The Use Of Montessori Pedagogy In Children’s Speech And Language Development Promotion

706 – 715

Gundega Tomele and Anita Lidaka

The article carries out a research and analysis of theoretical knowledge and empirical observations by Maria Montessori in the context of contemporary discoveries in neuroscience, as well as a summary of the practical use of the didactic principles and materials by Montessori pedagogy for promoting the speech and language development of preschool children. There is a short summary of the research results and analysis carried out on the operating basis of the Alternative Education Centre by Liepaja University Institute of Educational Sciences. The results of the theoretical and empirical research confirm that the theoretical knowledge and empirical observations by M. Montessori coincide with the conclusions of neuroscience nowadays, playing a significant role in the development process and promotion of language development, in the comprehension of the disorder pathogenesis of language development from a holistic approach in a context of competence-based preschool education acquiring. Whereas the practical use of Montessori pedagogy and Montessori therapeutic pedagogy, promote the development of preschool children's speech and language, considering the multi-structural model of speech and language development. Keywords: pre-school age, speech and language development, Montessori Pedagogy.

Teacher’s Perspectives on Collaboration and Professional Development in Portuguese Schools

716 – 723

Maria Manuela Unas, Sandra Fernandes, Eusébio André Machado and Maria Assunção Flores

This paper is part of a broader international research project, which includes eight case studies carried out in public schools in Portugal and in Chile. It is a comparative study, which aims to understand the way teachers describe formal and informal opportunities for collaboration in their schools and its effect in terms of practical knowledge; to identify the enablers and inhibitors that influence professional collaborative learning at school; to understand the role of teacher evaluation and student academic results on teacher’s professional development; to analyse how teachers with different skills, experiences and schools view their own professional development. In this case study, a public school, located in the north of Portugal, with sixty years of history, was selected. The participants in the study are teachers from different disciplinary areas and teaching departments. The school includes elementary and secondary school level, with regular and professional study programmes. Data collection is based on semi-structured interviews to the school director and to eight teachers, mainly coordinators of teaching departments. Results based on findings from teachers point out the importance of collaborative work, but they also recognize that schools need a reorganization that includes time for this purpose, integrated on teacher’s schedule. Informal opportunities are also seen as fundamental for professional development and to improve student outcomes. Conclusions and implications for teacher collaboration and professional development will be discussed in the paper. Keywords: Collaboration, Professional Development, Informal and Formal Learning, Teacher's Perspectives, Portuguese Schools 

Education of Seniors in the Area of Cybersecurity

724 – 728

Petr Hruza

Cybersecurity is a current and frequently discussed topic, which affects all members of society, although they may even not realize it. Many economically active people are interested in cybersecurity on their own initiative. It is connected mainly with their active use of technologies in their private lives. Due to information technologies we may encounter an entirely new type of social setting, which is reflected in seniors´ lives. As the number of seniors has been growing and they long for being further educated and acquainted with new technologies also after their working age, it is necessary to provide them with adequate IT education. The paper includes the assessment of current situation in education of seniors in the Czech Republic. Education of seniors with the use of modern technologies is described in more detail. The final part of the paper includes proposals for easy and comprehensive education of seniors in the area of cybersecurity. Keywords: Digital society, Education of seniors, Cybersecurity, University of the Third Age

Acceptance of Disability, Self-Efficacy and Hope For Success in Students With Physical Disability

729 - 738

Stanisława Byra and Agnieszka Żyta

The literature indicates that beliefs about abilities to cope with difficult situations and to succeed using given competences are crucial to the psychosocial functioning of people with disabilities in higher education. They are also relevant to their academic achievement and predicting professional career possibilities after graduation. The article presents an analysis of the correlations between acceptance of disability and self-efficacy together with hope for success in students with motor disability. The research was conducted with 114 people who were diagnosed with acquired locomotor system limitations, studying at Polish universities on the second level of their studies. Most participants were men with various lesions of the spine, coming from large cities and moving on a wheelchair or with a crutch. The following tools were used to collect data: Multidimensional Acceptance of Loss Scale, Hope for Success Questionnaire and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The level of included variables and dependence structure was determined. The results show a high level of self-efficacy and hope for success in students included in the study. These two beliefs remain in a significant and relatively strong correlation to the dimensions of acceptance of their disability: subordinating physique relative to other values, enlarging the scope of values, transforming comparative-status values into asset values, containing the effects of disability. An applied regression analysis revealed the predictive function of disability acceptance in determining the level of both self-efficacy and hope for success. The two aspects of disability acceptance: enlarging the scope of values and containing the effects of disability, were of the greatest meaning to explain the severity of both variables. It should be noted that disability acceptance allows a greater anticipation of self-efficacy in coping with difficult situations rather than hope for success. The obtained results are significant from both cognitive and practical point of view. They provide valuable information on academic support and career guidance for students with disabilities. Key words: acceptance of disability, self-efficacy, hope for success, student with disability 

Rescuing the ghost from the machine: towards responsive education and beyond explanatory machinery systems

212-220

Carlos Sousa Reis, Maria Formosinho, Paulo Jesus

The significance of the “Bologna Turn” in European Higher Education, which supposedly refocused the process of teaching and learning and was expected to bring about a pedagogical reform, is discussed mainly by clarifying why it has not in fact realized the expected advances on performativity and standardization.  We show how the “Bologna Process” falls into the mechanistic paradigm that Rancière (1987) acutely criticized and through which the educational intervening subjects are reduced to a functional dimension. We draw on Rancière’s criticism to make clear the dynamics of the “deranging machine”, while we call for Buber’s “pedagogy of encounter” as having the potential for opening a new space to escape from the current situation by a “pedagogy of an inspiring way of speaking”, as this may act as adequate conveyer for accomplishing the desired meaningful encounters. These issues lead us to consider why and how education requires a special “pedagogical tact”: the tact for understanding that education is an antinomical process that flows from, through and towards a meaningful dialogue, so that one can recognize that autonomy is constructed in relation to dependency, freedom in relation to compliance and care in relation to some amount of constraint.   
Keywords: Bologna process, higher education, performativity, pedagogy of encounter, dialogism.

Use of mobile touch devices as part of lifelong learning with specific focus on tablets

221-225

Kamil Kopeckýa, René Szotkowskib

In recent years, mobile touch devices (touchscreen mobile devices) have been winning increasing recognition in the sphere of lifelong learning; they represent powerful tools for distributing educational content as well as being effective means for controlling knowledge and skills among students. As these portable touch devices become more and more affordable and their sales dominate the market for information and communication technologies, they also bring to the mass population several useful educational applications from various fields. Additionally, mobile educational applications provide interface with online environments based on LMS and MOOC. Parallel to this trend is the growing market for electronic textbooks – these are available to pupils and students as well as participants of lifelong learning programmes. It is heartening indeed to see that the introduction of mobile touch devices in education is supported by the state (ministries) in the form of heavy investments in this field. This paper deals with the new trends concerning the use of tablets in lifelong learning. It describes the advantages as well as the limitations of using these devices, and also focuses on the experience with using tablets in conventional frontal teaching. 

Key Words: tablets, mobile touch devices, education, e-learning, m-learning 

American schools in Turkey: Robert College

226-231

Ahmet Kiremitcioglu, Assoc. Prof. Omer F Tutkun

The main objective of this study is to introduce information about the American schools established for missionary in Turkey and the best-known of them Robert College. In line with this basic objective, in the study answers are searched for the following questions; 1- The emergence of American missionary, what is their purpose and effectiveness? 2- The establishment of American schools in Turkey and what are the features of them? 3- What are the characteristics of Robert College? In the study, descriptive method was used within the qualitative research methods. The results which are obtained in accordance with the data obtained from related literature pointing to research problems are: 1- The primary aim of US schools is to spread Protestantism and by giving an average Western education to train pioneers and leaders. These schools have arisen and have spread since the end of the 18th century. 2- These schools had influence on the political structure of the Ottoman Empire, on organizing of non-Muslims in the Ottoman society and on becoming conscious against the state. 3- Missionary schools for girls and boys are structured in all of the Ottoman country. Robert College, opened 4-16th September in 1863, was a school with students and instructors of all ethnic backgrounds, basically had departments consisting mainly language, commercial and engineering sciences, major part of the income of which is paid by the American organizations spreading Protestantism and main purpose of which is spreading Protestantism.  Key Words: American schools, Robert College, history of education, missionary, foreign schools. 

Youth communication technology addiction and leisure time education

423-426

Ejder ÇELİK

Nowadays, the idea that the leisure time is not for preparation for the working hours has gain importance and the fact that the leisure time activities improve individuals mentally, psychologically and socially has been emphasized. Therefore, it is clear that leisure time education all by itself should be considered as an area of specialization. Before learning how to use spare time, one should need time to gain awareness of what time is and what it is not. Recreation by preschool education is a very good example for this: true motivation, sufficient isolation, adaptation of the objective world, a controlled sphere for freechoice, a process-driven sharing –instead of a result-oriented one. The communication technology should be projected essentially within this system. Miss-use of communication technologies first separates the young people from their real functional social relations in daily life. 
Key words: Youth, communication, technology, addiction, leisure time, education 

Understanding participation in early childhood education: Case study

232-238

Linda Pavitola, Jana Grava, Ilze Mikelsone, Vineta Pole

Nowadays policymakers, educators, and others involved in children`s education are seeking ways to provide quality education. Effective participation that attempts to improve preschool programs, provide family support and increase parent involvement is considered to be as one of the main quality indicators for early childhood education. However, parents and professionals do not always agree on what would be the best for the family and the child, and also legislation and regulations turn little attention to family participation, delivering responsibility to pedagogues, families and preschool institutions. Therefore the goal of the study was to investigate existing participation practice and reveal its promoting and hindering factors. In order to study family participation practice at the local level, a case study was performed and the following research questions were put forward: 1) how is the concept family participation understood and the existing situation in practice characterized, and 2) which stages of participation dominate in existing preschool practices. A qualitative research methodology, based on interpretive phenomenology approach, is used to address the topic. Participants (parents and preschool teachers) were selected using purposeful random sampling strategy, and the data collection techniques – a document analysis and a method of interview were used. As the result of the study, a model for strengthening family participation has been developed that could be implemented in early childhood education practice in Latvia to extend family participation, thus promoting participation culture within preschool education institutions.   
Keywords: Family participation, participative practices, stages of participation 

Future teachers’ reflection to understand their professional identity

239-244

Ilze Mikelsone, Indra Odina

The value of the reflection is to make future teachers more informed of what they have learned and to create the awareness about reflection in the sense that students are able to change their attitude, behaviour and actions, and finally understand their own professional identity.  The article deals with the problem of future teachers’ resistance to reflection. There are several reasons, namely, uneasiness to reflect on situations that make oneself embarrassed and uncomfortable; crudity to accept and analyse one’s feelings and previous learning experience that has been focused on the assessment given by other people only. Therefore it is problematic to carry out reflection on one’s professional identity. The research has been carried out as Phenomenology Study. The research sample was the practising teachers – master students of the Professional Master Study Programme „Teacher” study module “Education for Well-being and Cohesion” taking the course „Educators Professional Identity and Pedagogic Mastery”. Students’ reflection skills have been developed by three reflection tools: MAX, Reflexive Practice Framework and analogies (metaphors) and evaluated in narrative essays. By practising reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action according to reflection life cycles, future teachers should create their reflexive practice framework. The article analyses different reflection tools and samples of students’ reflection experience.   
Key Words: reflection-in-action, reflection-on-action, reflexive practice framework and tools, professional identity. 

The use of foreign languages in connection with the change of employment in persons with acquired visual impairment

245-248

Olga Malinovska

Aim of the study: A meaningful and suitable job is one of the most important criteria for a high level of the quality of life of people with severe visual impairment. A good job not only rises the level of self-confidence, but also helps people to widen their range of social interactions and master their skills and abilities. This research is focused on what difficulties and shortcomings these individuals perceive in learning foreign languages and whether they perceive foreign language as an important part of their job. Methods: Qualitative research methods were used in the survey. Data collection was conducted through interviews and studying of clients´ documentation. The clients were working in the selected region and used the services of local Center for people with visual impairment. Interviewees were people of adult age who were forced to change their jobs, or even the qualification itself, due to the acquired disability. The results: The research results show that clients perceive the knowledge of a foreign language as an important part of quality of life and would like to make use of foreign languages at their workplace. But this is often hindered by the lack of appropriate teaching materials and courses, and in some cases by the low intrinsic motivation of these people.  Keywords: visual impairment; blind; employment; foreign languages  

Furutorp (Sweden) goes digital Teachers’ perceptions of continuing professional development (CPD).

249-258

Christer Ohlin, Anne - Elise Persson

This study takes its departure from on-going debate about teachers’ (collective) ‘continuing professional development’ (CPD). The overall aim is to highlight the active teachers’ perceptions on developing a self-understanding of their complex role in daily practice by using digital tools. The following research questions guided the study: How can teachers make schools more relevant and engaging? How can students’ achievement increase? In what way can teachers provide highquality education for all students? Three perspectives will be guiding the study: ICT, learning and special education. The participants in the study are 21 staff members in preschool and primary and recreation centre with whom we conducted structured individual interviews and focus group discussions. Field notes were also taken during the interview and discussion sessions. The findings reveal the importance the teachers’ deeper understanding of students’ mastering creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration. Furthermore, the most powerful thing teachers have to do is to design engaging, meaningful, and authentic work and technology-enhanced learning experiences. In order to improve learning in a digital world the teachers have to be engaged and supported by professional learning opportunities to continually improve and strengthen their digital competencies and their teaching practices. The theoretical standpoint is the norm model as an analytical tool to understand the teachers’ perceptions. The concept of norm is a collective term for the factors and structures that are regarded as normal balance between the aspects of value/will, system conditions/possibilities and cognition/knowledge.  
Keywords: Continuing professional development, digital tools, the norm model 

Validity and reliability study of technological pedagogical content knowledge self-efficacy scale based on international educational technology standards (TPACK-ISTE)

259-268

Ömer ŞİMŞEK, Taha YAZAR

 The aim of this study is to develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) self-efficacy scale based on international educational technology standards which are defined by International Standards for Technology in Education for teachers (ISTE-2008). Study groups of the research consist of senior prospective teachers studying at a faculty of education of a state university in Turkey in the fall semester of 2014-2015 academic year. The research was conducted four different groups such as Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA, n=424), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA, n=341), concurrent validity (n=93) and test-retest (n=85). To prove the relation of ISTE Standards the datum of same CFA group (n=341) is used. To define the EFA, principal components and varimax rotation methods used and a scale consisting of 27 items, six factors, explaining 62.65% of total variance, having factor loadings between .53-.89, corrected total item correlation above .30 has emerged. The CFAs (first and second order, n=341) were statistically significant and showed acceptable and good fit. To confirm the scale was based on ISTE standards, another CFA was applied within the same CFA group and four factored ISTE standards showed acceptable fit model. The concurrent validity of the scale showed positive, high level significant correlation (r=.78; p<.01). Internal consistency for Cronbach Alpha value for overall is .92 and the overall McDonald’s Omega coefficient score is .96. The correlation coefficient scores of test-retest was .85 for overall scale. As a result, the developed scale (TPACK-ISTE) can be said to be a valid and reliable instrument.  
Key words: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, International Society for Technology in Education Standards for Teachers, Scale Development, Self-Efficacy

Military concept development and military lifelong education

269-272

Ivo Pikner

The aim of this article is to present outcomes of defense research project “OPERKON – Operating Concepts of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic in Joint Operations” and national approaches to lifelong education in the area of military concept development on The University of Defence. Military concepts development seems to be a crucial point for development, building (defense planning) and the future use of the Armed Forces. Principal problem is that some NATO member states do not have a national approach and national documents as framework for process of concepts development, applied methods for experimentation and determination of individual responsibility (for validation and certification). This leads to opinions disunity and often "disorientation" among both individual developers and users of military concepts. Hypothesis: Knowledge of the military concepts development process is one of the key points to strategic decision-making of senior officers. Within the project there were used methods of comparative analyses and syntheses of NATO and EU countries documents. Analyses of lessons learned and panel expert’s method was used with participations and contributions of foreign military concepts developers. For the proposal parts of project were used forecasting methods. The first part of the paper describes types and development of military concepts and subsequently the author explains the reasons for the new subject for lifelong education implementation. The education in the sphere of military concept development takes form of block of lessons within senior officer’s career courses. The students are first introduced to theoretical approaches and then they design the practical examples for constructing selected concepts which afterwards discussed at the seminars. The article underlines the importance of education knowledge of for officers in the higher officer ranks. The objective of the project was to develop a methodology of the military concepts development.  
Key words  Concept development, military career education, operation 

Teachers’ perceptions of learning organizations

389-395

Sevinç Peker

As a result of an organizational learning attitude which elevates learning from a personal level to an organizational activity, examining the learning organization perception of school managements’ components is very important to reveal the state of schools in terms of becoming learning organizations. In order to better assess educational organizations’ openness to the process of change and schools’ states in terms of becoming learning organizations, it is worth examining schools’ perceptions of learning organizations. It is thought that examining primary schools’ openness to learning as an organization and revealing their competence in terms of learning organization disciplines will provide an idea about primary schools’ possibility of becoming “schools of the future”. The purpose of this study is to examine primary school teachers’ perceptions of their schools in terms of the learning organization approach. The study group of the research consists of 392 teachers working in the European side of Istanbul. A “Learning School Scale”, in order to reveal teachers’ perception of learning schools was used in this study. A “Screening Model” was used in this study to determine teachers’ perceptions of learning organizations. Descriptive statistical methods and a statistical package program were used to analyze the data. Teachers’ perceptions of learning organizations related to their own schools was examined based on  gender, field, school type, seniority, and educational status variables .The findings obtained as a result of this study suggest that team learning activities should be the center of focus in order to familiarize teachers with the idea of a shared vision in the vision creation process and enhance their belief in the possibility of realizing this vision.  
Keywords: Learning School, Learning Organization, Teacher Perception 

Communication disorder in people with sensory disabilities

273-278

Adela Hanakova, Katerina Kroupova

Communication disorder in individuals with sensory disabilities has a significant influence on the development of the individual and their communication and can significantly affect their quality of life, especially its psychosocial dimension. The article presents the results of empirical research, which are embedded in a broader theoretical framework symptomatic speech disorders in people with sensory disabilities. Gained from qualitative and quantitative data emerged several aspects which in our conditions determine care for individuals with sensory disabilities from the perspective of speech therapists. Of the sub-analysis techniques of qualitative data we applied the method of clustering, also was used simple enumeration, which uses quantitative indicators. Featured identified semantic categories are complemented by quantitative data illustrate the quantitative phase of the research. Contribution is primarily focused on the presentation of the results of a qualitative survey.   
KEYWORDS Communication, visual impairment, hearing impairment, speech therapy, symptomatic speech disorders 

Educational premises of puberty at primary school

279-282

Miluše Rašková, Dominika Provázková, StolinskáAlena Vavrdová

Puberty is normal expression of human development. We could qualify the puberty as a major hormonal process of physical changes in the context of significantly changing the psyche and with awareness of our own personality. Puberty is the phase in which it completes achieve fertility. All children need to be adequately prepared in time for this life stage and it has to be in all changes, relationships and connections that relate to this stage. Being prepared and ready in time for puberty also means that children have to acquire the necessary knowledge about it before its onset. There are varieties of alternative education about puberty. School education in preparation for puberty should not remain single. The coexistence of families, schools and other relevant sources as educators of children is meaningful connections for education. Risk of communication and education about puberty is a particular taboo issue, the inability to adequately communicate with adult children, lack of knowledge. Among eliminate the risk of professionalism among teachers, parents, co-operation and communication between the school, families and other relevant sources.  
Keywords: Puberty, education, school, family, communication, risk, elimination of risk, research. 

Examination of the perceptions of teacher candidates on the concept of counseling through metaphor analysis method

283-290

Yıldız Öztan Ulusoy

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of teacher candidates studying pedogogical formation on the concept of psychological counseling and guidance through metaphor analysis method. In the analysis of the obtained data and the problem of the study, the descriptive method used in metaphor studies was adopted. The study was conducted with 354 pedogogical formation students attending pedogogical formation courses at Kocaeli University in the academic year of 2014-2015 and taking a counseling course and not taking a counseling course. The metaphors were analyzed and interpreted in five stages. (a) Naming (coding) Stage, (b) Elimination and Treatment Stage, (c) Compilation and Category Development Stage, (d) Providing Reliability and Validity Stage and (e) Transferring Data into Computer Environment Stage. In the compilation and category development stage, the metaphors the teacher candidates produced were evaluated in terms of their common features and 7 different conceptual categories were formed taking the alphabetical list created for 68 metaphors into account. These categories were named as guiding, therapeutic, relaxing, professionalism, problem solving, self-knowledge and requirement. Examining the findings, it was determined that the teacher candidates perceived the concept of psychological counseling and guidance as “guiding” according to gender and whether they took the counseling course or not.  
Keywords Guidance, psychological counseling, metaphor, teacher candidate. 

Investigation of the opinions of secondary education administrators regarding school council implementations

291-301

Ertug Can, Suleyman Aktas

Investigation on the viewpoints of secondary-education administrators about school council implementations. The aim of this study is to find out the school administrators appointed in secondary education institutions about school council implementations and to develop suggestions for the school, council to function more properly. The study was carried out with 234 administrators appointed in secondary and high schools in Bahcelievler District of Istanbul in 2014-2015 academic year. Quantitative and Qualitative research methods were used for this study. In order to collect the quantitative data, “School Council Implementation Scale Composed of 36 questions was developed and used. Quantitative data was analysed by using t-test and ANOVA techniques. Qualitative data, however, was evaluated by means of content analysis. At the end of the study, the points of “School Council Implementation Scale” were investigated and no significant difference was found among gender, appointment, seniority, administrator seniority and education levels. Most of the participants pointed out that they agreed the statement of  “School Council and Administrator may learn new ideas from students.” According to most of the participants, since the administrators, parents and students do not have sufficient information about the school council, problems may sometimes arise during the implementation. As there are sometimes problems during the process of school council implementations, it may be helpful if administrators, students and parents are informed, enabled to participate in decisions and be effective in the process of decision-making.  
Keywords: Democracy, administrator, participation. 

Inclusive education in the conditions of Czech schools

302-309

Eva Šmelová, Alena Petrová, Irena Plevová, Libuše Ludíková, Eva Souralová

The area of inclusive education is one of the key areas of education policy in the Czech Republic. Faculty of Education of Palacky University in Olomouc is trying to flexibly respond to the needs of educational practice and think of inclusive education for several years to the research areas of the faculty.  In this paper the authors introduce about problematical areas that could have significantly affect to the quality of the process of inclusion in routine practice at primary school. In the paper the authors are based on research conducted in the years 2013 – 2015. Respondents were teachers and parents of elementary school children and as major actors of the educational process. The present study introduces selected results of the research implemented in the Czech Republic. The purpose of the research was to discover and describe current condition of inclusive education from the viewpoints of the major actors of the educational process, i.e. teachers and parents of elementary school pupils of the Olomouc region.  Regarding the specifics of the required information we prepared questionnaires for the teachers and for the parents in correspondence with the purpose of the inquiry, with subsequent test run for verification of appropriateness of the individual item formulations. Each of the questionnaires included 22 items with dichotomy as well as scale answer variants, including the open question variant. The questionnaires were filled out by the selected research subjects in anonymity.  The analysis shows the positive attitude of parents and teachers to implement inclusive education. Worrisome is the current level of teacher´s readiness to manage this process. It shows the need to promote inclusive education not only by the undergraduate training of teachers, but also in further education is necessary to focus on the systematic development of teacher´s competence for inclusive education. 

Key Words Iinclusive form of education, special educational needs, individual integration 

Effective instructional design for listening in English language teaching

403-410

Prof.Dr. Natela Doghonadze, Prof.Dr. Şaban Çepik, Asist.Prof.Dr. Kenan Kapukaya

Listening is one of the most salient components of foreign language learning (FLE). Therefore, true communication heavily depends on learners’ competence in listening. This study was aimed to discover the quality of listening instruction, how motivating listening activities are, and how effectively listening activities are applied at school. A survey in two Georgian and one Turkish university was applied to both English language teachers and learners. An experiment with 14 university students was conducted. Research findings indicate that students’ listening skills are dissatisfactory and insufficient due to the listening activities that are not authentic, interesting, and motivating. A number of strategies on teaching and learning listening are suggested to increase learners’ listening competence.  
Key words: EFL, listening, motivation, authentic, listening activities 

Lifelong education: The effect of informal education on income

310-317

Anca Mihai, Corina Brăgaru

Formal education is an expected predictor for economic achievements. In the context of lifelong learning, we also consider informal education as a predictor for economic achievements. We distinguish between formal education (finalizing an educational level which is certified at national level by the responsible institutions, i.e. schools, colleges, and universities) and informal education, which is considered as a compound of the number of contexts perceived of learning from in the past year, contexts to occur spontaneously at any given time (before, during, and after formal education), in a wide variety of forms (e.g. professional training within or outside a company, training organized by NGOs, training on foreign languages, peer communications, discussions with family members, friends, or other people, online information, etc.). We argue that both formal and informal types of training mean that individuals are actively involved in personal lifelong education, which in turn have an impact on their economic situation, independently of their country. Does this assumption hold for the countries included in our study? Is there one pattern resulted from analyzing the effects of formal, informal, and the interaction between formal and informal education on income, controlling for age and gender? If not, what are the observed patterns and what similarities arise? Eurobarometer surveys dedicated one of their studies (ZA3903, 59.0) to the topic of lifelong learning in 2003. They provide data for 18 European territorial units: France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany (West), Italy, Luxembourg, Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Germany (East), Norway, Finland, Sweden, Austria, and Iceland. This particular survey is cross-sectional, with individuals as units of analysis, questioning both attitudes and behaviors on the topic of lifelong education. We test our hypotheses using a structural equation models comparison between countries. Our paper aims at exploring patterns of social stratification bringing to the literature a comparison between the importance of formal and informal education with respect to individual achievements, thus considering lifelong education as compound of these two types of education.  
Key words Lifelong education, formal education, informal education, economic achievements, income, structural equation modeling, comparison between European countries.

Sustainable life and performing arts with the senior people in the context of lifelong education

296-398

Serpil MURTEZAOĞLU

Maturity is the era in life that consists the later periods of life. The main determining factors of this era are physiological changes, psychosocial and chronological factors. Although there are differences between countries maturity can bring some problems with it. Especially psychological problems are a social risk that reduces the quality of living among senior citizens. Being alone comes with feeling useless and depression which creates unbalance and unsustainability in elder people’s lives.

The comparison of the ideological foundations of Turkish and Kazakhstan history education

318-331

Yücel Gelişli, Lyazzat Beisenbayeva

History science is one of the most important means of culture transfer and inculcating a national identity. It is a known fact that each nation legitimates and sustains its presence through legends, saga or books and documents. At this point what we call as national history, history of science, becomes one of the means of imparting national identity. In this study it is aimed to compare the ideological foundations of history curriculum of Turkish Republic and Kazakhstan Republic in the process of constituting a new nation after the independence with the new ideologies they have adopted. The research is a qualitative one in which historical method is used. The data has been obtained via document analysis through the history curriculum of Turkish and Kazakhstan primary and secondary education institutions, regulations on the subject and books and articles.  According to the data obtained in the study tables have been formed and the similar and different aspects of the two countries have been presented by making the comparison of the two countries’ ideologies and curriculums. According to the findings of the study; it has been seen that both countries have been in the process of becoming a nation state in the first twenty years of their independence and both have made arrangements by releasing a series of regulations and laws. In both Turkey and Kazakhstan a process of national history writing has been started and in line with the collected data, history education curriculum has been developed and the books have been rewritten. Moreover it has been seen that history course is one of the most important means of constituting a national identity in both of the countries  
Keywords Ideology, history education, history education in Kazakhstan, history education in Turkey. 

War Studies - new trends in education

332-335

Ivo Pikner

The aim of the article is to discuss the new approaches to education in the field of military art at the University of Defence. Author describes the reasons which led to changes that have occurred in the teaching of the fundamentals of military art in master's degree programs. The article presents the results of the project "INOSPEM" conducted within the Faculty of Military Leadership supported by European funds. The methodology used in project was a combination of system analysis, synthesis and comparative analysis. Results and later recommendations led to the development of new subject – War Studies. The explorative methods were used for the description of proposed educational methods and approaches for the lecturing new courses. Among the decisive qualities of future military officers belongs the ability to utilize the knowledge of Military history and Military art, to lead even in harsh conditions and under stress, to be able to perform training and combat command at a platoon level in the context of company and battalion levels and to be proficient with his set of weapons and military equipment and to understand the principles of their employment. The thematic areas of War studies I and War studies II subjects has not previously been so comprehensively conceived and taught. The courses enable the students to acquire the basic knowledge of the theory of Military art, essential terminology and the paradigms in warfare. The course War studies I. focuses on the topic of the Military art, Armed forces, Military operations, the principles of the Military art and the fundamentals of theory of commanding the Armed forces. The course War Studies II builds upon War Studies I, which it expands on the analytical and synthetic work emphasizing work of small teams of students on particular military operations. Apart from theory the course focuses on practical applications of the theory of war and its reflection in the military art, the experience from the wars and conflicts of 20th and 21st centuries and the command of armies in the 21.century. The newly developed system of education in the field of the Military art modifies the experience and knowledge of historical development of the Military art to fit the current conditions. The art of individual and responsible decision-making in the ever-changing security environment which takes into account the wider social consequences of the decisions is highly emphasized during the lectures, war games and seminars. Moreover, the application of new way of distant communication between the student and the lecturer enables effective lecturing, consultation and control action using the software MOODLE.  Keywords Military art, operation, war studies.