10000, ISO 14000, ISO 26000, ISO 31000, ISO 50000,   Kaizen, KPI, Lean, MBO, OHSAS 18000, PDCA, PEST(LE), Porter´s five forces, SCM, Six Sigma, SMART, SWOT, TQM and VRIO). The examined data base counting 122 Moravian business companies active in Olomouc region in time period 2011-2013 was collected by university questionnaire research realized in spring 2014. This paper presents the results of the survey to document which management methods have companies implemented into their management system in recent years, whether some of management methods tend to cluster in practice of these companies, and how contemporary Moravian companies deal with modern management methods and systems. Based on the research results we can conclude, that the most well-known and utilized management method among Moravian companies is QMS ISO 9000, second and third most popular are simple techniques SWOT and SMART, however we can see big downswing in percentage of utilization between this two methods. Next used is EMS ISO 14000, very close in ratio of usage are than EVA and TQM. Worth to notice is yet BSC, KPI, Ishikawa diagram and MBO. Utilization of all other methods is merely negligible. In general, we must conclude, that the knowledge of modern management methods among Moravian companies is very low.  Key Words: management methods, management tools, questionnaire research, Olomouc region 

Teaching methods as one of the determinants influencing students’ attitudes towards the subject of pedagogy

344-357

Jitka Nábělková, Jitka Plischke

The contribution presents a survey documenting the share of influence of teaching methods on students’ final attitudes towards the subject of Pedagogics. The introductory and theoretical part of the contribution deals with fundamental issues of research in attitudes in pedagogical reality. The quantitative approach to the given issue is chosen due to the character of the research and objectives of the survey. The objective of our contribution is to introduce the design of a research survey and research tools that could put over the dimension of attitudes towards school subjects from the students’ perspective to teachers, and thus point out negatively perceived areas in connection with taught subjects. The tool of first choice is semantic differential, direct structured observation of lessons and a questionnaire using a Likert scale. The research sample consists of teachers and students of a secondary teaching school. 180 questionnaires were distributed; 161 of them were valid. The methods and the chosen tools of the quantitative research are introduced, and the research plan in this area is introduced. An analysis and evaluation of data obtained from the research survey are also presented.  
Key words Research design, research methods, research project, students’ attitudes to the subject of pedagogy, teaching methods 

Theoretical background for the law of retail gravitation

358-363

Tomáš R. Zeithamer, Jiří Pospíšil

One of the many phenomena which may be used to characterize the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is the rapid change which occurred in retail trade relations in various parts of the country. The common feature of these changes was the flow of retail business from small towns to large cities. However, no general analytical laws were known to describe the rise and distribution of this flow of retail business in space and time. From 1927-1930 W. J. Reilly conducted a nationwide study of retail dynamics. One of the findings of this study was the scalar law of retail gravitation. This law of Reilly considered the unidirectional flow of retail trade from small towns to large cities. The reverse flow of retail trade from large cities to small towns was not considered because at the time it was far less significant compared to the flow of retail trade  from small towns to large cities. Reilly’s scalar one-dimensional model of retail gravitation is generalized in the three-dimensional vector model of retail gravitation for the geoid. The scalar potential of retail gravitation is introduced along with the vector of intensity of retail gravitation.  
Keywords: Intensity of retail gravitation, Newton´s law of gravitation, Newton´s laws of motion, Reilly´s law of retail gravitation, space economics. 

Employing the people with Asperger Syndrome

364-371

Lucia Pastieriková, Eva Urbanovská, Kateřina Smrčková3

This paper focuses on the issue of employment of people with Asperger syndrome. It explores the difficulties in finding work, at work, in contacts with colleagues in the workplace. The aim of the research was to: • identify problems that accompany the individual with AS in getting a job even if his performance; • find out in what areas of work are those with AS frequently employed; • find out whether they choose a similar job or it depends on the individuality of each of them; • ascertain how helpful the services such as “social skills training”, “supported employment” and “Self-advocates” are in finding and keeping work. For this purpose, a qualitative research was executed. The method of structured interviews with open questions and analysis of documentation was chosen. The research sample consisted of people with Asperger syndrome who are employed, or are in the stage of job seeking. The research showed that the greatest difficulties in employment for people with AS are in the areas of social interaction and communication. They adapt to change poorly and tend to be quieter and more efficient if they can observe certain rituals and stereotypes, possibly to work according to their own schedule. If being assigned clearly formulated tasks, they are efficient at work, very precise and meticulous. This paper is only a small probe into the complicated issue of employing individuals with a diagnosis of AS and can serve as a gateway to further explore this issue.  
Keywords: Asperger syndrome, Employing, Determinants of Success and Failure. 

Practice as a facilitator for consumer value co-creation in the higher education sector

372-377

Michalis Koniordos, George Skourtis

Service-Dominant logic provides a framework for refinements in the concepts of value creation and co-creation between multiple actors. Moreover, S-D logic provides a shift from outcome to process by arguing that value is not created and delivered in terms of output rather than co-created in a process. Recently the focous of interest is on Higher Education and how value is co-created between actors in Higher Education. However, it is not yet known, the practices within value is cocreated in the Higher Education. Drawing on S-D logic framework and practice theory, the aim of this paper is to discuss and understand how practices in Higher Education such as interacting may offer opportunities to facilitate cocreation and contribute to value in-use in the higher education sector. 

Keywords: Service-dominant logic, Practice Theory, Value Co-Creation, Higher Education

Post-trauma interaction skill development model for children aged 10-12

378-379

Yıldız Öztan ULUSOY, Gülşen VARLIKLI, O. Nejat Akfırat

With this study, it was aimed to organize a summer camp for children who were aged 10-12, lived in the disaster area and whose fathers or relatives were miners  intended for an interaction based psycho-social intervention in collaboration with the Department of PCG (Psychological Consulting and Guidance), Faculty of Education, KOU(Kocaeli University). The main objective of the study was to develop the interaction skills of the children in the region which would contribute to their psycho-social development through the camp program. In this camp, children contributed to activities such as building self-knowledge and increasing communicating skills. Moreover, this study covered group consultant schedules between study experts and children.   
Key words: Interaction, trauma, miner, post-disaster study.

Anthropological perspective on the human body: the human body as object and subject of health care

417-422

Martina Cichá, Giuseppe Maiello,Andrea Preissová Krejci

The study presents an anthropological reflection on the human body, which repeatedly during a lifetime becomes an object of healthcare. Our intention is to analyze the perception of a client’s (patient's) body, its status, changes and reactions under surgery and nursing care, performed by healthcare professionals. From an anthropological point of view, it makes sense to think also of a client’s evaluation. The client, through these performances, reflects on himself, on his body, on his feelings, and on the evaluation of health care interventions during hospitalization or outpatient treatment. The analysis of perception and experience of the client, his status, his reactions, including changes on the body or in the body, in connection with the performed medical procedures is enabled by comparative methodology, which give us the possibility to determine how these perspectives intersect and, vice versa, how they more or less diverge. A serious anthropological approach to the human body can help health workers to create a platform to achieve a more optimal concept of a bio-psycho-social approach to the client, a concept that in the so-called Western medicine is needed more. The text of the study thus acquires an applied, praxeological dimension. Its results can be used both in medical and teaching practice, in the context of the educational system for students of medical disciplines.
Key words:client, patient, surgery, nursing care, health experiences 

Violin Colourstrings Method in Czech Music Education for Older School-Age Children

739 – 746

Marie Kováříčková

The Colourstrings violin method has become the inicial point for creating the model situation which is supposed to contribute to increasing the Czech music teachers´ didactic use of the violin in music lessons with older pupils. The aim of the examine was verifying the effectiveness of the model situations in junior and senior pupils in the 8-year grammar school in an experimental way. The results of the study proved that the pupils in the experimental group, where the Coloustrings method was applied, were more interested in music forms learning process and they managed to use more effectivelly their gained knowledge in integration of vocal, instrumental, motoric and listening activities. Keywords: Music education, Innovation in playing the violin, Colourstrings method 

Current Status of The Discussion on Human Resources Management: an Alternative View From Corporate Social Responsibility and Law

747 – 760

Felipe Calderón-Valencia, Pilar Valenciadelara and Manuela Escobar Sierra

The present study seeks to review the current state of research on human resource management –HRM- in order to propose an alternative view from a Corporate Social Responsibility – CSR - and a Law perspective. To do this effect, a bibliometric analysis has been conducted, to identify as challenges for HRM, factors such as the role of stakeholders, climate change, conception of the company, technological changes and management of diversity; this analysis also confirms that the studies of HRM oriented from CSR and Law perspectives are few. In this regard, an alternative view of HRM from the CSR and Law perspectives is proposed. To that end, this article analyze from the ongoing theories, tensions and tendencies, the relations between Law and the CSR. This is justified insofar as the exchanges between the extremes of legal and business, between market and State, which can be seen as conflicting, complementary and concurrent. Keywords: human resource management HRM, Corporate Social Responsibility CSR, Law, bibliometric analysis, current status of the discussion 

Computer Science Student Perception of an Attractiveness of The Potential Employers: Identifying The Factors of Attractiveness and Use of Social Media in The Czech Republic Context

761 – 774

Kristína Babíková

Human Resources have become essential when speaking about a competitive advantage in the marketplace nowadays. Brand and corporate reputation are crucial when talented and highly-skilled job seekers consider applying for a job as they have often several options. The boom of the internet has opened new opportunities for companies/employers to lead their branding campaigns and advertise job vacancies. This paper reacts to the call of Sivertzen, Nilsen and Olafsen (2003) to test their model with a different group of respondents because the industry the respondents belonged in may have a substantial impact on the responses and relationships of the model. The original research model identifies important factors organizations should focus on when building their employer brand online and it investigates the relationships that connect dimensions of employer attractiveness with variables measuring corporate reputation, the use of social media and intentions to apply for a job. Their study explores whether the perception of employers by potential employees based on the social media promotion influences their intentions to apply for a job in a company. In the research, an electronic questionnaire distributed to computer science students in the Czech Republic was used, where responses are related to well-known Czech computer science companies. The model is replicated not only within a different industry but also in different geographical and cultural terms compared to the original paper. The proposed model was tested by a structural equation modelling in R statistical software. The purpose of this paper is to verify the validity of the original model, to extend the context of its application and to re-evaluate the limits of the model to increase the possibility of generalization. On the one hand, the results indicate positive relationships between variables of the model. On the other hand, we need to take into consideration weak fitting statistics and a low number of observations which limited the validation of the proposed model. Keywords: Resource-Based View, Employer Attractiveness, Social Media, Corporate Reputation 

Adult Education and Women in Portugal: a Review of the Literature 2012-2016 of Elisabete Correia Brito, Marta Abelha, Manuela Barreto Nunes Appears After the Title of The Factor of Social Affiliation of Youth in Promoting Citizenship of Pāvels Jurs and Alīda Samuseviča

775 – 784

Elisabete Correia Brito, Marta Abelha and Manuela Barreto Nunes

Between 1999 and 2011 a national program of adult’s education and training was developed in Portugal. This program was the subject of around 200 scientific publications, 20 of them centered on the impact of the courses in women and specifically regarding the promotion of information literacy competencies. The present paper intends to analyze those publications, aiming to characterize them and identify the results that were achieved regarding the assessment and impact of the courses in the students’ lives. The methods applied coincide with the ones of a literature review, including bibliographic search and retrieval and content and bibliometric analysis. Results show that although little attention is given by the scientific community to this subject, the impact on the lives of the women that attended the courses is significant and worthy of further investment and development. Keywords: Adult education, Women, EFA courses - Portugal 

The Factor if Social Affiliation of Youth in Promoting Citizenship

785 – 794

Pāvels Jurs and Alīda Samuseviča

The factor of social affiliation of young people plays an important role in strengthening civil society and national identity. An individual's sense of belonging can promote civic responsibility and serve as a self-regulating component for civic engagement. The aim of the research is: on the bases of theoretical research and the analysis of the results of the carried out survey, to identify sense of belonging of young people (from 9 to 12 grade students) in Liepaja (Latvia) focusing on different categories: (I) self-esteem of young people's loyalty and patriotism; (II) the respect of young people towards their school, city, state, European Union; (III) the sense of belonging of young people to their school, city, state, European Union; (IV) the personal identification of young people with Europe and Europeans; (V) the self-feeling of the needs of young people for their school, city, state; (VI) consciousness of pride; (VII) comprehension of values. As the research methods were used: data mining methods: (surveys, using M. Rozenberg self-esteem scale, unfinished sentence method); data processing and analysis methods (quantitative data processing with data mathematical statistical analysis and predictive analytics methods implemented through processing program); graphical representation of data; qualitative data processing (content analysis, data coding, grouping and processing); quantitative and qualitative data interpretation. The research sample consists of 825 respondents, 9th – 12th grade students that is 38.35% of the total number of students in Liepaja (total number of students in the 9 th – 12th grade group: 2151 students), which ensures the reliability and validity of the study. Keywords: citizenship, sense of belonging, social affiliation, students, values

Some Notes on Second Languages in Primary Schools

795 – 800

Carla Ravasco

The Portuguese education system has undergone great changes in recent decades. Originally, changes are felt within society, either due to migratory movements and, consequently, to new social, linguistic and cultural paradigms; or due to new technological, cultural and world realities. At a later stage, the need to adapt the education system to new realities is felt: in these periods, new legislation is produced and schools and their communities are faced with the obligation to implement some new laws. In Portugal, a few decades ago, there was a social period characterized by the arrival of several migrants from different communities and countries. If, on the one hand, migrants were from background families from Portuguesespeaking countries, it is equally true that some other families of migrants from countries (such as eastern Europe) who do not share the same language arrived in Portugal. The children of these families were welcomed in the schools, but in many cases a long adaptation to a culture and a language which deeply differed from their mother tongue was necessary. However, inclusion was and is indispensable for the school and social success of these students. The English language has been establishing itself as a lingua franca of culture and even of the economy. In Europe, English is considered the language of communication, social networks, and youth culture. Gradually, the need to have good communicative and linguistic competence in English has been felt. In the past, there have been some punctual and local experiences to bring language teaching / learning to primary schools. Legislation was introduced a few years ago to introduce the language in the curricula of primary schools (1st CEB). With this work, we intend to make a historical review of Portuguese as a Non-mother tongue and English as a Foreign Language in primary schools in Portugal and show what has been done in this field. Keywords: English, Portuguese, Second Language 

Homework's in Portuguese Primary Education: an Exploratory Study in The Curricular Area of Environmental Study

801 – 806

Jose Salgado, António Costa and Eduarda Roque

This research seeks to develop a critical reflection that frames, characterizes and evaluates the homework as a teaching strategy in the curricular area of “Environmental Study” in the Portuguese primary education. For that, we considered three dimensions: the type of methodology used; the number of homework assignments; the duration of the assignment by the student according to the time provided by the teacher. For methodologic purposes, we follow the case study method as we wanted to investigate the homework during a definite period in a narrative and profound way. An original instrument, called Homework Data Collection, was created to answer the research questions. The results show that there isn´t preferred homework methodology, which is reflected in a lack of proportionality between working time and study hours of “Environmental Study" and in a marked discrepancy between the time determined by the teacher and the effective time that the student took. Keywords: Homework, Primary school, Environmental Study

Development of Informatics Curriculum in Czech Schools and Possible Implications For Teacher Education

807 - 811

Květoslav Bártek

The article focuses on the current concept of Computer Science education from the perspective of Czech Computer Science teachers and their opinions on and attitudes to the present situation in ICT education, and deals with the degree to which those teachers are or are not prepared for the upcoming changes. This should form the basis of changes in the training of the existing students of teaching as well as already practising teachers. A fundamental area for our paper is the mutual link between mathematics and Computer Science education, the use of one field in the other, and the possibilities and degree of implementation of these (to us logical) inter-subject links in the present-day education reality. The tool for our survey is a questionnaire distributed among more than a hundred Czech teachers. The outcome is the presentation of selected results of our survey. Keywords: Lifelong education, Information technology, Curriculum of Computer Science education

Corpus of Crisis Management: Security versus Safety

812 – 818

Jiri Dvorak

Such a complex process like crisis management can only be discussed and understood with success if there is agreement on the meanings of its essential terminology. Enhancing and harmonizing the application of existing crisis management terminology goes hand in hand with the need for establishing and coordinating risk management guidelines and practices. Significant changes have also been taking place in the theory and practice of lexicology, as a result of new technology for data-processing and text-based research. Dictionaries are founded on authentic usages of words, their collocations and semantic domains they are associated with. However, large, complex units of meaning are often absent from dictionaries and terminological glossaries. Therefore study of crisis management terminology would be beneficial for the needs of education and training of authorized personnel on individual levels of management. The paper deals with two key terms of crisis management terminology, security and safety. After a short introduction, the method of analysing the data collected in a crisis management corpus is described. The data on two crisis management terms have been collected in a computerized crisis management corpus and processed with the help of Sketch Engine, a web-based program. Then the concepts of security and safety are introduced together with the areas to which the terms are most frequently related. The summary of security/safety collocations includes the section of common patterns, with similarities as well as differences in their connotations. Finally, several conclusions, which are drawn after analysing the distribution and frequency of terms, reveal the fact that traditional concepts of security and safety have been broadened and reflect changes in society and science. Keywords: Crisis Management, Security, Safety, Corpus

Possible Improvements in Government Debt Securities Model in Latvia

819 – 828

Ivars Avotiņš, Janis Vanags and Rosita Zvirgzdiņa

This research is aimed to improve the flow management of the government debt in Latvia, its connection to the current Latvian government debt model and to define future improvement directions of the current Latvian government debt model. During the research the structuring of the current model, that is the model with the main function of finance attraction and payment of the coupon and is the bases of government debt coverage, is made. The main weakness of the current model is connected to the main goal that all resources are attracted only for government budget deficit coverage and no other functions are fulfilled. As in the internal issues there is avoidance from too high interest rates, authors summon to avoid by using the external issues system and to create the system for external issues alike for internal issues. Consequently, the current system does not provide opportunities to reduce government expenditures, but the improvements summoned by the authors could reduce government expenditures. In parallel to the reduction of coupon payments authors make analyses on the government expenditures on intermediaries. At the end of the research the possible improvements are suggested from the goal of issues, from the process of issues, form coupon payment and intermediaries expenditure perspective. Keywords: Debt, Government debt management, Government debt system

Investıgatıon of Effects of Football to Sole

829 – 836

Latif Aydos, Ahmet Uzun, Metin Kaya, Haci Ahmet Pekel and Mustafa Altinkök

Objective: The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of playing soccer for a long time in professional soccer players to sole contact area. Study Plan: 15 football players (22,65 ± 2,6 years, 174,2 ± 5,6 cm height, 71,2 ± 4,8 kg body weight, 23,21 ± 1,4 kg / m² BMI) who play in the Sports Betting Super League teams, the top league of the Turkish Football Federation, who has no problem on his foot and 15 male volunteers (22,6 ± 1,6 years, 177,3 ± 5,4 cm height, 72,1 ± 3,3 kg body weight, 23,01 ± 1,9 kg / m² BMI) as control group was included in the survey. Professional footballers' age of starting football was determined as 9 years old. It has been determined that there is no anatomic disorder or discomfort in the foot, waist and knee areas which will affect the results of the foot contact area analysis in the study groups. EMED-SF (Germany) plantar pressure analysis system was used in the study. Statistically significant differences between the study groups were examined using the non-parametric MannWhitney U test. Findings: According to the results of the research, there was no statistically difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of physical characteristics. However, Significant results were found at (0.01-0.05) level in the beginning and grand total of heel medial, heel lateral, 1.2.3.4.5 metatars in the maximal force comparisons applied to the right and left foot contact area and the floor. Furthermore, it was determined that the values of the control group were higher than the values of the experimental group. Conclusion: As a result, it can be said that to make compulsive movements of the sole causes to reduce the foot contact areas and the force applied to the floor by the sole at long training and games from the time the players come from childhood to the professional football player. As a result of the training of the footballers, especially at the beginning of the metetars on sole, it has been observed that it causes changes in terms of contact and applied force to the floor and in consequence of this, they use the different zones in the sole more actively. Key words: football, foot, sole, training

How to Choose, Use and Produce Bilingual Textbooks? Impact Strands and Support Strategies to Multilingual Education in the Post-Soviet Countries

837 – 843

Ligita Grigule

The paper is concerned with one of the most notable aspects of the educational reform – teaching aids which are relevant during implementation of bilingual education, especially important in the post-Soviet education environment. The article characterizes post-Soviet context of implementing bilingual education and the special role of teaching/learning aids in this context. It also discusses research done on this topic. The article also describes and evaluates teachers’ needs and various solutions adapted by the countries to meet teachers’ needs. In conclusion, some general recommendations and examples of good practice are offered as practical tools for learning material developers. Keywords: bilingual education; teaching/learning aids; post-Soviet countries.

The Pedagogical and Psychological Aspects of The Parent Education Content in The Context of The Upbringing of Children

844 – 854

Anita Lidaka, Irina Strazdina and Gundega Tomele

The long-term conceptual document approved by the Saeima "The Growth Model of Latvia: the Human in the First Place" defines a human-centred model of Latvia development. The goal of growth is to raise various quality aspects of every person's life. This can be achieved by actively using the accumulated knowledge and experience of people. At the same time, the importance of the education system for creating a comprehensive world view and value orientation should be emphasized. Family policy guidelines for 2011-2017 indicate that in order to help parents, especially young people, to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills in order to take care of their children fully and to build a stable and happy family, it is necessary to implement educational and informative measures, which are intended to educate parents about their role and how it changes, about the child’s rights and responsibilities arising from them, as well as their long-term rights

IMPORTANCE OF “CULTURAL HERITAGE AND CONSERVATION” CONCEPT IN THE ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION

855 – 865

Özlem Atalan

The concept of culture also includes the concept of "conservation” within itself. Conservation culture and education are two basic tools for the transfer of cultural heritage. Education is at the forefront of activities that will contribute to the formation of conservation consciousness. People who have a consciousness of conservation culture and cultural heritage can both protect today and the past. In today's conditions where the impact of globalization is rapidly affecting our cities, it is necessary to approach consciously cultural heritage and conservation culture. From this point of view, it is important to understand the conservation culture for the newly educated "architectural students". In this context, architectural education and curriculum are important. Are architectural course programs sufficient for students to enjoy cultural heritage and to take responsibility for protecting it? In this article, the necessity of teaching conservation culture in architectural education will be discussed. At the same time, the adequacy of the courses about conservation and cultural heritage in the curriculum will be investigated. Key words: Conservation Culture, Cultural Heritage, Architectural Education, Architectural Courses Programs

Vision about Teaching Methodology

866 – 871

Mina Y. Ivanova

This research formulates the convictions about formation of the whole personality of the musician, regarding the key relationship „universe-music”, as R. Schumann’s say: „Is not a good musician who is only a good musician.” (Schumann, 1993). There is competition of quality and quantity. It is not important how long one is practicing, but the handling of it from the point of view of strategy, initiative, concentration and maximal effectiveness for minimal time. For reference we have the Leimer-Gieseking System (Stoyanov, 1954). Practically to inspire that the little time is not an obstacle before the good result, only if we can set an orderliness and method in our lives. Other mark: Intransigence with respect to the quality as a fundament of the teaching vocation regardless whether we teach to professionals or amateurs. In general the difference in the approach here consists in the choice between intensive or routinely extensive practice. Keywords: Idea, Means, Quality, Efficiency

Possibilities of Application of Visual Art to Education Curriculum

Inta Klasone and Ineta Klasone

872 – 882

Visual art with its ability to comprehensively influence the human development of individuals acquires special relevance in the dynamic development of community development and in an environment full of impersonal messages and negative information flow. Human brain activity is surrounded by visuality which is larger in comparison to hearing. Visual art is one of the means, by including its elements, to develop skills such as self-expression, ability to critically perceive and cognize the world and actively engage in various of human life activities. The object of the research: education process. The subject of the research: application possibilities of visual art’s means in education. Goal of the research: to expand the view of the educational possibilities of visual art’s application, by raising awareness of prerequisites of the potential for visual art, based on theoretical research and results of the practical research carried out, to draw conclusions, revealing development opportunities in interconnection of visual art’s potential and pedagogic guidelines in education. Issues raised by the research: In what way the pedagogical potential of visual art reveals in personal development? In what way can means of visual art be purposefully used in education? Tasks of the research: To study theoretical and practical aspects of teaching visual art in the historical aspect in Latvia; To study application of visual art in education practice in implementation of certain pedagogical approaches; To study human, psychological, philosophical, arts literature on multi-functional possibilities of visual art and its complex influence on personal development; To carry out study of practical activity in application of visual art in education based on research of theoretical literature and experience of practical application of implemented approaches; To develop conclusions on visual art’s application possibilities in implementing education based on theoretical and empirical research. Keywords: Education process, Visual art, Pedagogical potential of visual art

The Levels of Fulfillment of the Framework of Turkish Higher Education Competencies of Boğaziçi University and Sakarya University Students

883 – 888

Şule Ormanci, Mehmet Ali Hamedoğlu and Mustafa Bayrakçi

In this study, the levels of fulfillment of the Framework of Turkish Higher Education Competencies of Boğaziçi University Faculty of Education students and Sakarya University Faculty of Education students has been examined at the undergraduate level. Knowledge (theoretical, factual), skills (Cognitive, applied), ability to work independently and take responsibility, learning competence, communication and social competence, area-specific competence were examined within the scope of the research. The study population consists of students that had education at Boğaziçi University and Sakarya University in the 2014-2015 academic year. The sample of the research consists of 307 students, participated in the study, that were randomly selected from Boğaziçi University and Sakarya University Faculty of Education. The study is in the descriptive scanning model and firstly the relevant literature was searched. "Survey" was selected as the scale type. 5-point Likert type scale was used in the Survey of Turkish Higher Education Competencies Framework Level Determination. SPSS 17 statistical program was used in analyzing the data obtained through the measuring instruments used. Descriptive scanning method was used as the study model. According to the results of statistical analyses of the application conducted within the scope of the study, it was found that Levels of Fulfillment of the Framework of Turkish Higher Education Competencies of Boğaziçi University Faculty of Education students at the undergraduate level are higher compared to Sakarya University Faculty of Education students. Keywords: Higher Education, Quality, Accreditation, Framework of Turkish Higher Education Competencies, The Bologna Process.

Challenges and Solutions For Preschool Teachers in Their Educational Practice

889 – 900

Jana Grava, Ilze Mikelsone, Dagnija, Vigule and Ligita Priede

The aim of each teacher's professional activity is a gradual awareness of one’s own pedagogical activity, its independent planning, adjusting and implementing, and readiness to analyse and reflect on it. During the times of change, it is crucially important to find a personally significant meaning within a particular professional activity, and to be ready to implement one’s own ideas, to communicate the achieved results and to be able to discuss them. This research is focussed on pedagogical challenges of preschool teachers during the process of implementing the child-centred approach. The challenges of pedagogical activity are caused by differences in teachers’ perception, experiences and readiness to adopt the child-centred approach and educational content that comes with it, which is based on a holistic vision that promotes children’s skills to learn independently, solve problems and make decisions, as well as their ability to think flexibly and to use the acquired knowledge and skills in different life situations (Elschenbroich, 2001, Marcon, 2002, Crain, 2005, Kinos & Pukk, 2010). Despite the fact that in preschool education practice this approach is being employed already since the mid-1990s, the analysis of experience shows that many teachers understand differently the nature of teaching and learning, and tend to preserve both the academic aspect and their dominant (authoritative) role when choosing the learning content and form. The main challenges are: 1) changing the dominant role of teachers when ensuring child’s meaningful activity; 2) the ability to balance between the academic and social aspects of teaching and upbringing; 3) the ability to reflect on one’s activity and change. The aim of this research is to describe these pedagogical challenges and to develop recommendations for improving the pedagogical activity of preschool teachers while implementing the child-centred approach. The research results presented in this article are analysed as part of the case study. The data are obtained from the video analysis of teachers' pedagogical activity (N = 6), from surveying the preschool teachers (N = 102), from analysis of pedagogical documentation/ materials (integrated lesson plans) (N = 80), and from evaluation (reflection) of teachers’ activity (N = 80). Keywords: preschool education teacher, child-centred approach, reflection on teacher’s activity.