The Place and Importance of Mother's Songs, Lullabıes in Afyonkarahisar Culture

10-18

Saibe Özlem Kaya , Berna Özkut

Lullabies are the products that are transferred from generation to the next in various periods of time, affecting children owing to their tunes and reflecting the culture of the community via many historical and social features such as its local elements, customs and traditions. Having existed from past to the present in almost every society in their folk culture, lullabies are one of the genres of anonymous folk literature and have been sung to children with a tune in order to put them to sleep, to them silence when they cry and to relieve them by the performing mothers. In this study, the place and the importance of the lullabies that are the women-creation in the Turkish socio-cultural life and are the remarkable treasure chest of our culture in Afyonkarahisar culture will be studied under the light of the information gathered through interviews with Afyonkarahisar local people and the literature review. This study has great importance because it is a compilation of lullabies that are sung firstly to the babies and then to the children of Afyonkarahisar city, constituting a source for future studies and shedding light to the literature. In this regard, the fundamental aim of this is to put forward the place and the importance of lullaby kinds in the cultural tradition of Afyonkarahisar, which are considered as a common cultural heritage to all people of the city.

Keywords: Afyonkarahisar, Culture, Lullaby.

Educational Process and its Components in the Technical Education

1-7

Cestmir Serafin

The article deals with the issues of a process of realisation of the instruction in technical subjects including also the definition of the didactic concept of the technics in relation to the subject of teaching. The issue of the acquisition of terms from the area of technics is a complicated complex of knowledge and skills that is demanding on the thought process. The explanation of the issue of the technics requires a complex approach by the pedagogue, who knows the rules of general didactics, psychology, and educational science; however, he/she should still be also a technician – an expert in the field of technics. Therefore, the gnoseological approach is a substantial feature of the educational process of the technical education.

Keywords: Educational science, didactics, subject didactics, technical education, teacher, process of education

Learning Tasks as Important Didactic Category for the Development of Key Competencies

7-13

Jitka Plischke, Radka Dofkova

Significant attention in the field of education is devoted to the didactic category of the learning task, which represents a wide range of all learning assignments, from the simplest tasks requiring merely memorable reproduction of knowledge to complex tasks requiring creative thinking. However, learning tasks cannot be presented spontaneously, randomly, in isolation, as this is a vital means of managing a pupil's learning. The teacher should always come to the classroom with prethought- out tasks and the means to solve them. In this way, the pupil's learning will not go elsewhere, or the time in teaching will be filled with activities, but purposelessly. Each teacher should be able to present pupils with a tailor-made set of learning tasks. For these reasons, learning tasks have also been at the heart of the project Community Support for Practice as a tool for developing key competencies (supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic). It included intensive communication between the involved primary and secondary school teachers, follow-up master teachers, field and general didactics and other professionals from the faculties preparing students for the teaching profession (especially a special pedagogue, psychologist, general pedagogy, pedagogy diagnostics, action research). The aim of the paper is to reflect the selected project results in the field of mathematic literacy, especially financial literacy, based on the knowledge and experience from above mentioned experts.

Keywords: Learning tasks, Key competencies, Mathematics, Teachers

Continuing Education in an Era of Globalisation

13-17

Jonathan Michie

Globalisation is just one of the current phenomenon that is making the need for continuing education and lifelong learning ever greater. Yet at many universities - and across many countries - there has been a continuing failure to respond adequately to this increasingly important need for adult education, with the required investment and political commitment. This might be thought paradoxical, as indeed it is. Yet no more paradoxical than the fact that, as I argue here, there has been a general failure to respond adequately to any of the increasingly important challenges posed by globalisation - from rising inequality to environmental change; and from tax evasion and avoidance on an industrial scale, to whole sections of society being ‘left behind’.This paper is structured as follows. First, by way of introduction, I report on what we are doing at the University of Oxford to promote continuing education and lifelong learning. Second, I discuss the concept and phenomenon of globalisation. Next, I consider the International Financial Crisis of 2007-2008, and the resultant global recession. Section 4 analyses the policy responses, and Section 5 the alternative policies with which we should have responded - and should do now. And finally, I consider the future for adult education, both to try to overcome the damage wreaked by globalisation and the international financial crisis, and to seek to minimise the danger of such events causing such damage again in the future.

Teachers’ Professional Image in Turkish School Series

13 - 26

Şenay Sezgin Nartgün, İbrahim Limon

The aim of this study is to determine teachers’ professional image in Turkish school series on television. Teachers’ professional image was analyzed under four categories as demographic characteristics, positive, negative and omitted image components. To this end, four school series broadcasted on different TV channels were analyzed. The TV series were obtained from the websites of the channels or they were downloaded from YouTube. The study was carried out as an ethnographic study which is one of the qualitative designs. Study materials  were chosen through criterion sampling method. The first three episodes and main teacher character of the series were included in thestudy. Data was collected through document review method. To analyze the data ethnographic content analysis was utilized. The following results were obtained. There were not stereotypes in terms of gender or age of the characters. On the other hand, three of the characters were seen as teachers in social sciences while only one of them was a Math teacher. All of the characters were single or widow which was regarded as a negative image component. Additionally, all of the series were set in high schools. As for the positive image components, the characters were idealistic, self-sacrificing, concerned, role-model, respectable and just. The names of the characters can be said to have positive connotations in Turkish language. They had positive visual image and good relations with their students. The characters could solve their students’ personal problems. However, some negative image components were present in the series. These can be listed as financial status, the fierce opposition to the school administration, solving the problems at school informally, making exam in the first lesson and using insulting words to the students. Teachers were also depicted as an occupational group which can easily be appointed from place to place as a punishment. It was also determined that there were some omitted image components. Teachers were not depicted while planning, preparing for the lesson, training, participating in the meetings, grading the exams or doing extra tasks.

Key Words: Teacher, professional image, media, television series.

General Liability of the Administration

1-9

Mustafa Avcı

The regulation included in Article 125 of the Constitution holds the administration responsible in general. According to this regulation; "The administration is obliged to pay for damages resulting from its actions and acts." In addition, apart from Article 40 of the constitution it was decided in Article 129 that "claims for damages arising from the faults commited by civil servants and other public officers while exercising their powers can be brought against the administration provided that they are recoursed to them and comply with the manners and conditions specified by related law". The basis of the responsibility stated in this provision is the continuation of the general basis of responsibility regulated in Article 125. Through these regulations, it is desired to allow that the civil servants who have faults in their services carry out their services carefully and to avoid their being held irresponsible; and at the same time, the legal remedies to bring a lawsuit by those who are harmed due to the performance of the services against the administration which has the ability to pay. Keywords: Service Defects, Liability of the Administration, Strict Liability.

Turkish language proficiency: TÖMER graduates

8-13

Osman Titrek, Mohammed Kazem, Ali Yılan, Nurcan İlkay

Language proficiency as the ability of an individual to perform in acquired language is considered extremely important for a student’s educational life as well. The aim of this study is to evaluate the international students’ Turkish language proficiency whether their language proficiency has been adequate or not. This research measures out the proficiency on four common skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing, of Turkish language. To evaluate this process, a mixed model research was carried out with participation of thirty international students of Sakarya University from different countries who joined an interview and filled a self-evaluation questionnaire. There are twelve quantifier items divided on four language skills in the questionnaire. The outcome of the study shows that over %90 of the participants deliver high proficiency in listening or understanding skill and their lowest proficiency appears in writing skill that covers approximately %65 of the participants. Unlike the above skills results, the results of reading and speaking skills respectively place over %35 and %50. This study presents efficient data regarding second language proficiency evaluation and assists language learning centres to improve the learning outcome in the university level.   
Keywords: Language Proficiency, International Students, Evaluation 

Educatİonal process and İts components İn the technİcal educatİon

1-7

Cestmir Serafin

The article deals with the issues of a process of realisation of the instruction in technical subjects including also the definition of the didactic concept of the technics in relation to the subject of teaching. The issue of the acquisition of terms from the area of technics is a complicated complex of knowledge and skills that is demanding on the thought process. The explanation of the issue of the technics requires a complex approach by the pedagogue, who knows the rules of general didactics, psychology, and educational science; however, he/she should still be also a technician – an expert in the field of technics. Therefore, the gnoseological approach is a substantial feature of the educational process of the technical education.  
Keywords: Educational science, didactics, subject didactics, technical education, teacher, process of education   

The problems during the postgraduate education: Of the teachers who continue their Phd education

14-19

Osman Titrek, Bekir Karataş, Saadet Gültaş

The purpose of this study is to detect the problems of teachers who pursue Phd education. For this end, the views of postgraduate teachers with regard to associated school, their own lives and registered programs have been studied. Phenomenological pattern has been preferred. All the data have been collected through face to face question-response questionnaire technique. The scope of the research covers eleven teachers who pursue postgraduate education in the 20142015 education term. Content analysis has been applied in the evaluation of the data. Results and suggestions have been listed in the suggestion section in line with the postgraduate teachers.   
Key words : The views of postgraduate teachers , master's degree , master's degree problem , teacher's view, Phd. 

Teacher burnout – an evaluation according to demographic, organizational and personal variables

20-27

Aycan Cicek, Derya Guvercin

Professional burnout, which is encountered especially in human service professions where human interaction is at its most, is a psychological syndrome which will lead professionals into some physical, emotional, behavioral, interpersonal, and attitudinal problems such as; migraine, gastrointestinal diseases, being cynical or critical at work, a general negative attitude towards colleagues or clients, loss of motivation, exhaustion and unfortunately quitting the job. Former researches reveal that teachers being an important part of human service professionals, also experience burnout in various levels. In this study teacher burnout is investigated by scanning model. Researches attained for the last twenty years were analysed under three main headings. Demographic variables (gender, age, seniority and length of service, marital status, having kids, level of education, branch), organizational factors (kind/type of school, educational level of school, appreciation from principals, workload, school’s location and work environment) and personal factors (choosing and doing teaching profession willingly, job satisfaction, stress) were taken into account in order to define which sub factors were effective in teacher burnout. After analysing former studies, eventually, it was concluded that among the demographic variables there was no significant difference in gender, age, marital status and having kids but there was significant difference  in seniority, length of service and branch. For organizational and personal factors there was significant correlation in nearly all the sub factors. As a conclusion studies indicate a strong relationship between school principal’s attitudes towards teachers, workload, workplace or job satisfaction, stress, seniority and teacher burnout. Generally all the previous studies suggest there is low or average level of burnout in teachers.  
Keywords: teacher, burnout, demographic, organizational, personal

The adaptation study of justice in the classroom scale into Turkish

28-34

Emine Selin Kepekcioğlu, Türkan Argon

The aim of this study is to make the Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability study of Justice in the Classroom Scale which was formed by unifying Distributive and Procedural Justice in the Classroom Scales developed by Chory-Assad and Paulsel in 2004 and Interactional Justice in the Classroom Scale developed by Chory in 2007. The research sample is made up of 720 students studying at several faculties associated to Abant İzzet Baysal University. The construct validity of Distributive, Procedural and Interactional Justice in the Classroom Scales was measured by using explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses. In consequence of the analyses, the following results were obtained:  1. Distributive Justice in the Classroom Scale which has originally one-factor structure was found to have two-factor structure named as ‘’Expected Justice in the Classroom’’ and ‘’Comparative Justice in the Classroom’’ after being adapted into Turkish.  2. Procedural Justice in the Classroom Scale which has originally one-factor structure was found to have three-factor structure named as ‘’Rule Justice in the Classroom’’, ‘’Teaching Justice in the Classroom’’ and ‘’Exam Justice in the Classroom’’ after being adapted into Turkish.  3. Interactional Justice in the Classroom Scale was found to have one-factor structure as it has in the original form.  4. The reliability of Distributive Justice in the Classroom Scale after being adapted into Turkish was found to be .85 through test-retest method and .91 through Cronbach alfa internal consistency method. The reliability of Procedural Justice in the Classroom Scale after being adapted into Turkish was found to be .88 through test-retest method and .94 through Cronbach alfa internal consistency method. The reliability of Interactional Justice in the Classroom Scale Scale after being adapted into Turkish was found to be .89 through test-retest method and .82 through Cronbach alfa internal consistency method. Keywords: Justice in the classroom, distributive, procedural and interactional justice in the classroom, university student 

High school students’ views on lifelong learning and motivational persistence levels

35-43

Türkan Argon, Mehmet İsmetoglu, Didem Çelik Yılmaz, Hülya Erbaş

This study aims to identify the relationship between high school students’ views on lifelong learning and motivational persistence. The working group of the study which utilized relational screening model was composed of 433 students attending 8 public schools in Düzce Province Akçakoca District in 2014-2015 academic year. “Lifelong Learning Tendency Scale” and “Motivational Persistence Scale” were used in the study as data collection tools. Standard deviation, means and correlation analysis (Spearman’s rho) were undertaken in the framework of the study. Results show that high school students “partially agreed” to the views related to Lifelong Learning in total, “agreed” to the statements regarding “motivation” and “lack of selfregulation” sub dimensions, partially agreed to the statements regarding “perseverance” sub dimension and partially disagreed to the statements regarding “lack of curiosity” sub dimension. Student views on motivational persistence were undecided both in total and in long term purposes pursuing and recurrence of unattained purposes sub dimensions whereas they agree with the views regarding current purpose pursuing. While a low level relationship was identified between student views on lifelong learning and motivational persistence scales in total, moderate an level relationships were found among the sub dimensions.  
Key Words: Lifelong learning, motivational persistence, Anatolian high school and vocational high school student 

Effective teaching strategies to the educational exclusion*

44-52

José Mª Fernández-Batanero, Mohammed El Homrani

The aim of this study is to identify effective practices in education in order to address the issue of failure amongst pupils in secondary schools. The methodological design for the investigation, of descriptive nature, has been that of a case study, with three sources of information: documentary analysis, classroom observations, and the perceptions of the persons in charge of implementing the attention to diversity measures. Among the conclusions from the study about prevention of early dropouts, it is worth mentioning, on the one hand, the importance of carrying out planning, organization and teaching strategies with regard to scholar inclusion. On the other hand, the necessity of bringing out new types of coexistence based on respect, as well as developing educational policies that help to encourage a higher level of social commitment, and a better professional development for teachers. The participation of all the relevant sectors is essential if the school is to see itself as a unit of exchange or a research space which incorporates differentiation into its processes of innovation.
Keywords: Inclusion, difficulties in schools, failure in schools, vulnerability  

Epistemological beliefs of teacher candidates

53-59

Emine Selin Kepekcioğlu

The purpose of this study is to find out the epistemological beliefs of the teacher candidates attending fourth grade at the Faculty of Education associated to A.I.B.U. The data of the research was gathered by using ‘’Epistemological Belief Scale’’ developed by Deryakulu and Büyüköztürk (2002). The scale consists of three sub-dimensions related with 35 items. 438 students were included in the research sample. In the analysis of the data, average, standard deviation, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis were applied. The findings of the study are as follows: (1) Teacher candidates’ epistemological beliefs didn’t show a significant difference according to the education type and sex variables at any sub-dimensions. (2) Teacher candidates’ belief of Learning Depends on Effort didn’t show a significant difference according to the department variable but their belief of Learning Depends on Ability and belief of There is Only One Unchanging Truth showed a significant difference according to the department variable.  
Key Words: epistemology, epistemological beliefs, university students

Multimediality and interactivity in e-learning

60-72

Milan Klement, Wojciech Walat

Over the last few years, e-learning has become an integral part of tertiary education, not only within the framework of part-time study modes, but increasingly also in the full time programs of study, accredited and implemented at Czech tertiary institutions. In connection with its deployment on a larger scale a number of problems arose. That resulted in the formulation of new research hypotheses, among the most important being the presumed influence of some factors on the quality of education using                                 e-learning, the necessity of an effective activization of students, of the creation and development of their competencies. The influencing factors are numerous, external as well as internal, acting more or less covertly, to a greater or lesser intensity. It is however of high importance to identify, describe, analyze, and minimize or maximize their influence so as to prevent them from a large-scale and negative influencing of the tertiary education under the pressure of fashion trends.  
Key Words: e-learning, multimediality, interactivity, pedagogical research, quantitative research, statistical methods, nonparametric statistical methods, electronic study support

Reviewing the conformity of illustrated children’s books to the book features mentioned on the preschool education program

73-79

Handan Asude Başal, Pınar Bağçeli Kahraman, Rabia Özen, Deniz Ece Mandıracılar, Gülşen Karaayvaz, Şulenur Selkaya

This research aims to study the books used at preschool institutions in respect to book features described on Family Support Training Guide (OBADER) which is integrated with Preschool Education Program issued by Ministry of Education (MEB) General Directorate of Primary Education.  This research is a descriptive study in the “Form of a Survey”. Work group consists of 270 books selected by random sampling method from the illustrated children’s books used in these infant’s schools. Books in the work group were evaluated individually according to every  single item on the “Book Evaluation Form”. The data obtained were analyzed by using frequency and percentages. When the illustration features of the books of work group are analyzed generally, it can be derived that most of the books are on a sufficient level.  
Keywords Illustrated children boks, book feature, physical features, illustration features, content features

Role of School Principals in Conflicts Experienced at Schools

80-90

Türkan Argon, Süleyman Göksoy

This study aimed to identify conflicts at schools resulting from school principals, behaviours of principals during conflicts and the reasons of conflicts and suggest constructive ways that school principals can use during conflict management. The study based on the survey model utilized a qualitative research method. Working group of the study was composed of 57 teachers employed in Bolu in 2013-2014 academic year. Data were collected with the help of semi-structured interview form and analyzed by using content and descriptive analysis. Results of the study are as follows: Personal attitudes of school principals (being insistent, inability to listen to others, indifference, differences of opinion and political views, bias etc.) and their professional behaviours (lack of knowledge about professional tasks, unfairness, lack of discipline, creating authority gap etc.) cause conflicts. Principals can present democratic-constructive, authoritarian, mediator, oppressive and indifferent approaches during the conflict process.  Personal (character, feelings, world view, culture, attitude etc.) and professional (experience, status, performance, education, knowledge of legislations etc.) factors are effective on the behaviours of the principals during this process. Principals should present humanistic positive personal characteristics (be respectful, principled, virtuous, tolerant etc.), be able to assess the situation from multiple aspects and have healthy communication. Professionally, school principals should be objective, unbiased, constructive and mediating as well as democratic based on legislations and rules.   
Key Words: School principal, conflict at schools and conflict management

Attitudes of preschool teacher candidates towards the teaching profession.

100-108

Elvan Sahin Zeteroglu

The purpose of this study is to determine the attitudes of preschool teacher candidates towards the teaching profession. Teaching is a very special profession.  Not only a person who will choose teaching as a profession should really have a great desire for it, s/he should also have the required personal qualities appropriate for the profession. This is a profession that is very demanding, but rewarding at the same time, requires great responsibilities, is open to innovations, is informed of the developmental features that knows and understands children, values spirituality rather than materiality, requires to have good communication skills; in short, it is a profession that requires its candidates to have many professional as well as personal characteristics. One wonders if the teacher candidates who will acquire this profession requiring many crucially important qualities really possess all these qualities. What do those teacher candidates think which qualities are needed to become a teacher? In this study, it was aimed to determine the attitudes of teacher candidates who chose to study at this department towards the teaching profession and examined whether the education they received at the university made a difference on their opinions and views about the teaching profession. The population of the research was comprised of the teacher candidates studying at the preschool departments of universities and the sample of the study was composed of a total of 173 teacher candidates 106 whom were first year and 67 final year (fourth year) students studying at the preschool department of Uludag University. For this purpose, first and final year teachers candidates were asked questions prepared by the researcher. Firstly percentage and frequency calculations were made on the data obtained from the study and then interpretations and evaluations were carried out. In this study, the qualities required in a preschool teacher in order of importance were determined as; “love of children”, “possessing the professional personality characteristics”, “being active and full of energy”, “possessing positive personality characteristics”, and “ love of the profession”.    
Key Words: Teaching profession, teacher candidate, preschool education.  

Novice school principals’ sense of self-efficacy

91-99

Süleyman Göksoy, Türkan Argon

This study aimed to identify conflicts at schools resulting from school principals, behaviours of principals during conflicts and The study aimed to identify novice school principals’ self-efficacy perceptions. The universe of the study, which was undertaken by using the survey model, was composed of 284 novice school principals starting their administrative careers in Bolu and Düzce after completing the Administrative Training Course organized by the Ministry of Education in 2014-2015 academic year. The total universe was accessed during the lifetime of the study and 217 of 284 principals provided feedback. Data were collected with the help of Competency Scale for School Administrator and means, standard deviation, Mann-Whitney U and KruskalWallis tests were used in data analysis. The results obtained in the study are as follows: In general, school principals perceived themselves as having high level of self-efficacy. The highest levels of self-efficacy perception were found in educational leadership, personnel development and decision making based on legal and ethical principles and data sub dimensions whereas the lowest self-efficacy levels were observed in developing cooperation with the community sub dimension. While career status, method of administrative assignment, level of education and seniority did not point to significant differences in novice school principals’ self-efficacy perceptions, gender variable was found to be in favor of female principals in the scale in general and in the following sub dimensions: developing the school climate and vision, educational leadership and personnel development and decision making based on legal and ethical principles and data. The study suggests that school principals should develop themselves in terms of teaching-learning processes, school budget and getting to know the environment, that it is essential and of high priority to provide quality personnel to the schools administered by novice principals and that the number of female principals should be increased.   
Key Words: Self-efficacy perception, school principal   

Pedagogical formation students & future

411-416

Raşit Özen, Şenay Sezgin Nartgün

The aim of this study is to investigate pedagogical formation students’ opinions about their professional and personal future expectations and their professional and personal future anxieties with their reasons. The pedagogical formation students (n=45) at Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu-Turkey in the fall semester of 2014-2015 academic year formed the study  group of the present study. In the study the qualitative data were collected through a semi-structured form developed by the researchers and in order to analyze the data, content analysis technique was used. The findings of the study indicated that the pedagogical formation students express their negative feelings for the future when their professional and personal lives are concerned.  
Key Words: Pedagogical formation students, future expectations, future anxities 

Teachers’ opinions about lifelong education, the teaching profession, distance education and leadership

109-115

Rasit Ozen, Ebru Bakac

The aim of the present study is to examine teachers’ opinions about lifelong education, professional development, the teaching profession, distance education, leadership and, the Internet via their metaphors. The teachers (n=24) working during the spring semester of the 2014-2015 academic year in the city center of Bolu in Turkey formed the study group of the present study. A survey method was used in the study. The qualitative data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview format prepared and developed by the researchers. For the analysis of the qualitative data, a content analysis technique was used. The findings of the study revealed that the teachers are aware of the fact that lifelong education is important for their professional development. As a consequence, they believe that distance education and the Internet are important means for this and have an important place not only in the present educational system but also for their professional development.   
Keywords: Metaphor, lifelong education, teaching profession, distance education, leadership 

Examination of the relationship between the teacher efficacy perceptions and the self-control levels of teacher candidates

380-388

Yıldız Öztan Ulusoy, Tuğba Konaklı

In this study, it was aimed to e xa mine the self-efficacy perceptions and self-control levels of teacher candidates and how these levels differentiated by the variables of gender, department and faculty. In addition, the   e xa mination of the impact of self-control levels on teacher efficacy perceptions through the investigation of the relationship between the self-control levels and teacher efficacy perceptions of teacher candidates constituted another purpose of the study. In line with the purposes of the study, the population of the study was composed of the students who participated in the pedagogical format ion training courses started at the Education Faculty of Kocaeli University in 2013-2014 academic year and the 3rd and 4th grade students studying at the Education Faculty. In the sampling of the study, simple random sampling method was used. Thus, a total of 776 students, 237 of whom were from the branches of Physics, Turkish Language and Literature, Chemistry, Art History, History, Mathematics and Biology attending the Pedagogical Formation Training course, and, 539 of whom were the 3rd and 4th grade stud ents studying in the departments of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, English Teaching, Classroom Teaching, Mathematics Teaching, Preschool Teaching, Computer and Instructional Technologies and Science Teaching at the Faculty of Education, were included in the sampling frame. According to the research findings, of the selfcontrol scale dimensions; the arithmetic mean of the self-monitoring dimension scores was determined to be higher than the self-evaluation and self-reinforcement dimensions and also the dimension with the highest teacher efficacy scale mean scores was found to be orientation and the dimension with the lowest ones was assessment and evaluation. In this context, it can be said that self-monitoring levels of teacher candidates and their orientation perceptions in terms of teacher efficacy are high. Self-reinforcement perceptions of female teacher candidates were found to significantly differ from males. In terms of total self-control scale scores, the mean scores of female teacher candidates were also found to significantly differ from male teacher candidates. In terms of teacher efficacy, male teacher candidates were determined to have a higher average than female teachers in the dimension of behavior management and also in terms of the total teacher efficacy scores, the mean scores of female teacher candidates were found to significantly vary. The teacher candidates participating in the pedagogical formation training were found to have a higher average in terms of behavior management compared to the students of the education faculty. However, the teacher candidates from the education faculty were determined to have a higher average in terms of their self-control levels compared to the students participating in the pedagogical formation training course. Consequently, the total scores of teacher efficacy scale were determined to have a positive relationship with the variables of self-monitoring, self-evaluation and self-reinforcement. Therefore, it can be argued that development of self-control behaviors of teachers will be positively reflected in their own competence.  
Keywords: Teacher efficacy, self-control, Teacher candidate  

Modernization of education as illustrated by international cooperation practices. Poland - Uzbekistan

116-120

Paulina Forma

Nowadays, modernisation of higher education institutions is an important, not only educational task. It is supported by local, national and international cooperative initiatives and involves different areas of education, including research intensification, knowledge transfer, and the implementation of innovative solutions as well as R&D cooperation. The article discusses good practices concerning the modernisation of higher education based on the experience of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce and other members of the project consortium.   
Keywords: modernisation, knowledge triangle, education, innovations, research 

Education of seniors at the universities of the third age. Analysis of the solutions adopted in Poland

121-125

Bożena Matyjas

In Polish specialist literature lifelong learning, often defined as continuing or permanent education, is the presently preferred model of education which involves constant updating and extending knowledge as well as improving general and professional qualifications undertaken throughout life. The model emerges from constantly changing socio-cultural reality and globalisation processes which require adaptation and understanding, also from the person in the third stage of life. The elderly or seniors, due to increasing life expectancy, should keep themselves mentally and physically active so that they could stay fit and healthy when they reach old age. These opportunities are offered by the Universities of the Third Age.  
Keywords: Lifelong learning, an elder person, senior, the university of the third age

The education based on toys ımproved lifelong learning skills oriented effect on students’ visual perception skills

152-159

Zeynep Çetin, Miray Özözen Danacı, Nuray Eran, Ayşegül Öztürk

The research was made for determine the effect of education which consist toys designed lifelong learning skills oriented on 66 month aged students’ visual scope abilities. According to this aim, the toys were used which prepared by specialists because of developing the lifelong learning skills. The research was composed of pre-test and post-test semi empirical model and its’ sample composed of 104 first class of 66 month aged student including 52 experimental group and 52 control group which were training in Duzce city primary schools depended On National Education Ministry Before starting the education the test entitled ‘Frostig Developmental Test Of Visual Perception’ was developed by Marianne Frostig and studied of validity and reliability by Sokmen (1994) was used as pre-test and post-test. For education programme, the ambiance was disagned for purpose by specialists and trained during the 12 week of 2 days 60 min.per a week. The datas, according the research results were determined by SPSS packet programme and the education orientation of toys based on lifelong learning skills was stated that the education differentiated the 66 month aged of students’ visual memory and percept mechanisms for positive rounded significantly.  
Keywords: Lifelong learning, education, student, visual perception.